Why did the Prophet divorce Fatima bint Dahhak?

The Details of the Question

- Is it true that the Prophet married FATIMA bint DAHHAK and divorced her 6 months later because she did not fully comply with hijab (tasattur)?
- Will you give information about the wives of the Prophet that he divorced while he was alive?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

There are some women whom the Prophet (pbuh) wanted to marry but then gave up marrying or married but did not have any sexual intercourse with. Although there are various narrations about their names and numbers, it is stated that the narrations about them other than Fatima bint Dahhak and Asma bint Numan are not certain. (1)

Kilabiyya, Fatima bint Dahhak

The name of this woman, who is from Sons of Kilab, is debatable. Some says her name was Fatıma bint ad-Dahhak b. Sufyan al-Kilabi while others say it was Amra bint Yazid (2); some others say her name was Aliy bint Zubyan (3) or Saba bint Sufyan. (4)

Among those narrations, it seems more likely that Kilabiyya was Fatima bint Dahhak. (5)

However, the disputes over her name are difficult to solve since historians regard it enough to attribute a woman to only the tribe she belongs to, as a reflection of the Arab tradition.

According to the widespread view, the Prophet (pbuh) married her in March 8 H / 630 AD, while returning from Jirana. (6)

Before the Prophet (pbuh) went to bed with his wives, he would visit them, open their faces and kiss them, win their hearts and establish a close relationship with them. When he married Kilabiyya and entered the room, she said to him, “A’udhu billahi minka / I seek refuge in Allah from you.” Thereupon, the Prophet said, “You took refuge in the greatest one; go back to your family!” (7)

The marriage that started in Jirana ended in the same place. (8)

The Prophet divorced Kilabiyya because she took refuge from him. After she was divorced by the Prophet, she realized that she had made a mistake and said that she was unlucky and unfortunate for it. (9)

What was effective in the Prophet’s (pbuh) divorcing Kilabiyya should be related to her sentence starting with “A’udhu”.

The A’udhu phrase, which the heart must approve while entering the religion of Islam, is the key written in Lawh al-Mahfuz (Preserved Tablet). It is the motto that opens every door and banishes every misfortune. Something from which it is necessary to be secure is referred to the protection and assurance of Allah with A’udhu. When someone begs using it, he cannot be ignored. It is unthinkable that a Prophet of tawhid (oneness) who struggles to spread the creed of tawhid to the hearts, can forget the value of that phrase related to an issue about himself. In addition, it should not be forgotten that one seeks refuge in Allah from the evil of Satan, who was expelled, cursed, condemned and would be punished.

The meaning conveyed with that phrase is known by everyone.

The damage to the family home by a woman who uses the key of the creed of tawhid haphazardly, who does not assess the meaning of the words she utters and who does not act based on her mind is like an incurable disease. The fastest and easiest way to return from such a marriage is to end the marriage before any sexual intercourse. Besides, Allah provided conveniences for that night, without making them need each other, and gave the woman the opportunity to leave by taking her mahr so ​​that she would not be wronged.

Finally, it should be known that although the Prophet (pbuh) was a human being, his rights and duties were not like normal people. He was given some special things that were rendered fard and haram for him. When such a heavy burden was placed on the Prophet, his wives also had their own rights.

“O Consorts of the Prophet! If any of you were guilty of evident unseemly conduct, the Punishment would be doubled to her, and that is easy for Allah.” (al-Ahzab, 33/30)

As it is stated in the verse above, their mistakes are not welcomed like those of normal women. Their minor mistakes can be excused, but major mistakes that are not suitable for prophethood are not allowed.

Those who attribute the polygamy of the Prophet (pbuh) to sexuality should also take those narrations into account. He did not look at the beauty or the feminine side of the women he married; he attached importance to whether they lived according to Allah’s decrees or not. When a woman he married deviated from the divine path, he would divorce her. If lustful feelings had prevailed in his marriages, he would not have exited from the bridal chamber without having a sexual intercourse. In fact, he was in charge of doing what he was commanded. The main purpose of his polygamy was not to satisfy his sensual feelings, but to leave an exemplary family picture behind by practicing the Islamic family model as a whole.

References:

1) see TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi, Ummuhatul-muminin item.
2) Ibn Ishaq, as-Siratun-Nabawiyya, thq. Ahmad Farid al-Mazidi, Beirut: Darul-Ilmiyya, p. 286; Ibn Hisham, as-Siratun-Nabawiyya, transl: Hasan Ege. Istanbul: Kahraman Yayınları, 4/401; Ibn Habib, Kitabul-Muhabbar, thq. Elisa Lichtenstadter, Beirut, p. 96; Mawardi, Kitabul-Hawil-Kabir. Beirut: Darul-Fikr, 9/62.
3) Dhahabi, Siyaru Alamun-Nubala. Cairo: Darul-Hadith, 3/501; Abul-Fida, as-Siratun-Nabawiyya, thq. Mustafa Abdulwahid, 3/379.
4) Ibn Sa’d, at-Tabaqatul-Kubra, thq. Ali Muhammad Umar. Cairo: Maktabatul-Hanji, 10/136; Hakim, al-Mustadrak ‘alas-Sahihayn, Beirut: Darul-Kutubil-Ilmiyya, 4/38.
5) M. S. Lashin, Azwajun-Nabi Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam. Riyad: Maktabatul-Maarif, p. 10.
6) Ibnul-Athir, Jamiul-Usul fi Ahadithir-Rasul, thq. Bashir Uyun, Beirut: Darul-Fikr, 12/103.
7) Ibn Sa’d, 10/137; Ibnul-Athir, 1991: 2/285.
8) Balazuri, Ansabul-Ashraf, thq. Suhayli Zakkar-Riyad Zirikli. Beirut, Darul-Fikr, 2/92.
9) Ibn Sad, 8/142; Ibn Abdilbar, Istiab, 4/1900; Ibn Hajar, Isaba, 4/382. See also Hakan Temir, Hz. Peygamber’in Zifaf Gerçekleşmeden Boşadığı İddia Edilen veya Vefatıyla Boş Kalan Hanımlar, Ordu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, 8(3), 587-593, November 2018.

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