What is ta'dil al-arkan?

What is ta'dil al-arkan?

What is the decree about ta'dil al-arkan?

The necessity of ta'dil al-arkan

 

What is ta'dil al-arkan?

Ta'dil al-Arkan means to perform the principles (rukns) properly. Ta'dil al-Arkan in prayers means to perform each rukn (principle) of the prayer like qiyam, ruku', sajdah, etc calmly, solemnly and properly, and not to hurry. For instance, after straightening up from ruku', the body has to be straight and it is necessary to stand still long enough to say "subhana rabbiya'l-azim" before prostrating. One should also sit still like that between two prostrations. It is contrary to ta'dil al-arkan to prostrate immediately after ruku without straightening up properly and to prostrate after the first sajdah without sitting still.

 

What is the decree about ta'dil al-arkan?

According to Abu Yusuf, it is a rukn of prayer to pay attention to ta'dil al-arkan in prayer. Therefore, it is fard. If it is not fulfilled, the prayer is invalidated and it is necessary to perform it again.  

According to Abu Hanifa and Imam Muhammad, it is wajib. Therefore,  it is necessary to perform sajdah as-sahw (prostration of forgetfulness) if ta'dil al-arkan is not observed. It is better to perform such a prayer again. Thus, one gets rid of doubt.  

* As a matter of fact, it is always better to perform a prayer again if a person fulfills a makruh deed while performing it. There are some scholars who hold the view that it is wajib to perform a prayer again if a person commits more than one makruh deed in a rukn of the prayer.

 

The necessity of ta'dil al-arkan

It is necessary to perform a prayer slowly and properly; it is necessary to avoid hurrying. For, to perform rukns incompletely by hurrying is contrary to respect to Allah and good manners.

The prayer is the ascension of a believer, the light of his eye and the joy of his spirit. If a person regards prayer, in which a person is closest to Allah, as a burden and tries to finish it as soon as possible without paying attention to its manners and rukns, it means he does not understand the meaning of prayer and does not attain its spiritual pleasure.   

The following is stated in a hadith:

"If a person performs his prayer in a nice way, performs ruku' and sajdah fully, his prayer addresses him as follows: 'May Allah protect you as you have protected me!' If he performs his prayer in badly, performs ruku' and sajdah incompletely his prayer addresses him as follows: 'May Allah lose you as you have lost me!'"

Attention is drawn to the following criterion about tranquility, awe and observing ta'dil al-arkan in prayer:

"When one of you performs a prayer, let him perform it as if it is his last prayer by observing ta'dil al-arkan."

If a Muslim performs his prayer with this feeling, he can fulfill ta'dil al-arkan easily. He will feel peaceful and receives spiritual abundance from it.   

The people who perform prayers incompletely and do not observe ta'dil al-arkan are called thieves of prayers. They are regarded to have stolen some parts of the prayer when they hurry and do not observe its fards and wajibs. As a matter of fact, Abu Hurayra reports the following hadith from the Messenger of Allah:

"Shall I inform you about the thief of prayer?"

"Yes, O Messenger of Allah!"

"The thief of a prayer is a person who performs ruku' and sajdahs incompletely and improperly."

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