How should minorities living in Islamic countries and countries that are concluded a pact with be treated?

Islam undertakes the protection of non-Muslims, their life, property, and all of their legal rights, who accept to live under Muslim government and pay jizyah (tribute, war reparation tax levied on non-Muslims). Hazrath Ali (as), who is the fourth caliph of Islam expressed this issue as, Their blood and property shall be safe with me.

There are so many implementations of the rules in favor of zimmis (non-Muslims living under Muslim governments who pay Jizyah) throughout the history. Best possible proof to this is the pact between Fatih Sultan Mehmed, the conqueror of Istanbul and the Galata Zimmis. The original copy is still in Paris, Bib.Nat.turc anc. 130, Vrk.78/a-b. Turkish text of the pact and its French translation are published lately. Beldiceanu, Recherche Surla ville Ottomate, 153-154,423-424 ; Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı Tarihi, II/7-8; TOEM, Sene 5, sh.52)

In this pact, Fatih Sultan Mehmed:
-guaranteed the right to perform their religious rites
-their churches cannot be taken from them and cannot be turned to a mosque; they can only convert of their own accord.
-their possessions, properties, families, and concubines are safe with them.

Non-Muslims in the battlefield, when their legal status are confirmed as zimmi; means that they literally stop fighting, they cannot be killed. If the reason of fighting with non-Muslims would have been their disbelief, their conversion would have been provided forcefully. Whereas, with the agreements of the post war pacts, they are never forced to convert or their churches and synagogues are ever touched; and freedom of religion is established.

Islam definitely restrains compulsion in religion. Islam asserts to the invalidity of the faith, which is forcefully imposed.

Unbelievers could revert to Islam anytime until the end of their life, if they survive. This is of course not a possibility for the ones, who is killed during a war. All these explanations show that the duty of a Muslim should not be fighting against non-Muslims who is not fighting against you; it is finding the way to invite them to Islam.

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