What is the full narration of the hadith stating that the first part of Ramadan brings Allah’s mercy, the middle of it brings His forgiveness and the last part of it brings emancipation from Hell?

The Details of the Question

وهو شهر أوله رحمة وأوسطه مغفرة وآخره عتق من النار The first part of Ramadan brings Allah’s mercy, the middle of it brings His forgiveness and the last part of it brings emancipation from Hell:
- What is the full narration of the hadith above?
- Can you give full takhrij (extraction and authentication) of it?
- What is the degree of soundness of it?
- If it is weak, why is it regarded as weak?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

The full narration of the hadith reported from Salman al-Farisi is as follows:

خَطَبَنَا رَسُولُ اللهِ  صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي آخِرِ يَوْمٍ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَقَالَ: أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ أَظَلَّكُمْ شَهْرٌ عَظِيمٌ، شَهْرٌ مُبَارَكٌ، شَهْرٌ فِيهِ لَيْلَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ، جَعَلَ اللَّهُ صِيَامَهُ فَرِيضَةً، وَقِيَامَ لَيْلِهِ تَطَوُّعًا، مَنْ تَقَرَّبَ فِيهِ بِخَصْلَةٍ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ، كَانَ كَمَنْ أَدَّى فَرِيضَةً فِيمَا سِوَاهُ، وَمَنْ أَدَّى فِيهِ فَرِيضَةً كَانَ كَمَنْ أَدَّى سَبْعِينَ فَرِيضَةً فِيمَا سِوَاهُ، وَهُوَ شَهْرُ الصَّبْرِ، وَالصَّبْرُ ثَوَابُهُ الْجَنَّةُ، وَشَهْرُ الْمُوَاسَاةِ، وَشَهْرٌ يَزْدَادُ فِيهِ رِزْقُ الْمُؤْمِنِ، مَنْ فَطَّرَ فِيهِ صَائِمًا كَانَ مَغْفِرَةً لِذُنُوبِهِ وَعِتْقَ رَقَبَتِهِ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَكَانَ لَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يَنْتَقِصَ مِنْ أَجْرِهِ شَيْءٌ» ، قَالُوا: لَيْسَ كُلُّنَا نَجِدُ مَا يُفَطِّرُ الصَّائِمَ، فَقَالَ: يُعْطِي اللَّهُ هَذَا الثَّوَابَ مَنْ فَطَّرَ صَائِمًا عَلَى تَمْرَةٍ، أَوْ شَرْبَةِ مَاءٍ، أَوْ مَذْقَةِ لَبَنٍ، وَهُوَ شَهْرٌ أَوَّلُهُ رَحْمَةٌ، وَأَوْسَطُهُ مَغْفِرَةٌ، وَآخِرُهُ عِتْقٌ مِنَ النَّارِ، مَنْ خَفَّفَ عَنْ مَمْلُوكِهِ غَفَرَ اللَّهُ لَهُ، وَأَعْتَقَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَاسْتَكْثِرُوا فِيهِ مِنْ أَرْبَعِ خِصَالٍ: خَصْلَتَيْنِ تُرْضُونَ بِهِمَا رَبَّكُمْ، وَخَصْلَتَيْنِ لَا غِنًى بِكُمْ عَنْهُمَا، فَأَمَّا الْخَصْلَتَانِ اللَّتَانِ تُرْضُونَ بِهِمَا رَبَّكُمْ: فَشَهَادَةُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَتَسْتَغْفِرُونَهُ، وَأَمَّا اللَّتَانِ لَا غِنًى بِكُمْ عَنْهمَا: فَتُسْأَلُونَ اللَّهَ الْجَنَّةَ، وَتَعُوذُونَ بِهِ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَمَنْ أَشْبَعَ فِيهِ صَائِمًا سَقَاهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ حَوْضِي شَرْبَةً لَا يَظْمَأُ حَتَّى يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ 

"On the last day of Shaban, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) addressed us and state the following:

- O People! There comes upon you now a great month, a most blessed month, in which lies a night greater in worth than one thousand months. It is a month in which Allah has made it compulsory to fast by day and wants us to worship by night.

Whoever tries drawing nearer to Allah by performing any virtuous deed in this month, for him shall be such reward as if he had performed a far in any other time of the year. And whoever performs a farḍ in this month, for him shall be the reward of seventy farḍs in any other time of the year.

This is the month of patience, and the reward for true patience is Paradise. It is the charity and good deeds; it is the month wherein a true believers sustenance is increased.

Whosoever feeds a fasting person in order to break the fast (at sunset), for him there shall be forgiveness of his sins and emancipation from the fire of Hell; and for him shall be the same reward as for him (whom he fed), without that person’s reward being diminished in the least.”

Thereupon the Companions said:

- Not all of us can find food to feed a fasting person in order to break the fast. 

The Prophet (pbuh) said,

- Allah grants this same reward to him who gives a fasting person a single date or a drink of water or a sip of milk to break the fast.

This is a month the first part of which brings Allah’s mercy, the middle of which brings His forgiveness and the last part of which brings emancipation from Hell.

Whoever lessens the burden of his slave/servant in this month, Allah will free him from Hell.

And in this month, four things you should endeavor to perform in great number; you will please your Lord with two of them and you need the other two.

The two things with which you will please your Lord are that you should witness that there is no god but Allah and to beg Allah’s forgiveness with astaghfirullah.

The two things that you need are that you should ask Allah for entry into Paradise and seek refuge in Him from Hell.”

Whoever gives a person who fasts food, Allah shall grant him from my hawd (fountain) such a drink that he shall never again feel thirsty until he enters Paradise.” (see Ibn Khuzayma, Sahih; Bayhaqi, Shuabul-Iman, 5/223; as-Saati, al-Fathur-Rabbani, 9/233; al-Hindi, Kanzul-Ummal, 8/477)

- That hadith is regarded as weak because there is a weak narrator called Ali b. Zayd b. Judan in its chain of narrators. That narrator is regarded as weak by hadith authorities like Imam Ahmad, Abu Zur’a, Daraqutni, Yahya b. Main and Sufyan b. Uyayna. (see Ibn Abi Hatim, al-Jarhu wat-Ta’dil, 6/186-187)

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