Could you please give information about wahhabism?

Details of the Question
Could you please give information about wahhabism?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

After the death of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) some disagreements occurred. Those disagreements were very few during the periods of the first two caliphs; they started to increase in the last six years of the caliphate of Hazrat Uthman. They increased more during the period of Hazrat Ali. There are many reasons underlying those disagreements. We will not mention them in this writing. However, it can be said that the current and thought of Kharijism that emerged during the period of Hazrat Ali and then became worse revived under different names after a long time. Moreover, after living for some time and disappearing, many Islamic sects (madhhabs) continued their ideas either in the future under different names or based on individuals. The thought of Kharijism is like that; Wahhabism is generally evaluated as a reflection of Kharijism. What is important in the study of sects is to reflect the views of a sect with both positive and negative sides. It is necessary to be objective and to report not only the bad aspects but also the good aspects. This writing about Wahhabism is going to be so, too.

Established about two centuries ago in the Arabian Peninsula near Najd by  Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab (1115-1206), Wahhabism is the official sect of Saudi Arabia. There are followers of it in Egypt, India, Africa and some other Muslim countries.

As it is the case in many Islamic sects, the name “Wahhabi” was given by his opponents while its founder was alive. Today, it is known by this name. Wahhabism was seen as a Kharijite movement in Turkish history and was named like that. 1 It is regarded natural to find similarities between Wahhabism and Kharijism because of the harshness in their attitudes, their fanaticism and accusing those who do not have the same beliefs as them of unbelief. 

However, Wahhabis call themselves “muwahhidun” (those who claim oneness of God) and accept themselves as sunnis that continue the sect of Ahmad b. Hanbal, as it is explained by Ibn Taymiyah. As a matter of fact, they say, “We are salaf in creed (aqidah) and Hanbali in practice. As a matter of fact, Ahmad b. Hanbal represents the Atharaiyya (textualists) branch of the Salaf (Predecessors) sect in creed. His way in practice is that way. Therefore, we are Hanbali in practice and creed; there is no such thing as Wahhabi. Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab is nothing but a sheikh-al-Islam who renewed this sect scientifically and in practice”. However, there are some scholars who say that they accepted some new principles in practice and creed, that they went to extremes to kill people due to fanaticism, that they did not accept freedom of thought and conscience and that they differed from Ahmed b. Hanbal and Ibn Taymiyah in many ways. Therefore, Wahhabism is to be dealt with independently. 

By comparing the views of Salafiyya, Ahmad b. Hanbal and Ibn Taymiyah, whom Wahhabis say they adopt as models in aql (mind; reasoning), naql (oral or written hadiths) and amal (deeds; practices), Neşet Çağatay says Wahhabism is to be regarded as a separate sect. After listing and explaining the fundamental principles of Wahhabis, Çağatay says they differ from Ahl as-Sunnah in the following issues: 1- It is fard to perform prayers in congregation and every Muslim has to go to mosque to perform the five prayers. 2- War is declared against Muslims who do not practice Islam and the meat of the animals slaughtered by them cannot be eaten. 3- Zakah is tax. Zakah must be taken from the profits on which the government does not levy. 4- Those who smoke cigarettes and hookah (hubble-bubble) are given forty lashes just like those who drink alcohol.  (Neşet Çağatay, “Vehhâbilîk”, İ.A., XIII, 264).

History:

Muhammad Ibn Abdilwahhab, the founder of the sect was born in 1115/1703 in Uyayna, a village near the city of Riyad. Having completed his elementary education with his father, who was the Qadi of Uyayna, Muhammad Ibn Abdilwahhab went to Makkah and Madinah for his education. Here, he became acquainted with the ideas of Ibn Taymiyah and then went to Basra. There, he took part in discussions about oneness and asserted that the religion needed to be learned directly from the Quran and Sunnah.  Then, he went to the town of Huraymila in the north of Riyad in the year 1139/1726. When his father died in 1153/1740, he declared the principle of “al-Amru bi'1-Ma'ruf wa’n-Nahyu ani'l-Munkar” (ordering the good and forbidding the evil) and started the activity of spreading it in the region of Najd. He moved from Huraymila to Uyayna again and became friends with Uthman b. Hamd b. Muammar, the amir (chief) of the region. He called Uthman to accept his view and said to him that if he helped the religion of Allah sincerely, Allah would make him the sovereign of Najd. Then, he offered Amir Uthman to demolish the grave of Zayd b. al-Khattab (12/634), which was in Al-Jabila, a small village between Dariyya and Uyayna, because it was transformed into a tomb contrary to the orders of Allah and His Messenger and it was visited by people and therefore it caused people to stray from the religion; his offer was accepted and that grave was demolished; even the trees there were eliminated. 11 Thus, Ibn Abdilwahhab became an important figure in Uyayna. 

However, the fact that he made people accept his views by force caused fear and anxiety among people; they applied to Sulaiman b. Urayr, the chief of the Sons of Khalid, one of the strong tribes of Najd, and asked him to find a solution to the problem. He asked the amir of Uyayna to kill or deport him. Thereupon,  Ibn Abdilwahhab went to Dariyya, near Riyad and made an agreement with amir Muhammad b. Saud; thus, the foundations of the Wahhabi state were laid (1157/1744). With this agreement, Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab obtained strong material power and support to spread his views, and Muhammad b. Saud obtained a good opportunity to expand his influence and sovereignty thanks to those views in order to rule the Arabian Peninsula.

Ibn Abdilwahhab started to spread his views in his book “Kitabu't-Tawhid” in Dariyya and called people to enter the religion by abandoning shirk (polytheism) and bid’ahs (innovations in religion). He said that it was necessary to correct the people who did not follow them, that is, who did not enter what he called the true religion, using swords, that is, by force. He declared that people had gone astray and lost their belief of oneness (tawhid) due to visits to graves and tombs, joining tariqahs (sufi orders) hence they were polytheists (mushriks) who fell into shirk and therefore it was permissible for muwahhids who believed in him to kill them and to confiscate their property. 

