Prophet Lut [Lot] (Peace be upon him)

"Lut said: 'I do detest your doings.

O my Lord! deliver me and my family from such things as they do!'

So We delivered him and his family― all. Except an old woman who lingered behind. Then the rest We destroyed utterly. We rained down on them a shower (of brimstone): and evil was the shower on those who were admonished (but heeded not). Verily in this is a Sign.” (ash-Shuara, 168-174)




Hz. Lut (pbuh) is the son of Harran, who is Hz. Ibrahim’s brother. He is one of the first people who believed in Hz. Ibrahim.1

Hz. Ibrahim was thrown into fire because he tried to dissuade his nation from worshipping stars and idols. However, when Allah Almighty ordered the fire, "O fire! Be coolness and peace", the fire did not burn Hz. Ibrahim and became cool. After remaining in the fire for a week, Hz. Ibrahim came out safe and sound. As soon as he came out of the fire, he started to convey the message of Allah again. He reminded his nation about the bad ending of worshipping idols in the hereafter. He told his nation that they would go to Hell if they did not give up worshipping idols. Only Hz. Lut among his nation accepted this message and call of Hz Ibrahim's. The others insisted on polytheism and did not believe in him though they heard his warnings and saw that the fire did not burn him.

Thereupon, Hz. Ibrahim migrated from Babylon with his wife Sara and his nephew Hz. Lut. They went to Harran. Hz. Ibrahim stayed there. Hz. Lut went to Sodom and Gomorra.2 Then, he was sent as a prophet to the people living there. 




The people of Sodom and Gomorra were very immoral and immodest. They committed something deviant that no nation had committed up to that time. The men preferred men instead of women for sexual intercourse. They went too far and committed it openly; they even boasted about it. They would sit by the road, throw stones at the passersby and mock them. If a stone hit somebody, they would harass him.  

In fact, this attitude was contrary to human nature. For, the feeling of lust was given to man for the continuation of human race; it was a small price for marriage between men and women. If this price (lust) had not been given, people would not have undertaken the responsibility of marriage; they would not have got married. This would have cause the human race to become extinct.  

However, using lust out of this purpose and trying to satisfy it through aberrant and illegitimate ways reduce man to a degree lower than animals. For, even animals do not commit homosexuality. However, the nation of Lut got into the habit of committing such a disgusting thing. Allah Almighty sent them Lut as a prophet due to this practice.   

• Sodomi (Homosexuality)

Men and women were created so that they would be partners. The spiritual and physical structure of these two genders was created in such a way that they always need each other. For, the continuation of human race depends on this partnership. Therefore, they naturally tend to each other. 

Allah Almighty rendered marriage between a man and a woman legitimate due to this natural tendency. The reason why this attraction between men and women was created and marriage was made legitimate is the continuation of the human race.

This natural tendency between men and women and the feeling of lust make these two genders approach each other. It enables them to set up a family and bring up children. Thus, this feeling in the nature of human beings is satisfied legitimately and the continuation of the human race, which is the real purpose, is ensured. 

As we have mentioned before, Allah Almighty did not limit the feelings of human beings when He created them. The feeling of lust is one of them. The most important property of man distinguishing him from animals is this limitlessness in his feelings.  

Allah Almighty limited these feelings, which He did not limit in creation, through the religions and prophets He sent; and He determined the legitimate boundaries through them. Besides, the mystery of testing lies here. These feelings, which are free and limitless in creation, will be arranged and limited in accordance with the laws sent by Allah. Otherwise, if Allah Almighty had limited the feelings of man like animals, passing or failing the test by one's own preference would not have been in question. It would not have been in compliance with the divine will.

Allah Almighty legitimated the use of the feeling of lust, which He did not limit in creation, through marriage between men and women beginning from the time of the Prophet Adam. Man needs to satisfy his lust through marriage. He must not resort to illegitimate ways.

The nation of Lut became the first nation that deviated from this legitimate way in the most disgusting way.

The Prophet (pbuh) states the following in a hadith: “May Allah damn those who commit the thing that the nation of Lut did!” According to the majority of the Islamic scholars, homosexual intercourse is a sin like fornication. The punishment for fornication is also valid for homosexual intercourse.




Hz. Lut, who was sent as a prophet to the people of Sodom and Gomorra, started to call them to the truth and the right path.  

