What is the source of different views among Muslims and how should we understand it?
It is possible to summarize the causes of these differences as follows:
1-It is just human to disagree. Hence, wherever is human, there is surely difference and disagreement. Lust, hatred, and intelligence in the composition of human beings are the grounds for disagreement. (1) For example, as not everyone is the same in terms of intellect, surely, there will be different ideas, and the ones without high intellectual capacity will incline to deny certain truths.
2-From the time Adam, people have lived in groups. Each group has its own way. Each one approves of their own way and prefers it to those of others. (2)
3-The verse: We ordained for each of you a Sharia and a way. If God willed, He would make you just one community, (3) points out the divine purpose in the disagreement of the humanity. In other words, if God willed, He would create man incapable of disagreement just like angels. However, He wanted color, action, and competition in the humanity and created humans inclined to disagreement.
God created the species of humanity capable of blooming thousands of species and of having qualities equal to those of thousands of species of animals. (4) Man is not limited in his feelings, desires, and emotions and; he is given the capability to reach and be reduced to limitless ranks.
If the humanity was not given the capacity of disagreement, as Hamdi Yazır put it: All humans would come and pass monotonously as in other species of animals. (5)
4-Disagreement makes the mind dynamic and active. Denying disagreement means denying the characteristics of the human and making the mind passive. (6) By overlooking the reality of disagreement, saying all the community should be in the same sect and of the same opinion is asking for the impossibletrying in vain. (7)
5-Some groups in the Moslem world evaluated and explained the Quran and Hadiths according to their desires. As Ibn-i Taymiyya said, they first stuck to a view, and then tried to base it with the Quran. (8) Moreover, they misinterpreted the verses contrary to their views. (9) However, it is much different to try to show that ones view is from the Koran than to try to show what is there in the Quran.
6-The ones who stray from the right path also turn to Mecca in prayers. So, they cannot be called disbelievers. (10) As Shatibi says, however much they have strayed from the right path, they have not gone out of religion. In the hadith about the 73 groups, the calling of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to them as my community is a proof of it; because if they have gone out of religion with their straying, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) would not call them my community. (11)
However, the ones who see Ali as God or who claim that the angel of revelation Gabriel mistakenly brought the revelation to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and such people are surely in blasphemy. (12)
1-Kutub, Seyyid, Fi Zılali'l-Kur'an, Daru'ş-Şuruk, 1980, I, 215
2-Katib Çelebi, Katib, Mizanu'l- Hak fi İhtiyari'l - Ehak, Marifet Yay. İst. 1990, s. 198
4-Nursi, Lem'alar, Sözler Yay. İst. 1990, s. 164
5-Yazır, III, 1700
6-Özler, s. 142
7-Katip Çelebi, s. 198
8-İbnu Teymiye, II, 225. Ayrıca bkz. Salih, Subhi, Mebahis fi Ulumi'l-Kur'an, Daru'l-İlm, Beyrut, 1368 h., s. 294
9-İbnu Teymiye, II, 223
10-Taftezani, Şerhu'l- Akaid, s. 191; Şatıbi, İ'tisam, s. 405
11-Şatıbi, IV, 139
12-İbnu Abidin, Reddü'l- Muhtar ale'd- Dürri'l - Muhtar, Daaru İhyai't- Türasi'l- Arabi, ts., III, 309-310; Şatıbi, İ'tisam, s. 405
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