All of those measures sounded attractive to the people of Najd, who were already appropriate for those kinds of things. As a matter of fact, although the people in the region of Najd became Muslims during the period of the Prophet (pbuh), the region had seen many creeds under the influence of Yemen and Aden, Iran and India, Iraq and Damascus. After the death of the Prophet (pbuh), the false prophets like Musaylamah al-Kadhdhab, Sajah, Tulayha and Aswad al-Ansi emerged in this region. In the periods that followed, opposing rebellious groups emerged in this region, too. In short, the people of the region had a rebellious character and they were inclined to plunder; ignorance prevailed among them. The ideas of Ibn Abdilwahhab that promised booty and plunder to the people of the region who had the characteristics mentioned above sounded attractive. The booty that had been obtained through assault and plunder before, were  sanctified in the name of jihad and legitimized by Ibn Abdilwahhab now. Thus, the people who did not accept those new views were  killed by swords and one fifth of their property was allocated to the state in accordance with the law of booty; the rest was divided among those who fought. In our opinion, it is one of the most important reasons why the ideas of Ibn Abdilwahhab became widespread in the desert and many people in the region supported him.  

It is necessary to take the following aspect of the issue into consideration, too: The root of the issue of Wahhabism dates back to the period of the Companions. Hazrat Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) fought against Kharijites, most of whom were the ancestors of Wahhabis and from the people of Najd. He killed most of them in Nahrawan. They were deeply offended by it and became hostile to Hazrat Ali, denying his virtues.  Since Hazrat Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) was given the title of “Shah al-Walayah – the Shah of Saints”  and most of the tariqahs were associated with him, in the past, Kharijites and now Wahhabis, who are the standard bearers of Kharijites, denied walayah, as it will be mentioned later. 

The region of Najd, which tried to abandon the religion of Islam with the mischief of Musaylama al-Kadhdhab, was destroyed by the sword of Khalid Ibn Walid, during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr.  Therefore, the people of Najd were offended by the Four Caliphs, hence Ahl as-Sunnah (People of the tradition of Muhammad). Although they were pure Muslims, they did not forget the nasty blow their ancestors received. Since the former state in Iran was destroyed by Hazrat Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) and the pride of their nation was broken, Shiites always attacked, with the intention of revenge, Hazrat Umar and Hazrat Abu Bakr and therefore Ahl as-Sunnah under the veil of love of Ahl al-Bayt (People of the house of Muhammad).

When Ibn Abdilwahhab died in 1206/1792, the political aspect of this movement started by Muhammad Ibn Saud became more influential. The activities of capturing land that started during the period of Ibn Saud continued after his death (1179/1766) when his son Abdulaziz came to power. The fact that they were far away from the center of the government of the Ottoman State and that the Ottoman State had to be occupied with the wars against Russia and Iran helped them a lot to dominate the region of Najd. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Ottoman State, Wahhabis became more reckless and dominated the area around the Persian Gulf; Abdulaziz b. Saud made his soldiers kill thousands of people who joined the Karbala ceremony on Muharram 10, 1802 and plunder the tomb of Hazrat Husayn using the death of some Wahhabis as a result of a quarrel with Shiites in Najaf as a pretext  

Taif was occupied by Wahhabis onFebruary18, 1803. Cevdet Paşa narrated what Wahhabis did when they entered Taif as follows:

Wahhabis took all of the things they found in Taif and piled them. They did not heed the books and threw them away into the streets. Therefore, thousands of books including Bukhari and Muslim books, other hadith books, fiqh books of four sects, books on literature, science and other books were downtrodden. There were even mushafs (Quran) among them. So many valuable books and works were trampled underfoot for a long time. Their emirs divided one fifth of the goods among themselves and the rest were divided among those savage people.” (Tarih-i Cevdet, VII, 206 (VII, 262-263).

Ibn Saud, who captured Taif, Makkah and Madinah between 1803 and 1806 dared to address the people of those cities really crazily and recklessly as follows: “...Your religion has become perfect today; you have been honored by Islam and you have made God Almighty pleased and content. From now on, avoid tending to the wrong beliefs of your ancestors and mentioning their names with mercy and good attributes. Your ancestors died in shirk... It is illegitimate in our sect to stand in front of the grave of Hazrat Prophet, recite salawat in order to pay homage to him... Therefore, those who go pass there should not recite anything but only greet him by saying “as-Salamu ala Muhammad...” (Eyub Sabri, Târîh-i Vehhâbiyân, p. 175).

Apart from his statements above, Ibn Saud warned the people of Madinah about the following issues: 1- To obey and believe in Allah in accordance with the beliefs and principles of Wahhabis. 2- To obey Hazrat Muhammad as the imam of Wahhabis determined and advised. 3- To demolish the tombs and graves in and around Madinah and to arrange the graves as small piles of soil. 4- To accept Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab as mujaddid of the religion who founded a sect by taking inspiration from Allah. 5- To prosecute and even kill those who do not want to accept Wahhabi sect. 6- To accept to give the guardianship of the castle to Wahhabis. 7- To obey all kinds of religious and political commands and prohibitions. (Eyub Sabri, Târîh-i Vehhâbiyân, p. 135-136; Neşet Çağatay, “Vehhâbilîk”, İ.A., XIII, 266; Ecer, Târihte Vehhabi Hareketi ve Etkileri, p. 141.)

In 1881, the Wahhabi state expanded from Aleppo in the north to the Indian Ocean, from the Persian Gulf and the border of Iraq to the Red Sea in the east.
The Ottoman State and its ruler, Mahmut II (1808-1839) eventually noticed that Wahhabism started to be a serious problem and appointed Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Paşa, the governor of Egypt to settle the issue. Tosun Paşa, the son of Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Paşa, saved Madinah, Makkah and Taif from Wahhabis in 812-1813 with an army that he commanded. Then, he headed toward Abdulaziz b. Saud. Ibn Saud resisted, but as a result of his sudden death in 1814, Wahhabis were completely defeated; Eventually, Ibrahim Paşa, the commander of Kavalalı, took Abdullah, who succeeded his father Abdulaziz and his children captive in 1818 and sent them to Istanbul; they were hanged in Istanbul on December 17, 1819. Thus, the first period of Wahhabism ended.