First, he told them that he was a prophet and asked them to obey him:

"O my nation! I am to you a messenger worthy of all trust. So fear Allah and obey me. Protect your souls from sins."3

After declaring his prophethood like that, Lut started to give advice to his nation in order to dissuade them from the bad deed they were committing:

"O my nation! You commit lewdness such as no people in creation ever committed before you. How can you do it without being ashamed and disgusted? How dare you do it? How do your mind and feelings condescend to satisfying your lust with men instead of women? Is this not a big sin? You are an ignorant nation that go astray and oppress both your own souls and others.”4

With those words, Hz. Lut tried to warn his people related to three aspects:  

l — He asked them to give up the deed of homosexual intercourse, which they committed openly and without being ashamed.5 For, even a person who commits a lot of sins tries to commit sins and bad deeds secretly. He feels ashamed when others see it. Only those who are indulged in debauchery do not feel ashamed when they commit sins openly.

2  — He reminded his nation that they committed this deed though they knew it was ugly because there was no nation that committed this deed before them. Besides, reason, logic, humanity, religiousness, nature and biologic structure of man refuse this deed.6

3  — He told them to take lessons from what happened to the previous nations because those who rebelled against the prophets in the previous nations had been destroyed. They knew this fact.

However, the nation of Lut did not want to accept the truth and right path by any means. Thereupon, Lut started to intimidate his nation reminding them that they would be exposed to divine punishment:

"O my nation! If you continue acting like that, you will be destroyed. I am showing you what is good for you in this world and the hereafter. Do not think that I am doing this duty of conveying the message of Allah in return for any material interest. I do not ask any reward from you for it; my reward is only from Allah."7

It is a common principle of prophets to avoid receiving material things from people. When a person emerges with the claim of changing the society, the first question that comes to mind is whether he is doing it for a material interest or not. All prophets avoided this state, which harms trust, and stated that they did not want any reward or material interest from their nation and that their reward was from Allah.  

It is clear that today, when those who try to convey the message of the religion of Islam to people are often accused of using the religion for their material interest, it is necessary for them to act in accordance with that principle of prophets. 




The nation of Lut gathered together in order to find a solution to the warnings of Hz. Lut. They talked about it and made the following decision:

"Let us deport Lut and those who believe in him from this city. They do not like what we do and claim to be clean and chaste people. They cannot keep up with us. Then, we must not let them live with us in this city. They must leave. We cannot get on with them from now on.”8

They informed Hz. Lut about their decision as follows:

"O Lut! If you keep condemning what we are doing, we will deport you from our land.”9

To deport the people whom they did not like was a habit of this nation. They decided to do the same thing to Hz. Lut due to his severe warnings.

That is, deportation of the people that are not liked by a nation or that are regarded as harmful is a custom that has been applied since the First Age. 




After telling Hz. Lut that they were going to deport him from their land, they added:

"O Lut! Bring us the wrath of Allah if you tell the truth. We do not believe in you. Bring us the wrath you have been threatening us.”10

These words of the nation of Lut showed that they were not going to believe in Hz. Lut by any means. Hz. Lut also realized that it was impossible to improve them.

He addressed his nation for the last time as follows:

"O my nation! I do detest your doings and condemn what you do. I never approve of what you do.”11

After that, he asked Allah Almighty's help for him and the believers from the evil of his nation.

"O Lord! Save me and my people from their evil deeds.”12

No prophet asked curse for his nation before losing hope of improving them.




Allah Almighty accepted the prayer of Hz. Lut. He appointed three angels for the destruction of his nation. He sent them to Lut disguised as three handsome young men. These angels were going to visit Hz. Ibrahim and give him the glad tiding of the son called Ishaq before going to the nation of Lut.

* * *

The angels of wrath arrived at noon. Hz. Lut was working in the field at that time. When he saw that, three people were coming toward him, he asked them: 

"I do not know you. Why did you come here?” They said they wanted to be his guests.

When Lut saw that his guests were three handsome young men 13, he felt anxious. He feared that his nation would rape them. How could he prevent them if they wanted to do something like that? He said to himself, “This is a distressful day.”14

He has not yet been able to understand that his guests were angels. It was something very hard for a prophet like him to reject the guests who came to him. Therefore, he could not reject them.  

