Will you write the verses of the Quran and Hadiths about Ramadan and Fasting?

The Details of the Question

- Is the month of Ramadan mentioned in the Quran?
- What are the characteristics of the month of Ramadan?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Answer 1:

The only month that is mentioned in the Quran and whose value is emphasized is the Quran is the month of Ramadan.

Immediately after the verses stating that fasting was rendered fard, it is stated that Ramadan is the month in which the Quran was sent down as a guide to humanity and clear signs for guidance and judgment between right and wrong; and those who reach this month are ordered to fast. (al-Baqara, 2/185)

There are many narrations reported from the Prophet (pbuh) about the virtue of the month of Ramadan, how to determine its beginning and end, its duration and the deeds of worship related to this month in hadith resources. (Wensinck, al-Mujam, “rmđ” item)

The Messenger of Allah states that when the month of Ramadan, which he describes as “a blessed month”, starts, the doors of Paradise are opened, the doors of Hell are closed and devils are chained (Bukhari, Sawm, 5; Muslim, Siyam”, 1, 2) and that the previous sins of a person who performs fasting in Ramadan by believing and expecting its reward from Allah will be forgiven. (Bukhari, Sawm, 6; Muslim, Musafirin, 175)

It is stated in narrations that when Ramadan started, a noticeable change occurred in the spiritual life of the Messenger of Allah; he met Jibril and recited the Quran with him in this month, his generosity reached the peak on those days in particular (Bukhari, Sawm, 7; Muslim, Fadail, 50); when the last ten days of the month of Ramadan started, he worshipped at night, awakened his family members and broke off all his relationships with his wives by devoting himself to worshipping only. (Bukhari, Laylatul-Qadr, 5; Muslim, Itikaf, 7, 8)

Answer 2:

The main characteristics of Ramadan, which is regarded as the month of patience, worship, mercy, forgiveness and blessing, and which is welcomed with great enthusiasm and excitement, can be listed as follows:

- The Quran started to be sent in this month; the Night of Power (Qadr), which is stated to be better than one thousand months in the Quran and hadiths, (al-Qadr, 97/3; Nasai, Siyam, 5) is in this month.

- Fasting, which is one of the five principles of Islam, is performed in this month. (al-Baqara, 2/183-185; Bukhari, Sawm, 1; Muslim, Iman, 8)

- Tarawih prayer, about which the Prophet (pbuh) says if a person performs it by believing and expecting its reward from Allah, his sins will be forgiven, which he himself performed and showed that it was sunnah for his ummah (Bukhari, Salatut-Tarawih, 1, 2; Muslim, Musafirin, 173-178) is a deed of prayer peculiar to this month.

- Fitrah (sadaqah al-fitr), which is a financial deed of worship, is to be paid at the end of this month and before eid. There are hadiths stating that other charities done in this month gain man more thawabs and are more virtuous than other months.  (Bukhari, Sawm, 7; Muslim, Fadail, 50) Therefore, Muslims generally give zakah in this month though it does not have to be given only in Ramadan.

- It is sunnah to observe itikaf at the end of this month. It is stated in the resources that the Messenger of Allah remained in itikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan, that he continued this practice until he died and that his wives also observed itikaf after him. (Bukhari, Itikaf, 1; Muslim, Itikaf, 5)

- It is stated in some hadiths that he who performs umrah in this month will receive the reward of hajj (Bukhari, Umrah, 4; Muslim, Hajj, 221-222) and that the other deeds of worship and charities will be given more rewards compared to the other months. (Musnad, 1/224, 338-339; 2/75, 131)

 - It is regarded mustahab to read the Quran a lot and to meditate in the month of Ramadan, which is called the month of the Quran. The practice of muqabala, which is based on the reciting of the Quran by the Prophet and Jibril to each other, is one of the traditions peculiar to this month.