However, Turki b Abdillah from the Saud dynasty managed to escape during the war and started to be active in Najd again; he declared Riyad as the capital city and founded the second Wahhabi state which would exist from 1821 to 1891. Although there was a disagreement about the dynasty, Abdulaziz b. Saud from the Saud dynasty revived the Wahhabi state in 1901. Furthermore, having the sound support of the Indian-English government, Abdulaziz b. Saud was recognized by the British as the absolute ruler of Najda, Hasa, Qatif, Jubayl and the regions subject to him with the treaty dated  December 26, 1916. According to that treaty, the absolute rule of Ibn Saud was recognized in the above-mentioned places; the rule would pass to his sons and descendants; the heir apparent that would be chosen by the ruler while he was alive would not be adversary to the British and would obey the advice of the British government. (For the treaty, see Yusuf Hikmet Bayur, Türk İnkılap Tarihi, Ankara 1957, III, 120-121.)

As a result of the intervention of the British and the defeat in the World War I, the Ottoman State left Madinah at the end of the year 1918. Thus, Wahhabis captured Hail, Taif, Makkah, Madinah and Jeddah between 1921 and 1925. Abdulaziz b. Saud was declared as “the King of Najd and Hejaz” in January 1926. As a result of the Jeddah Treaty signed on May 20, 1927 with the British, they declared full independence and thus got rid of the severe terms of the previous treaty. On September 18, 1932, Abdulaziz b. Saud changed the name of his state as “the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia”.  During his reign between 1912 and 1953, Abdulaziz b. Saud succeeded in reviving the Wahhabi mentality that had weakened and that constituted the foundations of both the political and military organization of his kingdom that he founded in 1912 and ruled until November 4, 1953, when he died.

Opinions of Abdulwahhab:

1. Tawhid (oneness)

The foundation of the opinions of Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab who founded the Wahhabi belief is based on the understanding of tawhid. All of his opinions regarding shirk, bid’a, shafa’a (intercession) are based on tawhid.

According to the most of Ahl as-Sunnah kalam scholars, “tawhid” means accepting that Allah is one in terms of His personality, attributes and deeds, and that He has no associates or partners by any means.

Allah states the following in the Quran: “Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with him; but He forgiveth anything, else to whom He pleaseth. “ (an-Nisa: 4/48). "(to Muhammad): `Set thy face towards Religion with true piety, and never in anywise be of the Unbelievers; "Nor call on any, other than Allah such will neither profit thee nor hurt thee: if thou dost behold! thou shalt certainly be of those who do wrong." If Allah do touch thee with hurt, there is none can remove it but He: if He do design some benefit for thee, there is none can keep back His favour...” (Yunus: 10/105-107).

Besides, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following in a hadith: “It is haram to confiscate the property of a person who says Lailahillallah and to kill him; his reckoning is up to Allah.”

Those verses and hadiths indicate that tawhid means to know, believe in and express the oneness of Allah. However, Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab does not regard it sufficient to say, “Lailahaillallah" for a person to protect his property and soul; on the contrary, he says that hadith will not protect a person’s property and soul unless he knows its meaning along with its utterance, accepts it, worships Allah who is one and has no partners, rejects all other things except Allah as worthy of worshipping.  (1). According to him, tawhid must be through the heart, tongue and deeds. If one of them is missing, a person cannot be regarded as a Muslim.(2)"

He gives the acts of the Arabs of the Era of Jahiliyyah (Ignorance) regarding the issue as an example and says, “The polytheists that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) fought believed in the oneness of Allah, too... Some of them prayed Allah during the night and the day and others prayed angels, some good men like Lat and prophets like Jesus with the intention of shafa’ah (intercession) and asked some things from them”(3). For Ibn Abdilwahhab, the shirk of the Arabs of the Era of Jahiliyyah is less bad than the shirk of those living today. He says the following about the issue: “The first polytheists associated partners to Allah when they were idle and had nothing to do; they took refuge in angels, saints and idols. When they were in trouble, they took refuge in Allah and asked things from Him. Allah stated the following in the Quran:
" When distress seizes you at sea, those that ye call upon― besides Himself leave you in the lurch! but when He brings you back safe to land, ye turn away (from Him). Most ungrateful is man!.” (al-Isra, 67).
" Say: "Think ye to yourselves, if there come upon you the Wrath of Allah or the Hour (that ye dread), would ye then call upon other than Allah?― (Reply) if ye are truthful! "Nay― On Him would ye call, and if it be his Will He would remove (the distress) which occasioned your call upon Him and ye would forget (the false gods) which ye join with Him!".” (al-Anam, 40-41).

A person who understands this issue, which Allah explains in the Quran, that is, the issue that the polytheists that the Messenger of Allah declared war against took refuge in beings other than Allah when they were at ease and took refuge in Allah and did not associate partners with Him when they were in trouble, will understand the difference between the shirk of today and the shirk of people who lived in the past... The polytheists of the first period took refuge in Allah but also in the prophets, saints, angels, stones and trees that obeyed His commands. None of the opposed or rejected Allah. The people of today take refuge in Allah and the most severe sinners and praise them. They are the people who go beyond the limits, commit fornication, steal things, do not perform prayers, and similar people. It is less bad to take refuge in a righteous man or in a being that does not disobey Allah, like a stone or tree than to take refuge in someone who openly commit sins and makes mischief.  (4)”

According to Ibn Abdilwahhab, tawhid is divided into three: “The first one is the oneness in the names and attributes of God; the second is the oneness in Lordship (Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah), which consists of knowing that Allah is the Lord and owner of everything. The third one is oneness in divinity (Tawhid al-Uluhiyyyah). According to what Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab says, what is meant by that kind of tawhid is the expression of the oneness of Allah by people with their deeds. It is related to the open and secret words and deeds of a person. Tawhid al-Uluhiyyyah means not to pray and ask anything from any being other than Allah, not to ask help from any other being, not to sacrifice any animal even for a great angel or prophet. A person who asks help from any being other than Allah, who sacrifices or vows an animal for any being other than Allah is an unbeliever.”

Accordingly, the oneness that makes one quit everything that was not present during the period of the Prophet (bid’a) and tawassul (supplication or prayer by means of an intermediary) not accepting any order or prohibition except the orders of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet is called tawhid al-af’al/a’mal (oneness of actions). What differentiates between belief and unbelief is tawhid al-af’al. One who does not fulfill it, that is, who associates partners with Allah, who does not allocate homage and worshipping exclusively to Allah, who does not ask help from Allah, who does not avoid what He prohibited is an unbeliever; their properties can be confiscated and they can be killed, and “it is permissible for real muwahhids to attack them, to kill them and to plunder their goods”. 