Hz. Lut could not see any similarities between these young men and the people in his nation. It was definite that they were strangers. Therefore, he addressed them as follows in order to hint that his nation was aberrant:

"O guests! Do you know about the situation of the people of this city?" They said,

"What are they like?" Hz. Lut said,

"There are no people worse than the people of this city in the world."

Upon this word of Hz. Lut, Jibril said to his friends,

"Witness it."

Allah Almighty laid it as a condition for the destruction of the nation of Lut for Lut to witness four times against them. This was the first witnessing. Jibril indicated it to the other angels. When Lut witnessed against his nation three more times, the wrath became inevitable for his nation. 




Hz. Lut took the guests to his house secretly without showing them to anyone. Hz. Lut’s wife, Wahila, informed the nation of Lut about the guests.

Wahila never believed in Hz. Lut. She said she believed but she concealed her unbelief. She informed the people of Lut about the guests and paved the way for them to harass the guests.

As it is seen, husband-wife relationship and high qualities like being the wife of a prophet do not have any significance in the struggle between belief and unbelief. Even the bond of marriage, which is the strongest bond, is ineffective. That is, everybody is tested individually in this world. As a matter of fact, Noah's wife Waila also betrayed Noah (Nuh); she lived as an unbeliever though she was in the house of a prophet and died as an unbeliever.  

In fact, both of them were in a great bounty with which they could have attained happiness in the world and the hereafter. They were both wives of two beloved prophets of Allah. However, they missed this bounty due to their betrayal.15




When Hz. Lut’s wife informed the nation of the Lut about the guests, the news spread quickly. They told one another about the guests. They became very excited. They rushed to Lut’s house.16 They surrounded the house and asked Hz. Lut to come out. They asked him to deliver his guests to them.

Hz. Lut got into trouble when he heard what they wanted. He tried to persuade them by giving them advice:

“They are my guests. Do not disgrace me. If you betray them, you will betray me. Fear Allah and give up this thought. Protect yourselves from committing sins. I know your infamy but do not let my guests know your infamy.”17

Hz. Lut gave advice to his nation by begging them and tried to dissuade them. However, it was in vain.

They did not seem to be listening to anyone. They retorted harshly:

“O Lut! We told you not to intervene in our business. How can you prevent us from doing it? Did we not forbid you from entertaining guests? You may be chaste and honorable; you might not do what we do but do not interfere in our business. Our sins belong to us. It is none of your business.”18

The nation of Lut had forced him beforehand not to interfere in their business and not to entertain guests. They threatened him by saying, “We will deport you from this city if you do so.” They reminded him of this decision when Lut wanted to prevent them from harassing his guests.

When Hz. Lut realized that he could not prevent them like this, he tried to prevent them resorting to another method: He said to them,

“O my nation! Your women are my daughters. I am like your father due to my prophethood. Make use of them by marrying them. It is permissible to make use of them and it is clean. It is religiously and ethically haram and forbidden for a man to have a sexual intercourse with another man. Fear Allah and do not disgrace me in the presence of my guests. Is there not a sane person among you who will understand what I say?”19

However, the nation of Lut did not heed what he said.  They said,

“O Lut! Have you not known us for such a long time? We do not need our women. You know what we want.”20

Hz. Lut was in a weak state and was very worried. He could only utter the following words:

“I wish I had the power to resist you now or I could take refuge in a strong castle; I wish I were not in such terrible state.”21

Hz. Lut was not a native of Sodom and Gomorra. He settled there afterwards. Therefore, there was nobody to help him. There were some people who believed in him from the people of Sodom and Gomorra but they were very few; and they were weak and poor people. He was right to complain about his loneliness and weakness. As a matter of fact, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “After Lut, Allah did not send a prophet who was not from a powerful nation.”(*) 

When the angels saw that Hz. Lut was so worried, they decided to tell him about themselves. They said,

“O Lut! We are definitely the messengers of your Lord. Do not be anxious. They cannot do anything to us. Your nation insists on their sins and aberration. It is impossible to improve them. It is useless no matter how much advice you give them. They cannot oppress you anymore. Let them come in.”22

Upon these words of the angels, Hz. Lut opened the door wide. They rushed into the house. Hz. Cibril flapped his wings facing them; they all went blind.23 They did not know what to do and where to go. They started to yell and scream. They said there was a magician with Hz. Lut. They did not think of believing in him even in that situation. Hz. Lut led them out of his house.

