Can non-Muslims live in a Muslim Country? If so, what are their rights?

Yes, they can live. They can live in an Islamic country with security in peace by giving Jizyah. It is a per capita tax imposed on able minority non-Muslim men of military age. They acquire certain autonomy and a special status with that. Free, non-Muslim subject of an Islamic country governed in accordance with Sharia (Islamic Law) is dhimmi-this status was originally only made available to non-Muslims who were people of the book (i.e. Jews and Christians). (1) About Dhimmis, it is said, Under the rules of dhimmitude (in return for paying tribute and acknowledging Muslim supremacy) they have every right that a Muslim has, and obliged to do everything what Muslim does. (2) It is a historical reality that the rights of a non- Muslim is greater than what he pays as a tribute. A dhimmi is not responsible with the duty of Jihad and giving alms. In addition, he is exempted from military service. (3)

Minorities among the people of the book are free to practice their faith. They can repair and build their shrines and temples. They can gong their bells, expose, and carry their Crosses in public. And Muslim attitude towards non-Muslims was never occurred as forcing them to change their religion or tearing their temples down. (4) When Muslim attitude to its minorities compared with that of non-Muslim countries attitude towards its minorities, it will be clearly seen the great difference between them. (5)

We see that there is a great benefit to make mention of giving examples of Muslim attitude towards its minorities. Prophet Muhammad states, Whoever tortures a non-Muslim or burdens responsibilities exceeding his limits, is the enemy of me. (6)

Hazrath Omar (pbuh) sees an old and blind beggar. He realizes that he is a from among the people of book, a Jew; and finds him complaining about Jizyah, poverty, and elderness. So he takes him to his house and gives him some of his needs. Then sends him to the Bayt-ul mal (treasury) and tells to the officer in charge, Give him and his precedents what they need; if we make good use of those while they are young and dispose them in their elderness we become cruel and injustice. (7)

When Haled Bin Valid realizes that, they are not going to be able to counteract the attacks of Byzantines tells to the Himis Christians, We took Jizyah from you in accordance to protect you, but we are unable to do that right now, and gives the Jizyah back. (8)

When Salahaddin Ayyubi forced to retreat from Damascus he does what Haled Bin Valid had done before. (9)

Marwan, from among the Amawi rulers, collects Jizyah from newly converted Muslims. When Hazrath Omar becomes caliph, he gives this instruction to the governor of Iraq, Doubtless, God sent Prophet Muhammad as an inviter (to the religion of Islam), not as a tax collector. Whenever you take this letter, relieve the people of that tax. (10)

Sources:
1-Mevdudi, İslam'da Hükümet, s.614; Zeydan, Şeriatu'l-İslamiye, s., 63
2- Zeydan, Age., s., 66-73
3-Azzam, s., 154
4-Abdürabbih, s., 258
5-Mevdudi, İslam'da Devlet Nizamı s.,59
6-Ebu Yusuf, Kitabu'l-Harac, Matbaatu's-Selefiye, 1397 h. Kahire, s.,135
7-Age. s., 136
8-Azzam, s. 154
9-Age. s.,154
10-Cessas, III, 150

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