Thus, Ibn Abdilwahhab imitates Kharijites with his harsh and tough attitude regarding the issue. 19  As it is known, Kharijites, like Wahhabis, regard af’al (deeds) as part of belief, and they regard those who do not perform prayers, fasting, hajj and similar orders as unbelief. As it is summarized in the Order of the Ottoman Sultan dated May 20, 1802 (Muharram 17, 1217), Wahhabis follow Ibn Taymiyah regarding the issue that deeds are part of belief; according to them, those who do not fulfill fards due to laziness or denial are unbelievers, and it is permissible to confiscate their property and kill them. 20  As a matter of fact, since Wahhabis accept that deeds are part of belief, they regard a person who quits one of fards as one who is converted from Islam and they regard those who are not among them and  who do not act like them as polytheists, hence, Wahhabis regard it permissible to confiscate their property and kill them 21.

Ahl as-Sunnah does not regard tawhid in extremely narrow bounds as Ibn Abdilwahhab does, and does not make arbitrary interpretations like him. With this approach, he moves away from Ahl as-Sunnah. Although they say, “…we are Hanbali regarding deeds and belief  ...”, they go beyond Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. As a matter of fact, according to Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, belief is both the utterance and deeds; belief increases with good deeds and decreases with bad deeds. A person exits Islam with bad deeds; however, when he repents, he returns to Islam. It is up to Allah to decide about those who quit one of fards due to laziness; He may forgive them or punish them. 22 According to Ibn Hanbal, belief is acceptance with the heart, utterance with the tongue and deeds with the organs. Islam consists of acceptance and utterance. Therefore, a person is not regarded to have exited Islam due to his ignorance in some deeds unless he rejects a definite order of the religion. Belief is shirk and denying (rejecting). (5) However, Ibn Abdilwahhab, hence Wahhabis label a person who does not fulfill some deeds as an unbeliever and therefore move away from the view of the majority of the Muslim scholars.

2. Shafa’ah (Intercession)

Shafa’ah (Intercession) means to be an intermediary for the forgiveness of someone. Ibn Abdilwahhab follows the view of Ibn Taymiyah about intercession and shows the following verses of the Quran as evidence:

"Give this warning to those in whose (hearts) is the fear that they will be brought (to judgment) before their Lord: except from Him they will have no protector nor intercessor..” (al-An’am, 51).

"Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permitteth?” (al-Baqara, 255).

"No intercession can avail in His Presence, except for those for whom He has granted permission...” (Saba', 23). Say: "To Allah belongs exclusively (the right to grant) Intercession...” (az-Zumar, 44).
"How many so ever be the angels in the heavens, their intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He pleases and that he is acceptable to Him..” (an-Najm, 26).

All of Ahl as-Sunnah sects state that intercession belongs to Allah and it will take place based on his permission. It is quite natural because He is the Owner and Wisher of everything. However, Ahl as-Sunnah accepts that Hazrat Prophet and righteous people have the right to intercede. As a matter of fact, Ibn Abdilwahhab also accepts that Hazrat Prophet had the right to intercede; after saying that he expects the Prophet’s intercession, he adds: “However, all intercession belongs to Allah. Therefore, ask the intercession from Allah and say, ‘O Allah! Do not deprive me of his intercession… O Allah! Make him an intercessor for me…’ If someone says, ‘Hazrat Prophet was given the right to intercede, and I ask from him what Allah gave him’, answer him as follows: “Allah gave him the right to intercede but he prohibited you from doing it. He stated the following in the Quran:  “so invoke not anyone along with Allah” (Cin, 18). If you want Allah to make the Prophet as an intercessor for you, obey Him and fulfill His orders. Apart from the Prophets, angels, saints and children who died very young were given the right to intercede. Then, can you say, ‘Allah gave them the right to intercede, and I am asking from them’? If you say yes, it will mean you are doing what Allah mentions in His Book as the concept of worshipping good people. If you say no, you will refute your word, ‘Allah gave him intercession, and I ask from him what Allah gave him’.(6)"

According to him, “Allah states that polytheists believe in the existence of Allah but they take refuge in angels, prophets and saints and say, ‘they are our intercessors in the presence of Allah”; thus, they become unbelievers... If they say, ‘unbelievers ask directly from them but we believe that the one who helps us or harms us and the one who directs everything is Allah and we witness it; we ask everything from Him; righteous people cannot do anything but we turn towards them and expect their intercession from Allah’, say to them that it is exactly what the unbelievers say.(7)”

From this point onwards, the issue of tawassul, which, according to Ibn Abdilwahhab, is dealt with intercession together, is in question. 

 Tawassul

Tawassul means to use something as a means or intermediary. Wasila is someone or something that is used to approach another one or another thing. However, “Those who believe in Islam and the Sunnah should know that they exit Islam due to various reasons. They are the extremisms regarding some sheikhs, Ali b. Abi Talib and Masih... For instance, words like, ‘O my master, help me, hold my hand, give me sustenance”. They are all words of polytheism and deviation that necessitates the one who utters them to repent. If he repents, it is all right; if he does not, he is to be killed.... A person who puts someone between him and Allah as intermediaries that he will use for begging and asking for help is unanimously regarded to be an unbeliever.(8)”

It is obvious that Wahhabis mean righteous people and saints through that view. According to them, “tasawwuf (sufism) is a bid’a that is not Islamic… Tariqah is a means of exploiting others or a way of making the murshid (guide) a wasila... What the sufists name as mukashafa (unveiling; discovery or appearance of concealed objects) is baseless. Asking others to follow and stick to one’s way means to create a religion in the religion.(9)“ According to them, “Among Muslims, there are some people who believe that saints can intervene in things both when they are alive and after they die and who ask their help and use them as intermediaries. They go to their graves and beg them for their requests, showing their karamah (extraordinary state of or event by a wali) as evidence. They say those saints are classified as ghawth, qutb, abdal, forties, sevens, threes, etc and that it is permissible to make vows for them and to sacrifice animals for them. They are all words of extremism. Those words cause eternal destruction and torture. They are contrary to the Book, the creeds of imams and the consensus of the ummah. The following is stated in the Quran: “If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,-what an evil refuge!” (an-Nisa, 115). The following verse of Allah rejects the words that saints can intervene in things when they are alive and after they die: “To Allah belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth; and Allah hath power over all things.” (Aal-i-Imran, 189) because Allah is the only one regarding creation, precautions, intervention, predestination... Then, it is unbelief, polytheism and deviation to supplicate and beg any being other than Allah(10)