Answer 3:

The verses of the Quran about Ramadan and fasting:

“Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur´an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.” (al-Baqara, 2/185)

“O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint.” (al-Baqara, 2/183)

“(Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (Should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (With hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew.” (al-Baqara, 2/184)

“Those that turn (to Allah) in repentance; that serve Him, and praise Him; that wander in devotion to the cause of Allah,: that bow down and prostrate themselves in prayer; that enjoin good and forbid evil; and observe the limit set by Allah;- (These do rejoice). So proclaim the glad tidings to the Believers.” (at-Tawba, 9/112)

“Permitted to you, on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives. They are your garments and ye are their garments. Allah knoweth what ye used to do secretly among yourselves; but He turned to you and forgave you; so now associate with them, and seek what Allah Hath ordained for you, and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your fast Till the night appears; but do not associate with your wives while ye are in retreat in the mosques. Those are Limits (set by) Allah: Approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His Signs to men: that they may learn self-restraint.” (al-Baqara, 2/187)

Some hadiths about Ramadan and fasting:

“Islam is based upon five principles: the testimony that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger, the establishment of the salah, giving zakah, fasting the month of Ramadan, and performing Hajj.” (Tirmidhi, Iman 3)

“There are two pleasures for the fasting person: one at the time of breaking his fast, and the other at the time when he will meet his Lord.” (Bukhari, Sawm, 2)

“When it is the month of Ramadan, the gates of Paradise are opened, the gates of Hell are locked and the devils are chained.” (Muslim, Siyam 2)

“If a fasting person does not give up telling lies and evil deeds, Allah is not in need of his leaving his food and drink.” (Bukhari, Sawm, 8)

“Perform fasting and be healthy!” (at-Targhib wat-Tarhib, 2/83)

“It is a blessing to get up for suhoor. Do not abandon it even if you drink only a sip of water because Allah shows mercy to those who wake up for suhoor.” (Musnad, 3/44)

“Perform fasting. Doubtlessly, fasting is a shield against hellfire and the evil deeds and misfortunes of the world." (Jamius-Saghir, 4/212)

 “Whoever fasts a day in the cause of Allah, Allah shall put between him and Hell a trench whose distance is like that between the heavens and the earth.” (Tirmidhi, Jihad 3)

“If a person does not fast one day in the month of Ramadan without being ill or having an excuse, he cannot compensate for it even if he fasts all the time.” (Bukhari, Sawm 29)

“If a person worships on Laylatul-Qadr (Night of Power) with faith and expecting reward from Allah, all his previous sins will be forgiven." (Muslim, Musafirin 174; Abu Dawud, Salat 318; Tirmidhi, Sawm 83)

“When the Messenger of Allah was asked when Laylatul-Qadr (Night of Power) was, he said it was in the whole Ramadan.” (Abu Dawud, Salah, 324)

“May a man upon whom Ramadan enters and then passes before he is forgiven be humiliated! And may a man whose parents reached old age in his presence and they were not a cause for his entrance to Paradise be humiliated! And may a man before whom I am mentioned - and he does not send salawat upon me - be humiliated!” (Tirmidhi, Daawat 110)

“If anyone forgets that he is fasting and eats or drinks he should complete his fast because it is only Allah who has fed him and given him drink." (Muslim, Siyam 171)

“Whoever provides the food for a fasting person to break his fast with, for him is the same reward as his (the fasting person's), without anything being diminished from the reward of the fasting person." (Tirmidhi, Sawm 82)

“Fasting is half of patience.” (Ibn Majah, Siyam 44)

“Whoever fasts Ramadan, then follows it with six from Shawwal, that is (equal in reward) to fasting the whole year.” (Tirmidhi, Sawm 53; Abu Dawud, Sawm 58)

“The five (daily) prayers, one Friday prayer to the next Friday prayer, one Ramadan to the next Ramadan are expiations for the sins committed in between provided one shuns the major sins.” (Muslim, Taharah 14; Tirmidhi, Salah 160)

“Fasting is a shield. When any one of you fasts, he should neither use obscene language nor do any act of ignorance. And if anyone slanders him or quarrels with him, he should say: ‘I am fasting, I am fasting.’” (Muslim, Siyam 164)

“There is a gate called Rayyan in Paradise. Only those who fast enter through it. When those who fast have entered, it will be closed and nobody else can enter through it after that." (Tirmidhi, Sawm 5)

“Fasting during the winter is an easy reward.” (Tirmidhi, Sawm 74)

“There will first be turmoil for a person in regard to his family, his property, his own self, his children, his neighbors. Fasting, prayer, charity, enjoining good and prohibiting evil will be atonement for that turmoil.” (Muslim, Fitan 17; Tirmidhi, Fitan 71)

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