Does a sinner commit a sin with his own will or is he forced to commit that sin as it is written in his fate beforehand?
This issue can be summarized as follows: The human has a will of his own. We call this the weak (limited) will. And we call the creation of God the universal (unlimited) will and the power to create. (These are the capabilities of God). When the issue is handled from the perspective of God, it is understood as if things happen with God forcing them and thus compulsion is mixed into the issue. On the other hand, when the issue is handled from the perspective of the human, it is understood as if humans do their own deeds themselves and thus the view of Mutazila, which claims, everyone is the creator of their own deeds is mixed into the issue.
God creates whatever goes on in the Universe. And this is just the universal will that is concerned with this issue. Moreover, "While it is God Who has created you and all that you do?" (As-Saffaat Surah, 37:96). In other words, it is God alone who is the Creator of both you and the deeds that you perform.
For example, if you make a car or build a house, it is God who creates these deeds. You and your deeds belong to God. However, there is a share of you in all these deeds and this is working and performing. And this is a simple condition and a small cause; just like pushing the button of a colossal electric system that will illumine the entire world. This being the case, as it cannot be said, You do not have any intervention it cannot also be said that the entire deed belongs to you. The deed belongs completely to God. However, God has accepted your small intervention as a simple provision while creating these deeds related to you and has based what He creates on it.
For instance; God set the electric system in this mosque; and made it function. The deed of illuminating it again belongs to God. To form a beam of light out of the currents of electrons and to illuminate the mosque are each a deed. And these belong to God Almighty Who is the Light of Light, the Giver of Light, and the Fashioner of Light. However, you also have a share in the illumination of this mosque; and it is just to hit the button of what God has devised in this mechanism, which He has established. The deed of making the mechanism fulfill its duty of illuminating which is far above your capacity belongs completely to God.
Let us give another example; imagine a machine, which is already prepared to function; the only thing you have to do is to push the button. And the duty to make it function belongs to the one who built it. Therefore, this small deed of the human is called working or weak will. And that of God is called creating. Thus, there emerges a categorization of will:
A) Universal will
B) Weak will
Will means ordaining and belongs completely to God. You cannot will unless God wills. This should not be misunderstood. Thinking this way, we show that we are far from the view of complete compulsion by saying the slave also has a will to such a degree as to touch a finger. And by saying the Creator of the deed is God we show that we do not think the way the sect Mutazila does. By this way, we do not attribute partners to God in either His Godhood or His Control over worlds. Just as God is one in His Being, He is one also in His deeds; he does not make others do His deeds. God Almighty created everything Himself. However, for such secrets and wisdoms as offer and test, He accepted the deeds of the humanity as a simple condition.
In order to clarify the subject, I want to present an example Bediüzzaman gave on this subject: If the comparison is not mistaken: you take a powerless child onto your shoulders and leaving the choice to him, tell him you will take him wherever he wishes. The child wants to go to a high mountain so you take him there, but he catches either cold or falls. So of course you reprimand him, saying, You wanted to go there, and give him a slap. Thus, Almighty God, the Firmest of Judges, makes His servants will, which is utterly weak, a condition, and His universal will has it in view Here the child did not catch cold himself. He just wished it. Therefore, here the giver of the disease- the carrier, and the one who wishes this deed, have been separated. We understand the fate and the human will in this meaning.
The One who ordains everything knows the truth of everything.
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