After they were sent out, the angels said to Hz. Lut:

“Leave this town with those who believe in you. Walk for a while at night. Do not let any believers walk behind you. Let them walk in front of you. Do not let them look behind. Leave this place at once before the wrath of Allah arrives. Do not take your wife. She will be destroyed with your cruel nation. They will be destroyed in the morning.”24

Hz. Lut said,

“There is a lot of time till morning. I want them to be destroyed sooner.” Jibril said, 

“Is morning not near? It is near.”

It is natural for people to want something that they really want to happen as soon as possible. Hz. Lut was oppressed by his nation a lot and he hated the bad deeds they committed. Therefore, he wanted them to be destroyed at once and to get rid of them.  

As it is seen, Hz. Jibril ordered Lut to do four things:


1  — To go at night: Because it was necessary for them to leave the town without being noticed by his nation. If they had left during the day, they could have oppressed him. 

2  —He had to walk behind those who believed in him: If he had walked in front of them, they could have wondered about what was happening behind and could have looked. Besides, those who walked at the back could have feared that they would be affected by the wrath. Hz. Lut was ordered to walk behind in order to save those who believed in him from anxiety. The duty of Hz. Lut was to protect those who believed in him. Protection could be carried out better by watching them from behind.

3  —They were ordered not to look behind: Those who left the city with Lut had relatives, property, valuable goods and even their children in that city. They lived there throughout their lives and had several bonds with the city. If they had looked behind, they could have had a feeling like pitying the oppressors that were destroyed, which is against the consent of Allah.  

To pity the ones who deserve destruction and wrath means to object to divine wisdom. To show mercy and compassion to those who deserve wrath is regarded as showing consent to their situation. It necessitates the same punishment.

Thus, Allah Almighty cut off all of their relations with this order.

4 — To move in the direction that Allah ordered and to move away from the scope of wrath.

After Hz. Lut received these orders, he started to prepare to leave the city with the believers. He could not persuade his wife to come with him. She wanted to stay. Finally, they set off.  




When Hz. Lut left the city with the believers, the wrath came early at dawn. Jibril brought about an earthquake with his wing and demolished the city.(*) Baked stones rained on people. The stones that fell from the sky came like rain drops continuously; meanwhile, they heard sounds coming from nowhere: 

"You denied the wrath and threats told you by Lut. Taste that wrath now. Know that Lut was telling the truth!"

The destruction went on until the sun rose. During dawn, the lustful nation of Lut was destroyed; meanwhile, Hz. Lut and those who believed in him were saved and attained salvation.25

According to the statement of the verses, the nation of Lut was destroyed due to their oppression and sins. It does not matter whether the oppression affects their own souls or other people. Justice attracts bounties; similarly, oppression attracts misfortune and wrath.

There was also a big threat for the Qurayshi polytheists in those verses.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) asked Jibril about the oppressors mentioned in the verse and Jibril said,

"The oppressors of your ummah are also included." In another verse, the following is stated: “There is a lesson for believers in this event.”26

It is reported that Hz. Lut and those who believed in him went to Egypt, Damascus or Jordan after leaving their city. The place they went to had righteous people.

The cities where the nation of Lut lived are called “Mu’tafikat”27 in the Quran. It is reported that about four hundred people lived there. 

The place that this wrath hit is called al-Bahr al-Mayyit (the Dead Sea) or the Sea of Lot (Lut) today.



The following explanations are given in the magazine called Bilim ve Teknik regarding the issue:

This event occurred 4000 years ago; that is, at the beginning of 2000 BC and according to estimates in the years of 1900 BC. The German author Werner Keller explains and mentions about the destruction of these two cities in detail in his book titled, “The Bible is right after all” based on archeological and geological research and investigations. This highly famous book of Keller has been translated into twenty-two languages and sold millions of copies!

According to the explanations of Keller, as being narrated by the Torah (and other divine books) and the detailed researches and diggings of American archeologists and geologists, the destructed locations of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are the surroundings of the valley of Siddim and the bottom part of the Lut Sea. It has also been understood by diggings that once there were extensive settlements in these locations.

The researchers were disappointed by failing to find the locations of Sodom and Gomorrah after digging with high hopes; and the possibility of finding the locations of these cities is out of question from now on; for, these cities are buried in the bowels of earth as it is explained below.