Great imams of Wahhabis like the famous Ibn Taymiyah and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzi attack great saints like Muhyiddin Arabi too much and they say they defend Ahl as-Sunnah against Shiites by stating that the virtues of Hazrat Abu Bakr are more than those of Hazrat Ali; they depreciate Hazrat Ali and debase his extraordinary virtues by doing so. They deny many saints like Muhyiddin Arabi and say that they are unbelievers. 

It is obvious that Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab has a different view regarding intercession and tawassul than that of Ahl as-Sunnah. Ahl as-Sunnah believes that intercession definitely belongs to Allah, that it can take place only through His permission and that the intercession of Hazrat Prophet for the sinners of believers, whether they are minor or major sins, is true and says that intercession is certain in the Book, Sunnah and consensus of the ummah.  

Moreover, it is wrong for Wahhabis to understand tawassul as worshipping and rejecting it because worshipping means to surrender to Allah with inexpressible belief and serve Him. Tawassul means to approach and to use something as a means. As it is seen, no worshipping is in question in tawassul; there exists a sincere respect in it.  The tawassul of the Companions to the Messenger of Allah, his tawassul to Allah for others, his intermediacy after his death, and the intermediacy of righteous people after their deaths are acts that are completely adopted by Ahl as-Sunnah and that are appropriate for the spirit of the Quran. (11).

As for the unserious and baseless claims about Sufism… We do not need to make long explanations for Sufism here because Sufism means the essence and spirit of Islam; since there cannot be a religion without essence and spirit, it is quite natural that there exists Sufism in Islam. Furthermore, sufists have no other aims than explaining that essence and spirit. Their aim is to explain and to practice the Quran and Sunnah not based on their personal desires but on the divine will and consent. Actually, to worship as if one sees Allah and to stick to Him means to be within Islam by all means. Therefore, the view of Wahhabis that Sufism is not Islamic is completely wrong. To dare to say that Sufism is not Islamic means not to be able to understand Islam, that is, the essence of the Quran and Sunnah and not to be able to internalize them as indispensable elements of life but to see them as provisional things. Sufism understands man in the best and perfect form within the fundamental aim of the Quran and Sunnah; and thus, it elevates the relation of man with Allah, himself and other people to an extraordinarily high level. Just as it is impossible to think of science without schools, so too is it impossible to think of Sufism without takkahs (sufi convents). Therefore, nobody can overlook the services carried out by Sufis and takkahs in spreading the religion of Islam, especially in our history, in Anatolia. Takkahs, which presented the best examples in art, music, literature, ethics, courage and honesty, provided people with the understanding of “serving people means serving Allah” and concretized Islam as a living and practiced ethics and system. It was impossible to think that Sufism and takkahs like other institutions would be isolated from the conditions of the society to which they belonged. The standstill, decline and collapse that were seen in the other institutions of the society were seen in takkahs, too; the institutions that were active and conscious once were affected by ignorance and laziness. Is it not the manifestation of the ignorance and fear from an excellent institution to defame that institution completely based on a wrong application in a certain period? What is essential for man is to be aware of the fact that he is always in the presence of Allah; and Sufism and takkahs train people about it.  

We do not want to defend Sufism, takkahs and saints here against Wahhabis; they do not need it due to their magnificent past. As the following verse states, “And keep thy soul content with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His Face; and let not thine eyes pass beyond them seeking the pomp and glitter of this Life; nor obey any whose heart We have permitted to neglect the remembrance of Us, one who follows his own desires, whose case has gone beyond all bounds.” (al-Kahf, 28), no matter what they say, sufists are the group of lucky people that reached a high level by attributing themselves to Allah not in form but in essence, that is, with their hearts.

3. Bid’ah:

Ibn Abdilwahhab follows Ibn Taymiyah and exceeds him regarding bid’ah (innovation). According to Ibn Abdilwahhab, “A person who invents something that does not exist in the Book of Allah and in the Sunnah of His messenger is cursed, and what he has invented is rejected.” As a matter of fact, “according to sound hadiths, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, ‘Every innovation is bid’ah and every bid’ah is deviation’; Muhammad Ibn Abdilwahhab also reports that Ahmad b. Hanbal stated the following regarding the issue: “I am astonished by the state of people who accept and follow the views of  Sufyan ath-Thawri (d. 161/777) although they know his hadiths and their level of soundness. As a matter of fact, Allah states the following: “...then let those beware who withstand the Messenger's order, lest some trial befall them, or a grievous Penalty be inflicted on them.” (an-Nur, 63). Muhammad Ibn Abdilwahhab adds, “Do you know what fitnah (trial) is? It is shirk”. (12)

After explaining that view reported from Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Abdurrahman b. Hasan, the grandson of Ibn Abdilwahhab, says, “he who does not obey the word of Allah and puts forward a person other than the Prophet (pbuh) is not one of us” by showing Ibn Abbas as evidence. According to them, everything that does not exist in the Book and Sunnah is bid’ah and a sign of deviation. Besides, “the words of kalam scholars cannot be evidence regarding creed; the words of fiqh scholars cannot be evidence regarding halal and haram.”

The most terrible bid’ah in the eye of Ibn Abdilwahhab, which is even regarded as shirk, is graves, tombs and visiting them. The degree of their harshness regarding the issue is seen in the destruction of the grave of Zayd b. al-Khattab in Uyayna. Therefore, they are called as “temple demolishers” by some writers.(13) As a matter of fact, Dr. A. Vehbi Ecer reports the following from Ahmad Amin, who admires Wahhabism(14): “There is something that necessitates the hatred of Muslims against Wahhabis: Wahhabis try to impose their ideas on the people of the countries they invade and expect the people to believe in their views. When they entered Makkah, they demolished many domes (tombs) there: the tomb of Hazrat Khadijah, the domes of the houses where the Prophet and Hazrat Abu Bakr were born are the most important ones that they demolished. When they entered Madinah, they removed many ornaments and decorations from the grave of the Messenger of Allah. Those acts caused the fury of Muslims and impaired their compassion. Some people felt very sorry because some historical works were lost… Some people felt very sorry because the ornaments and decorations of the grave of the Prophet, who was the symbol Islamic compassion, disappeared. Thus, the reasons that necessitated the fury of Muslims changed.”

