Can you give information about Munafiq, Munafiqs, (Hypocrites)?

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Can you give information about Munafiq, Munafiqs, (Hypocrites)?
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Author: İslam Ansiklopedisi

A Munafiq (Hypocrite) is a person who has not really believed but appears to be a Muslim; a munafiq conceals his enmity toward Allah, His Messenger and believers due to various reasons and his interest. (al-Baqara, 2/8; Aal-i-Imran, 3/167; al-Maida, 5/41)

"If nifaq is in the heart, it is unbelief; if it is in deeds, it is a crime." (Qurtubi, Tafsir, VIII, 212) Therefore, the state of nifaq in munafiqs are dealt with in two groups as nifaq related to creed and nifaq related to deeds:

1. Nifaq related to creed: It is the state of nifaq that is described in the Quran; the munafiq who is treated as a Muslim in the world will be treated worse than unbelievers in the hereafter when his unbelief becomes apparent. (an-Nisa, 4/145) "It is hypocrisy in belief contrary to the creed." (M. Hamdi Yazır, Hak Dini Kur'an Dili, VI, 4997)

The Quran divides people into three groups as believers, unbelievers and munafiqs (al-Baqara, 2/1-20) and mentions the following characteristics of munafiqs, who are defined as the worst ones among people and two-faced:

They are mischief makers in the Islamic community. “When it is said to them: "Make not mischief on the earth", they say: "Why, we only want to make peace!" ", (al-Baqara, 2/11). " When it is said to them: "Believe as the others believe" they say: "Shall we believe as the fools believe?" Nay, of a surety they are the fools, but they do not know. When they meet those who believe, they say: "We believe" but when they are alone with their evil ones they say: "We are really with you; we (were) only jesting" (al-Baqara, 2/13-14).

The hypocrites who are in two minds between belief and unbelief sometimes pretend to remember Allah. However, they try to deceive Allah and show off. When they stand up to prayer, they stand without earnestness (an-Nisa,4/142-3). They swear to falsehood knowingly in order to obstruct men from the Path of Allah (al-Mujadila, 58/14; al-Munafiqun, 63/2).

The heart of munafiqs are like infertile land (al-A'raf, 7/58), they act based on their interests; they are changeable. (an-Nisa, 4/141; al-Ankabut, 29/10-11) When munafiqs of the Era of Bliss were said, "Spend some money on charity before you come to talk to the Prophet", it was seen that they ran away because it contradicted their material interests. (al-Mujadila, 58/13). Munafiqs do some immoral deeds in order to obtain material interest. As a matter of fact, Abdullah Ubn Ubayy b. Salul forced the female slaves to prostitute in order to earn money. To this end, he had established a brothel. Due to the effort to obtain money through the prostitution of female slaves, the verse that prohibits it was revealed.  (at-Tabara, Tafsir, XVIII, 132; an-Nur, 24/33).

Munafiqs are close with their hands; they have forgotten Allah (at-Tawba, 9/67), when they suffer affliction, they fall into mischief (al-Ankabut, 29/10), they run about among themselves whispering when they fear the misfortune will hit them, (al-Maida, 5/52, 53); if the right is on their side they come to the Prophet with all submission (an-Nur, 24/49); they believe in appearance but reject faith in their hearts (al-Munafiqun, 63/3).

Munafiqs who say "we believe in and obey Allah and the Prophet" (an-Nur, 24/47; al-Munafiqun, 63/1) whisper among themselves for rebellion and enmity against Hazrat Prophet (al-Mujadila, 58/9-10). They are like the evil one (al-Hashr, 59/16); they resist Allah and His Messenger due to their nature (al-Mujadila, 58/20); but they are afraid lest a Surah should be sent down about them, showing them what is  in their hearts (al-Infitar, 82/4-5; at-Tawba, 9/64).

The hypocrites, men and women, who imagine an evil opinion of Allah (al-Fath, 48/6), are close with their hands, enjoin evil, and forbid what is just; they will dwell in the fire of Hell eternally (at-Tawba, 9/67-69). They love to see scandal published broadcast among the believers (an-Nur, 24/19); they rejoice when they commit an evil and love to be praised for what they have not done (Aal-i-Imran, 3/188); They ridicule the verses of the Quran (an-Nisa, 4/140); They stir up sedition and lies in the Islamic community (al-Ahzab, 33/60-61); they swear that they will fight for Allah but then escape when it is time for jihad (an-Nur, 24/63); they feel death due to the fear of enemy (al-Munafiqun, 63/19); they look for a place of concealment (at-Tawba, 9/57). When believers gain a victory, they say: "Were we not with you?" in order to share the success and the booty― But if the Unbelievers gain a success, they say (to them): "Did we not guard you from the believers?" (an-Nisa, 4/141). If there are a lot of martyrs at the end of the war, they say, "Thank Allah I did not take part in the war"; if there is some booty to be divided, they say, "We wish we had some booty" (al-A'raf, 7/72, 73).

Allah warns his Prophet against munafiqs, whose characteristics He mentions in the Quran, as follows: "Do not be deceived by their exteriors; when you see their leaders, they are handsome and their bodies please you; when they speak, they speak nicely and you listen to them. They are as worthless as hollow pieces of timber propped up. They think that every cry is against them." (al-Munafiqun, 63/1-4). They do not accept the true words; all of them will be together with unbelievers in the hereafter (an-Nisa, 4/140), It is equal to munafiqs whether you pray for their forgiveness or not; Allah will not forgive those transgressors. (al-Munafiqun, 63/6).

The Quran tells us that munafiqs will want the interests they received in the world due to being in the Islamic community to continue in the hereafter but that it will not be possible as follows: "One Day will the hypocrites men and women― say to the Believers: "Wait for us! Let us borrow (a light) from your Light!" It will be said: "Turn back to your rear! Then seek a light where you can"; they will see that there is a wall between them and the believers. (Those without) will call out "were we not with you?" They will reply "True! But you led yourselves into temptation."(al-Hadid 57/13-15). Thus, munafiqs and unbelievers will come together in Hell (an-Nisa, 4/140).

In the period of Madinah, the believers are reminded that they should not be friends with munafiqs who make friends with Jewish people (al-Maida, 5/51), and the Prophet is informed by revelation that munafiqs are the real enemies and that he should treat them hard. It is observed that Hazrat Prophet carries out a careful and cautious policy against munafiqs and that he does not treat them in the same way as he treats non-Muslims; on the contrary, he does not alienate them from the Islamic community but he makes them ineffective by the strong authority he has over them.

2. Nifaq related to deeds: The state of Muslims that partly seems to resemble nifaq related to creed due to some of their acts and attitudes but that does not contain explicit nifaq. Nifaq related to deeds is emphasized by the type of munafiq mentioned in hadiths. For instance, this hadith " There are three signs of a munafiq: When he speaks he lies; when he promises, he breaks his promise and when he is entrusted, he embezzles" (Tirmidhi, Iman, 14) and similar hadiths are orders like cautions and warnings to prevent Muslims from approaching nifaq related to creed. When nifaq related to deeds increases, it may cause a Muslim to approach nifaq related to creed in the future. However, nifaq related to deeds does not mean that the person is a real munafiq. Even if a person has a characteristic of a munafiq, he is not regarded a munafiq. Therefore, not every person that has a characteristic of a munafiq can be called a munafiq. Only Allah and those whom He informs can know who are munafiqs.   


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