Keller explains this great destruction, which caused the horrific event, and the geological condition of the place before this destruction as follows:28:

A tongue like the place in the eastern part of the Lut Sea forms a peninsula and protrudes into the inner parts of the sea. Arabs named this part as al-Lisan that is “the tongue”. Here, there is a sharp but an invisible bend in the base of water that almost divides the lake into two parts. Though the base which is at the right part of the peninsula is 400 meters deep, the left part of it is amazingly shallow. With the measurements that have been made in the recent years, it has been understood that the depth of this place is hardly 15-20 meters. When a person travels at this lower part of the Lut Sea by a boat at a time when the sun rays reflect on water in the proper direction, he will come across with an amazing scene. Forest trees start to appear under the water a few miles over the shore. These are the trees that are preserved by the excessive salt of the lake.

The trunks of trees and their remains that are seen in green color must be very old. In the past, when the leaves of these trees became green and bloomed, it was possible that the prophet Lut (PBUH) used to graze his herd! In the past, this strange tongue of the Sea of Lut was the valley of Siddim.

The reason of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorra is understood by the observations of geologists. American geologists firstly explained why the river bed of Jordan is so stiff. In fact, the Jordan River flows on a distance of 190 km river bed with a slope of 190 meters. This situation and the Lut Sea’s being lower than the sea level at 400 meters is caused by a great geological event that occurred in this region.

The Jordan River valley and the Sea of Lut is made up only a part of a crack or rift that passes by on this region of our planet earth. The condition and length of this crack on earth’s crust has recently been discovered. This crack starts from the slopes of Taurus Mountains to the south part of the south shores of the Lut Sea and stretches over the Arabian desert to the Aqaba Gulf and from there it passes by the Red Sea and ends in Africa. It is understood that in places where this long destruction goes on, there were strong volcanic activities. There are black basalts and lavas in places such as Galilee Mountains and at high parts of Jordan plateaus and Gulf of Aqaba.

It is possible that once there was a great collapse and a terrific earthquake that occurred along with explosions, thunderbolts, fires and natural gases and this resulted in the collapse of Siddim Valley as well as the cities such as Sodom and Gomorrah into the bowels of earth. The cracking and the collapsing of the earth’s crust caused the sleeping volcanoes to move freely. There are also extinct craters in the upper valley of Jordan; and in these places, there are large lava masses along with basalt masses on lime masses.

An interesting point is that though there is no mention about an earthquake in the Torah, Ahmed Cevdet Pasa, mentioned about an earthquake in his book titled Kısas-ı Enbiya29;that is, the History of Prophets. Ahmed Cevdet Pasa states the following: “Lut, the son of Harran, who is the brother of Hazrat Abraham, passed with him from Babel to Damascus and he was sent to Sodom region. The inhabitants of this place were unbelievers and sinners. Their actions were lawless and they used to commit prostitution that had not been seen before in any nation. Hz. Lut invited them to the true path but they did not listen. He advised a Lut but they did not accept. Allah Almighty pelted them with stones and destroyed their villages with an earthquake. He destructed them all. Only Lut and his family members survived by leaving that place at night.” (Ahmed Cevdet Pasa, Kısas-ı Enbiya, I. Cilt, Milli Eğitim Basımevi, Istanbul.)

The cities and the surroundings of Sodom and Gomorra became the victim of such a divine destruction; and after a huge disaster that occurred 4000 years ago, the cities of Sodom and Gomorra sank into the bowels of earth.30



Dr. Haluk Nurbaki gives the following different explanation about the rain that destroyed the nation of Lut:

“At the beginning of August1945, there were two islands near each other: two green and clean islands. The big cities of these islands had the names Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the early morning, they were going to be selected victims of a big war. They had an act of extermination that was written in their fate and that would be discussed forever by human beings.

However, nobody knew about the most interesting aspect of what happened in these two cities.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which were already very hot, became like hell when the atomic bombs were dropped. The people who did not die during the first explosion rushed out to the streets in order to breathe better. They enjoyed the rain sent by the black clouds that suddenly appeared in the sky. However, the real death came from the rain that dropped from these clouds which were charged with radioactive krypton. Most of the 200.000 people that died in these cities were killed by those raindrops.  

We do not say that the people of those cities were hit by divine wrath. However, the mystery of the one of the verses of the Quran became manifest.