The views of Ibn Abdilwahhab originate from Ibn Taymiyah. They regarded worshipping in graves the same as shirk by showing many hadiths of the Prophet like the following as evidence: “Do not prepare yourself for a journey except to three mosques: Masjid Haram, this mosque of mine and  Masjid al-Aqsa”; “May Allah curse Jews and Christians. They turned the graves of my prophets into temples.”; “Oh Allah! Do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped. The torture of Allah for those who treat the graves of his Prophet as a mosque will be severe.” Furthermore, according to them, in parallel with the views of Ibn Taymiyah, to perform prayers on the grave even if it is not performed with the intention of polytheism means to rebel against Allah and His messenger, to oppose the religion of Islam; they are the greatest forms of shirk and bid’ah.(15) Furthermore, according to the following hadith of Hazrat Prophet, it is forbidden to visit the grave of Hazrat Prophet with the expectation of receiving rewards: “Do not turn your homes into graveyards; do not make my grave a place of eid (festival). Recite salawat for me; no matter where you are, your salawat will reach me.”; it will lead one to polytheism. Visiting graves may also lead one to idolatry because idolatry originated from visiting graves; Jews and Christians went astray just because of it. To have things written on the graves, to have a tomb built, etc are the worst acts that will lead one to polytheism and exiting Islam. Therefore, visiting graves and building tombs must definitely be prohibited. Thus, supplicating and tawassul to the dead and believing in astrologers, soothsayers and fortune tellers are all bid’ah.  

To show respect to the memory of the Prophet, to visit places where his cardigan and hairs from his beard are kept means, in a sense, worshipping someone other than Allah; therefore, it is polytheism. It is forbidden to read Dalail al-Khayrat because it is like worshipping the Prophet. It is permissible to recite salawat and salam for the Prophet but it is necessary not to turn it into worshipping and not to say “Sayyiduna wa Mawlana” (Our Master and Lord). Therefore, it is bid’ah to recite adhan (call to prayer) like singing, to glorify Allah before and after adhan and to supplicate on the nights of Ramadan, Friday and holy days.
Wahhabis attacked many permissible things by labeling them as bid’ah and prohibited them. For instance, coming together for the recital of mawlid (poetry about the birth and life of the Prophet) is one of them. Accordingly, reciting mawlid, having mawlid recited, to perform sunnah and nafilah prayers are among the things forbidden by Wahhabis. (16)

To wear blue beads and amulets for the protection from the evil eye, to regard trees, stones, etc as holy, to sacrifice an animal for a being other than Allah, to make a vow for a being other than Allah, to wear beads, triangular amulets, etc to prevent a trouble, to eliminate a disease or to seem beautiful, to believe in magic, sorcery, horoscope, to show respect to any being other than Allah, righteous people and saints and ask supplication and help from them are all bid’ah and polytheism. 

According to Wahhabis, there exists hidden and spiritual polytheism, too. To perform prayers and to seem pious in order to show off are like that because they are done to show it to others not for Allah. If a person tries to obtain something for his own interest by seeming a pious person, it is also polytheism. It is also polytheism to curse the time, air and wind.

To decorate the mosques and to build domes and minarets are bid’ah because they did not exist during the time of the Prophet. In addition, it is forbidden to perform prayers, alone. It is fard to perform the five daily prayers in congregation. “A person who does not perform prayers is an unbeliever and he is regarded to have exited the religion of Islam.(17)” It is obligatory to perform prayers in congregation. Some of Wahhabi practices are as follows: “Those who do not perform prayers in congregation but perform individually without any acceptable excuse are likened to Shiites not to Ahl as-Sunnah, and they are defamed and blamed”; the imams of mosques check the congregation after the prayers and warn those who are absent; if they repeat it three times, they are punished.

According to Ibn Abdilwahhab, to smoke and to drink coffee are ugly and bad things. Smoking spoils the taste of the mouth and it resembles onions and garlic due to its bad smell; besides, it is harmful for man and it has no benefits. Therefore, those who smoke cigarettes or hookah are given forty lashes just like those who drink alcohol. However, it is seen that Wahhabis cannot continue the ban on tobacco and hookah today.

According to Wahhabis, another bid’ah is related to evidence. According to them, the definite evidence is the Quran. The hadiths that are definite in terms of dirayah (content and meaning) and riwayah (reporting; application) from the books called Kutub as-Sittah are also accepted as evidence. The hadiths that Shiites, kalam scholars, sufists and ethicians base their views on are definitely mawdu (invented); they cannot be evidence. Consensus (ijma) and ijtihad that are based on the Quran are valid; others cannot be valid. The mind (reasoning) cannot be evidence. The Quran and Sunnah are evaluated and understood in terms of their apparent meaning. Ambiguous verses are also evidence; however, they are dealt with in terms of their apparent meanings and the meanings are given accordingly. It is bid’ah and unbelief to use the mind and interpretation in understanding the Quran.”

