How many kinds of madhhabs related to creed are there?

1. Ahl as-Sunnah, 2. Ahl al-Bid’ah.


* Ahl as-Sunnah:

It means those who follow the way of Hazrat Prophet and who never deviate from it.

The reference for Ahl as-Sunnah is the Book and the Sunnah. Ahl as-Sunnah believes in what is ordered in the Book and the Sunnah, and acts in accordance with it.

Ahl as-Sunnah is divided into two as Maturidiyya and Ash’ariyya.


* Maturidiyya Madhhab:

Its founder is Abu Mansur Muhammad. He was born in Maturid, a village in Samarqand. He died in 333 (H). All of Hanafis and generally Turks are from Maturidiyya Madhhab.


* Ash’ariyya Madhhab:

Its founder is Abu’l-Hasan Ash’ari. His original name is Ali. He was born in Basra in 200 (H) and died in Baghdad in 324 (H).

Malikis and Shafiis adopted Ash’ariyya Madhhab in creed. Hanbalis follow Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal regarding fiqh as well as creed. They do not have a separate madhhab in creed.

There are some minor differences between Ash’ariyya and  Maturidiyya but there is no big difference. The fundamental views of both madhhabs are the same and compatible with the Sunnah. 


Ahl al-Bid’ah:

They are the people who interpret the judgments and decrees that Hazrat Prophet brought and the orders of the Quran based on their own desires and who somewhat deviate from the way of Sunnah.

Bid’ah is all kinds of words, thoughts and deeds that were not present during the time of the Prophet and his Companions, that were invented later and that are contrary to the principles of the religion of Islam.

Our Prophet condemned Ahl al-Bid’ah severely:

“The best talk (speech) is Allah's Book (the Quran), and the best way is the way of Muhammad, and the worst matters are the bid’ahs (those new things which are introduced into the religion); and every bid’ah is misguidance and deviation.”

The bid’ahs related to creed are called bid’ahs of creed. They are the beliefs that are contrary to the principles reported soundly from the Prophet related to creed.

The beliefs of some groups like Mu’tazila and Jabriya belong to this part.

The bid’ahs related to deeds are called bid’ahs of deed.

The innovations and things invented later that are not directly related to the essentials of creed and deeds of the religion of Islam and that do not have any contrariness to those principles are not regarded as bid’ah.

There are some scholars who divide bid’ahs into two:

1. Bid’ah hasana (good): Good bid’ahs are the new customs and deeds that are not contrary to Islam. For instance, to use prayer beads after daily prayers.

2. Bid’ah sayyia (bad): Bad bid’ahs are innovations that are contrary to Islam... For instance, to put candles on the graves of saints, to expect help from graveyards, etc.

As a madhhab of creed, Ahl al-Bid’ah is divided into many branches.  

Each madhhab of Ahl al-Bid’ah is also divided into many groups.

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