It is stated by all tafsir scholars that the nation of Lut was destroyed by rain but that it was not flood. Only believers believed in such a rain of death but deniers sneered at it until the incident in Hiroshima.

The radioactive rains that were not estimated at all even by those who made the atomic bomb silenced those who sneered at the Quranic verses.

When Allah wants to eliminate a nation, He sends them a wrath as the owner of endless power in a way that cannot be known by us and science. We do not want to say that the nation of Lut was destroyed by the rain from radioactive clouds. However, it is clear that all of the Quranic verses have scientific indications. The rain from radioactive krypton cloud is a rain of death and it is a good example for the destruction of the nation of Lut by rain.”31



1 al-Ankabut, 26.

2 Ab­dul-Wah­hab an-Najjar, Qisa­su’l-An­bi­ya,  112.

3 ash-Shuara, 161-163.

4 al-A’raf, 80-81; an-Naml, 54-55

5 an-Naml, 54

6 al-A’raf, 80

7 ash-Shuara, 164

8 an-Naml, 56; al-A’raf, 82... As it is seen, the nation of Lut could not accept it when Hz. Lut and those who believed in him refrained from committing bad deeds and when they led a chaste and clean life. His warnings about the issue harmed their pride. They wanted Hz. Lut to leave so that they would commit their illegitimate deeds easily; they did not want their pleasures to be disturbed.

As a matter of fact, in all ages, those who committed illegitimate deeds accused those who warned them not to commit those deeds of backwardness, reactionism, etc. They did their best to eliminate those who opposed their life of debauchery life.

9 ash-Shuara, 167.

10 al-Ankabut, 29.

11 ash-Shuara, 168.

12 ash-Shuara, 169.

13 Bayda­wi, I, 570.

14 Hud, 77.

15 at-Tah­rim, 10... The verb betray (khana) is used in the verse about the wives of Hz. Nuh and Hz. Lut. Betrayal is synonymous with hypocrisy (nifaq) in Arabic. However, the word betrayal is used because they broke their promise and vow. The word nifaq is generally used about religion. Thus, they are connected with each other. So, betrayal means to break the promise secretly and oppose the truth. Its antonym is amanah (trust). Accordingly, the verb khana (betrayed) cannot be interpreted as they committed adultery. No wives of prophets committed adultery. The smallest disobedience to a prophet is regarded as unbelief. They cannot be compared to betrayal and disobedience to others. Thus, the wives of Hz. Nuh and Hz. Lut became unbelievers due to their disobedience to their husbands. In the end, they were punished due to their unbelief by being destroyed with their nations.

16 al-Hijr, 67; Hud, 78.

17 al-Hijr, 68-69.

18 al-Hijr, 70... One of the weapons used by the aberrant people against those who try to spread the religious truths is this. They say, “You can perform prayers and fasting but do not interfere in others. Let every tub stand on its own bottom. Everybody is responsible for himself.”

In fact, the same weapons, slogans and excuses have been used throughout history. The aberrant people of that age addressed Hz. Lut like that just like the people of this age. Their words and hearts are similar.   

19 al-Hijr, 71; Hud, 78.

20 Hud, 79.

21 Hud, 80.

(*) Ma­war­di, Ada­bu’d-Dun­ya wa’d-Din, 193.

22 Hud, 81.

23 al-Qa­mar, 37.

24 Al-Hijr, 64-65; Hud, 81.

(*) According to M. M. Er­nest, a Soviet ethnologist, the nation of Lut was destroyed as a result of a nuclear explosion. (Bi­lim ve Tek­nik, issue 152; see also issue 147, 8.)

25 al-Araf, 83; ash-Shuara, 170; an-Naml, 57; as-Saf­fat, 134.

26 M.Veh­bi, ibid, VII/2766.

27 at-Tawba, 70; al-Haqqaa, 9.

29 Ah­med Cev­det Pa­şa, Kı­sas-ı En­bi­ya, I. Cilt, Mil­li Eği­tim Ba­sı­me­vi, İs­tan­bul.

30 Bi­lim ve Tek­nik, So­dom ve Go­mor­ra, Prof. Dr. Arif Ak­man, 152.

31 Dr. Ha­luk Nur­ba­ki, Kur’an-ı Ke­rim’den Ayet­ler ve İl­mi Ger­çek­ler, IV, 28.

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