According to Wahhabis, the verses in the Quran related to the personality and attributes of Allah are to be accepted as they are; the meaning should be given in accordance with their apparent text whether they are clear or ambiguous. The predecessors of the ummah did not try to interpret the ambiguous verses that mentioned the personality and attributes of Allah; they accepted the existence of the qualities that Allah defined Himself and His messenger described without changing or denying them. Interpretation is the practice of the people of bid’ah. It is obvious that Ibn Abdilwahhab imitates Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in terms of the personality and attributes of Allah. To accept ambiguous verses and the attributes of Allah with their apparent meaning as they are means to embody Allah. The scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah, agree unanimously that Allah does not resemble those that were created later and therefore it is permissible even obligatory to interpret the ambiguous verses regarding the attributes of Allah in order to exclude Him from personification, embodiment and denial.(18)

As it is seen, most of the bid’ahs that Wahhabis see as polytheism actually originate from customs and they are acts that have no relation with the essentials of the religion of Islam. They should be seen as a natural manifestation of the psychological worlds of people. On the other hand, the opposition of Wahhabis to visiting graves is completely baseless because the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) visited graves; the Companions and predecessors visited graves and showed respect to them. It is certainly haram to turn graves into places of worshipping; however, it should not be forgotten that in Islam, “actions are based on intentions.” Nobody has the right to evaluate the awe and respect that one feels when visiting a grave as polytheism because visiting is something done for Allah in Islam and believers know who to worship and they are strong enough in their beliefs not to confuse the means with the end. In short, to look at the religion and belief, and the innocent acts of believers through their eyes means not to understand the aim that the Quran and Sunnah are based on and to turn Islam into a religion of a tribe; how else can it be explained?

4. al-Amru bi'l-Ma'ruf wa’n-Nahyu ani'l-Munkar:

“Ordering the good and forbidding the evil” is a Quranic order that all sects adopt. However, there are differences among sects about how to understand it. Ahl as-Sunnah adopted the reasonable way and wanted every Muslim to fulfill it in accordance with its conditions so as not to cause discord and chaos among people. In addition, Ahl as-Sunnah adopted accepted this verse, “The Messenger's duty is but to proclaim (the Message)...” (al-Maida, 99) as a base and tried to remind people of the orders and prohibitions that are wajib and haram with lenience and consent, without forcing them.”

Kharijites, and their branch that exists today, “Ibadiyyah” deal with the issue as fighting Muslims under the name of call to Islam and serve as an example to Wahhabis. Since Wahhabis regarded everything that is outside the Quran and Sunnah as bid’ah and believed that it was obligatory to fight those who were engaged in bid’ah as based on this verse of the Quran: “Ye are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah” (Aal-i-Imran, 110), they did not hesitate to fight Muslims(19)

As a matter of fact, the signs of the understanding of “ordering the good” can be seen in the speech that we have mentioned before made by Saud when he captured Madinah: “You have been honored by Islam and you have made God Almighty pleased and content. From now on, avoid tending to the wrong beliefs of your ancestors and mentioning their names with mercy and good attributes. Your ancestors died in shirk... You are to listen to the preaching and sermons of the religious men and do as you are advised and told and try to do your best; if any of you opposes and objects, all of your property and goods will be confiscated by my soldiers and you will be killed.”
The application of the understanding of "ordering the good and forbidding the evil” in the form of including all kinds of bid’ah led Wahhabis to take harsh and brutal measures; they oppressed Muslims in the last century with typical applications of Kharijite mentality. As a matter of fact, Katib Çelebi (d.1659) states the following regarding the issue: “Bid’ahs are based on the traditions and customs among people. It is great foolishness and ignorance to try to forbid something that had settled and become a custom among people saying that it is related to the duty of "ordering the good and forbidding the evil” (al-Amru bi'1-Ma'ruf wa’n-Nahyu ani'l-Munkar ). People would not like to quit something that they became accustomed to whether it is sunnah or bid’ah unless someone killed them all with his sword. For instance, Sunni Sultans fought so many wars to change the bid’ahs in the creed but they were useless. Religious people and preachers that knew the Shari’ah in every century tried hard so many years regarding the bid’ahs in the actions and practices but they could not make the people quit one bid’ah.”
"The people would not quit their customs; whatever it is continues based on the wish of Allah. However, the administrators need to maintain the order among Muslims and the practices and principles of Islam. When preachers advise people leniently in order to make them act in accordance with sunnah and quit bid’ahs, they are regarded to have fulfilled their duties. The Messenger's duty is but to proclaim (the Message) (al-Maida, 99). It is up to the people to act accordingly; it is useless to force them. In short, it is not useful to go deep and to examine things thoroughly.

In the periods that came after the Prophet, if the practices of the people are searched and compared to the Sunnah, it will be seen that people moved away from the Sunnah. If everyone acts honestly and compares their acts with the Sunnah, they will see that their acts do not comply with the Sunnah. The wishes and utterances that emerge often are not free from bid’ahs.”

"Then, we ask Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (pbuh), the intercessor of this ummah, to overlook the sins of bid’ah of this weak and helpless ummah and to use shafa’ah to cause the forgiveness of their sins due to their belief in Allah and accepting His oneness. Otherwise, if the complete compliance with the Sunnah is taken into consideration, the situation of the ummah is very difficult. This incompliance originates from the difference of time and place. Its origin is based on the urban life and the rule of living all together.(20)”

 5. Forms of Religious Understanding of Wahhabism:

Wahhabism was defined in many different forms beginning from its foundation to the present day. Some authors stated that it was a “modernist” movement and that it represented “Islamic reform” and “innovation and freedom”. The majority adopted the view that Wahhabism was a sect that combined the Hanbali sect and Kharijism. However, there are also some people who say, “Wahhabism originated from Zahiriyyah, that is, a sect that did not interpret the verses metaphorically but accepted them as they were.”

However, no matter how Wahhabism is seen, this is obvious: Wahhabis regard the Quran and hadiths as the primary sources like all of the other Islamic sects but they differ from other sects in understanding and applying them; they stick to the views of Ibn Abdilwahhab and the people that they regard as reliable. However, there is not complete loyalty to the people that they regard as reliable because definite evidence is only the apparent judgments of the Quran and hadiths that are free from interpretation. Therefore, there is nobody except Allah and His Messenger that can render haram as haram and halal as halal because the Quran and Sunnah imposed all the laws that are necessary to obey. There is no place for reasoning and interpretation in imposing laws and deducing judgments. It is necessary to stick firmly to the apparent aspects of the issues stated in the Quran and Sunnah and everything is to be deduced from the apparent aspects of the Quran without sticking to any sects. The Quran is the definite evidence.  The hadiths that are definite in terms of dirayah (content and meaning) and riwayah (reporting; application) are also accepted as evidence. Ambiguous verses are also evidence; however, they are dealt with in terms of their apparent meanings without any interpretation. It is unbelief to interpret them. Therefore, the attributes of Allah are real attributes. The verses regarding both His personality and His attributes are accepted as they are. It is not right to avoid giving the meaning based on the apparent aspects because metaphorical meanings will be deduced from them. If it were true, the Messenger of Allah would have informed us about them.”

