Purposefulness and Coincidence
The understanding and the explanation of THE WHOLE UNIVERSE is hidden within these two magical words. Purposefulness and coincidence. Namely, are the creatures of this universe shaped and formed according to a plan and a purpose, or have they just appeared by the blind coincidence?
The efforts of understanding the meaning of these two magical words are as old as the human history. All philosophical thoughts and efforts have been intended to explain the meanings. What these two words mean for every existing thing, every single creature and especially for man, have been tried to put forth. For instance, that the sun being over there, the earth being over here and that each of them spinning in a specific speed; are they purposeful behaviors? Is it according to a plan? Or, is it a result of randomness? Is man, the ruler on earth, a product of coincidence?
Answering these questions as old as humanity has brought with it some movements of thought. These thoughts, or “philosophical ideas” as we might call them, can be divided into two parts. One is based on the idea of coincidence, and the other one on the idea that every being has been created for a purpose.
Epicurus and Democritus
It is noteworthy that, philosophers trying to explain the existence of the beings through coincidence has always refuted one another’s thoughts. Each philosopher has claimed that the others’ thoughts are insufficient and unsatisfactory, and that their own thoughts are the right ones. For this reason, the number of different thoughts and ideas has almost been as many as the number of philosophers. One of the ideas, which supports the idea of coincidence and is the based of the evolution theory today, was first introduced in the 5th century B.C. by Leucippus and Democritus. The Greek philosopher Epicurus later, around 300 years B.C., continued with this idea which later became known as atomism. According to this philosophical thought, everything in the universe, including the living creatures, is made up of small particles called atoms. After some unexpected and random behaviors of the atoms, all living beings that were possible were shaped and formed. However, only the ones capable of reproducing themselves have been able to continue their existence. Looking for a purpose and an underlying plan for the creatures are therefore unnecessary. For example, eyes are not created for eyesight; rather, they exist by chance and are results of coincidence. It is impossible not to see once the animal owns it by chance. That is why, the main reason for the clear order and harmony seen in nature is chance and needs.
Michael Behe and his Darwin's Black Box book
According to the idea of purposiveness, which goes all the way back to the time of Adam, nothing is the work of coincidence. It is stated that every single being is planned and created according to a purpose and a goal. Today, we call this “Intelligent Design”. Michael Behe, an American biochemist who is promoting this idea became famous for his book, Darwin’s Black Box. According to this view propounded as an alternative to Darwin’s Theory, it is pointed out that the inside of the cell was an unknown “Black box” when Darwin lived and that when the details of it was understood, it was found that there was ”a very complex design” there. According to Behe, it is impossible for the complex systems inside the living creatures to come out as a result of natural selections and mutations, that is, through some unconscious mechanisms. This shows that the cells are designed consciously.
People defending the idea of creation and purposiveness point out that an electron orbiting inside the atom 50 000 times a second can never move by chance and coincidence. If we assume the electrons move by chance, they mention that the electrons might jump out of their orbits, colliding and destroying other atom systems resulting in a chain reaction that makes the whole universe explode like an atom bomb. Thus, they point out that the movement of an atom and electrons cannot be by chance. Thereby, they accept that all beings are created and controlled according to a plan and for a purpose by someone with endless power and knowledge.
The evolutionists defending the materialistic philosophy often argue that “It is ‘unscientific’ to state that there is a plan and a purpose behind the existence of the beings, and such an idea is just ‘dogmatic’ with no reason to be discussed.”. Why are they so insistent on their argument? Because, it is impossible to accept the existence of Selimiye Mosque without its architect Mimar Sinan. Hence, saying “to think that an architect has made the Selimiye Mosque is unscientific” means preventing sensible and rational thinking, and attributing everything to coincidence. Though even a soup has never appeared by coincidence, accepting that the countless beings on earth are made by coincidence is a scientific way of thought, according to them!
They also accept that studying a living creature by knowing the existence of intelligent design is far more sensible and more encouraging for research than studying it thinking that it is a result of coincidence. However, unforunately, the dogmatic approach to the materialistic thought prevents them from rational thinking.
Everyone definitely agrees that the glasses one uses have been designed and made by a craftsman for a purpose and according to some measurements. However, when it comes to the creation of the eyes, it is attributed to coincidence!
Thousands of different planned reactions take place inside cells each second, and according to the materialistic philosophy, it is the DNA molecules inside the cells that manage this. They are even called ‘Smart molecules’. These molecules must know every single detail of the cell and must grasp the past and the future of the living being. Of course, this is not enough; they must take necessary actions, and have the power of ensuring organization among cells. To sum up, these molecules must have knowledge, will and power as much as a deity. People defending this thought do not accept one God and have no choice but accepting as many gods as the number of atoms and molecules. What is strange is this: the idea of accepting one God is refused immediately since it is not a scientific way of thinking according to them. However, to attribute each atom and molecule as many tasks as the tasks of a deity is presented as the only scientific system of thought. The only thing left for us is to say, “This is really unbelievable”.
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- Will you give information about the book, ‘Science and Creationism’ published by National Academy of Sciences (US)? It is said that this book proves evolution definitely.
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