To deal with the Quran and hadiths, the attributes of Allah and ambiguous verses with this understanding will inevitably lead man to personification and embodiment. Therefore, Wahhabis received severe but correct criticism and attacks.

According to Ibn Abdilwahhab, the door of ijtihad is always open for everybody. Imitating others means exiting religion. Although Wahhabis opened the door of ijtihad for everybody and said that it would bring about a disaster and fanaticism to stick to a sect and to close the door of ijtihad, they themselves fell into fanaticism and narrow-mindedness.

On the other hand, Wahhabis stuck to the apparent aspect in terms of both actions and belief. 

According to them, belief, as it has been mentioned before, is utterance and action; it increases and decreases. ”Belief is acceptance with the heart, utterance with the tongue and fulfilling the actions.” Accordingly, someone who does not fulfill deeds is an unbeliever according to Wahhabis, which means moving away from the views of the majority of Muslims and to adopt the understanding of Kharijites directly. In short, Wahhabis made an innocent understanding like the Quran and Sunnah, which every intellectual Muslim would sincerely adopt and work hard to realize, a means of oppression and fanaticism, and thus, they closed tightly the door of ijtihad, which they claimed to be open  because to be occupied only with form and some narrow bounds and appearance while explaining the religion is actually fanaticism and to neutralize the religion.

Consequently, it will be useful to state the following: No matter how wrong schools or sects are, there may be something true and right in them. Besides, there are right and wrong aspects in every sect and in the minds of the members of every sect. There are some right aspects in Wahhabism despite all of the extremism, wrong creed and attitudes. Since they are a minority in the great congregation of Islam, there is no doubt that they will correct their wrong aspects in time and be assimilated. They made really grave mistakes in history. We hope that those mistakes will not be repeated. As Hazrat Ali said, “He who finds the wrong while looking for the right is not like the one who looks for the wrong.” They set out to find the right with their narrow minds and they emerged as a reaction to the extremism of some of the ummah. However, they did not show the moderation that the great congregation of Islam showed and answered extremism with extremism.

Footnotes:

* This writing was compiled and edited by Prof. Dr. Sayın DALKIRAN mostly from the book “Çağımızda İtikadi İslam Mezhepleri” by Prof. Dr. Ethem Ruhi Fığlalı from the chapter entitled “Vehhabilik” by adding and removing some information without harming the unity of the chapter. A significant part of the footnotes were given but some of them were referred to the book itself. See Ethem Ruhi Fığlalı, Çağımızda İtikadi İslam Mezhepleri, İzmir İlahiyat Vakfı Yayınları, İzmir2004, p.89-111.

(1) Abdurrahman b. Hasan, Fathu’l-Majid, Cairo 1377/1957, p. 115.

(2) Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab, Kashfu’sh-Shubuhat, 43.

(3) Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab, Kashfu’sh-Shubuhat, 4-5.

(4) Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab, Kashfu’sh-Shubuhat, 27-29.

(5) Muhammed Abu Zahra, İslâm'da Fıkbi Mezhepler Tarihi, trns. Doç. Dr. Abdülkadir Şener (Ankara 1968), 3/221.

(6) Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab, Kashfu’sh-Shubuhat, 20-21.

(7) Muhammad b. Abdilwahhab, Kashfu’sh-Shubuhat, 13-17.

(8) Abdurrahman b. Hasan, Fathu’l-Majid, Cairo 1377/1957, p. 167.

(9) Although Wahhabis spoke like that, they themselves acted contrarily. As a matter of fact, "Ibn Wahhab said, ‘if someone makes tawassul to the Prophet, he becomes an unbeliever.’ His brother Sheikh Sulayman Ibn Abdilwahhab was a scholar. Once, he asked his brother: “How many pillars of Islam are there?” When he said, “five”, his brother said, “you have added a sixth one; you regard following and sticking to you as one of the pillars of the religion.” Somebody else said to him, “To say that some Muslims are unbelievers is not a pillar of Islam.” See Yusuf Ziya Yörukan, "Vehhâbilik", İFD., 1953-1/61-63.

(10) Abdurrahman b. Hasan, Fathu’l-Majid, Cairo 1377/1957, p. 168-172.

(11) For examples, see Abdülkerim Polat, Teymiyyecilik-Vehhâbilik, İstanbul 1977, 56 ff, 109 ff.

(12) Abdurrahman b. Hasan, Fathu’l-Majid, Cairo 1377/1957, s. 385-387.

(13) Muhammed Abu Zahra, İslâm'da Siyasî ve İtikâdî Mezhepler Tarihi, trns. E. Ruhi Fığlalı – Osman Eskicioğlu, İstanbul 1970, p. 282.

(14) Ahmad Amin, Zu’amau’l-Islah fi Asri’l-Hadith, Beirut nd, p. 19-20; A. Vehbi Ecer, Osmanlı Tarihinde Vehhâbî Hareketi, Doctoral Thesis, Ankara 1976, p. 81.

(15) Abdurrahman b. Hasan, Fathu’l-Majid, Cairo, 299 ff.

(16) A. Vehbi Ecer, Osmanlı Tarihinde Vehhâbî Hareketi, Doctoral Thesis, Ankara 1976, p. 88.

(17) Ahmad b. Nasir an-Najdi, al-Fawakihu’l-Adhab fi’r-Raddi ala man lam Yahkum bi’s-Sunnati wa’l-Kitab (in al-Hadiyyatu’s-Sunniyya), quoted from p. 66 A. Vehbi Ecer, ibid, p. 86.

(18) For examples, see Sayın Dalkıran, Aklın Büyük Yanılgısı Tanrılaştırma, İstanbul 1995.

(19) Muhammed Abu Zahra, İslâm'da Siyasî ve İtikâdî Mezhepler Tarihi, trns. E. Ruhi Fığlalı – Osman Eskicioğlu, İstanbul 1970, p. 282.

(20) Katip Çelebi, Mizanu’l-Haq, 65-67

Sayın Dalkıran (Prof. Dr.)

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