What can be done as charity, prayer and favor for a dead person? What supplications and chapters along with the chapter of Yasin should be read to decrease a dead person’s penalty in the grave?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

There are a lot of hadiths stating that what a person does when he is alive will reach him after his death and encouraging people to do charity when they are alive. (1) The Prophet (pbuh) indicated this by saying,

"When a man dies, his acts come to an end, but the rewards of three deeds continue: recurring charity, knowledge from which people benefit, and a pious child, who prays for him."(2)

In a narration reported from Abu Hurayra, the Prophet (pbuh) increased the number of deeds by explaining recurring charity:

"What reaches a believer after his death from his deeds and charity is as follows: the knowledge he has taught and spread, a pious child, the Quran (Mushaf) he has left as inheritance, a house he has built for travelers, a stream he has let flow and sadaqah he has given."(3)

He states the following in another hadith:

"Three things follow a person to the grave: His family, wealth and deeds. Two of them return but one of them remains. His family and wealth return but his deeds remain with him forever." (4)

As it is understood from this hadith and similar ones (5), man will benefit from what he did or enabled others to do in the world. All scholars agree unanimously on it. (6) However, they disagree about whether the deeds that others do for him after his death will reach him or not or which ones of them will reach him. 

Mu'tazila madhhab claims that nothing that the living people do will be useful for the dead. (7) They show verses like the following ones as evidence for their claim:

"That man can have nothing but what he strives for." (8)

"…Ye shall but be repaid the meeds of your past deeds." (9)

"It gets every good that it earns, and it suffers every ill that it earns." (10)

However, Ahl as-Sunnah scholars disagree about what deeds will be useful and what will not. They agree that the deeds done by others will be useful to the dead. For, there are clear verses and hadiths showing that some deeds and charities will be beneficial to the dead. For example, the following verse indicates that supplication (dua) and asking for forgiveness will be useful:

"And those who came after them say: "Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith, and leave not, in our hearts, rancor (or sense of injury) against those who have believed..." (11)

Allah Almighty praises the believers who ask forgiveness for their believing brothers who died before them. If asking for forgiveness had not been beneficial to the dead people, Allah would not have praised them. (12)

The Prophet said,

"When you perform janazah prayer, pray for the dead person heartily." (13)

He prayed for the dead in the janazah prayers that he led. If that prayer and supplication had not been beneficial to the dead, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would not have done it and would not have ordered others to do so. (14) However, he himself prayed as follows while leading the janazah prayer of a person:

"O Allah, so and so, son of so and so, is in Your protection. So, guard him from the trial in the grave and hellfire. You are faithful and worthy of praise. O Allah, forgive him and show him mercy. You are the forgiving and the merciful one." (15)

Besides, janazah prayer itself is a supplication. The intention is made by saying I intend to perform a prayer for Allah and to say prayers for the dead person. If it is not beneficial to the spirit of the dead person, it is meaningless.

The Prophet himself visited Baqi graveyard from time to time and greeted the people in the grave. (16) If his greeting had not reached them, he would have done something useless; he is free and away from doing something useless.

It is necessary to deal with the benefits of the worshipping and charities done for the dead by the living in two aspects:

Firstly: Whether the dead person was freed from his debts or not. If a person dies with debts of prayer, fasting, hajj, zakah and debts to other people, is he freed from those debts if the living people pay those debts – whether the dead person willed or not?

Secondly: Whether the rewards of the deeds of worshipping performed by others will reach the dead person or not. Fiqh scholars divide worshipping into three:

a) Deeds of worship done by the body like prayer and fasting: Those debts will not be written off when others do them; their responsibility will continue.

b) Financial deeds of worship and debts like zakah, vow and financial atonement: Those debts will be written off when others pay them.

c) Deeds of worshipping that are done by both money and body like hajj: If a living person performs it on behalf of a dead person, he will be cleared of his debts. However, the inheritors do not have to do it. Nevertheless, according to Imam Shafii, they have to do it if the dead person willed.

According to mujtahids like Ahmad b. Hanbal, Awzai, Abu Thawr and Nawawi, and the majority of hadith scholars, it is permissible for the relatives of the dead person to perform his debts of fasting, hajj and other deeds of worshipping.

The majority of the Islamic scholars are convinced and hold the view that the deeds of worshipping performed with the intention of donating the thawabs to the dead are permissible and that the dead can benefit from them. (17)

In order to make the issue understood better, we will try to list what others can do to benefit the dead:  

1. Paying the debt of the dead:

One of the most important things others can and need to do is to pay his debts so that he will be freed from the responsibility of the rights of others. For, the following is stated in a hadith: 

"The believer's spirit is suspended by his debt until it is settled for him."(18)

Therefore, if the dead person has left any inheritance, his debts are paid from it. (19) Thus, when the debt of the dead person is paid, it will be beneficial to him and he will be freed from his debt. The person to pay the debt does not have to be a relative. He will be freed from debt no matter who pays his debt. (20)

2. Prayer (Dua) and asking for forgiveness:

One of the greatest favors that can be done for a dead person is to pray for him and asking for forgiveness. As a matter of fact, Abu Usayd Malik Ibn Rabia as-Saidi asked the Prophet,

"O Messenger of Allah! Is there any kindness left that I can do to my parents after their death?" The Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Yes, you can invoke blessings on them, ask forgiveness for them, carry out their final instructions after their death, join ties of relationship which are dependent on them, and honor their friends." (21)

Moreover,

"And those who came after them say: Our Lord! Forgive us, and our brethren who came before us into the Faith,..."(22)

The verse above and similar ones prove that janazah prayer, supplications and asking for forgiveness will be beneficial to the dead. (23)

Taking into consideration the verses and hadiths regarding the issue (24), the scholars agree unanimously that supplications and asking for forgiveness will be beneficial to the dead. However, it is necessary for the person for whom prayers are said to be a believer. (25) For, nothing will be beneficial to those who are not believers. Besides, it is not legitimate to pray for them. (26) According to Imam Ash'ari, Hadith scholars and the majority of Ahl as-Sunnah accept that supplications and charity will be beneficial to Muslims after their death. (27) In that case, supplication is legitimate and useful. (28)

The following is stated in one of the most famous hadiths regarding the issue reported from Abu Hurayra in Muslim:

"When a man dies, his acts come to an end, but the rewards of three deeds continue: recurring charity, knowledge from which people benefit, and a pious child, who prays for him." (29)

We understand the following from the hadith above:

     a. To do righteous deeds like building roads, bridges, mosques, fountains, to establish foundations, to build schools and dormitories where students that will use them in the best and most efficient way will be brought up is called recurrent charity; as long as those charities continue, the same amount of thawabs obtained by the people brought up in those institutions will be written in the books of deeds of those who established them up to the Day of Judgment since they started a good deed – as it is stated by the Prophet (pbuh).

    b. The books written by scholars are also regarded as recurrent charity. The scholar gets his rewards from them based on his capacity. Besides, supporting scholars and students, to buy books, notebooks, food and clothes for them are also regarded as recurrent charity.   

     c. The person who dies and his spirit want a righteous son/daughter that will do charity after him and bring up righteous descendants. Only such descendants can be beneficial to them in the hereafter. The dead person does not expect halwa, sweets, seventh night, fifty-second night, mawlid, khatm al-Quran read by others in return for money, suggestion, money paid for his missed prayers or an old photograph hung on the wall. 

3. Giving sadaqah:

Ahl as-Sunnah scholars agree unanimously that sadaqah will be beneficial to the dead person. There are hadiths (30) of the Prophet (pbuh) indicating this. (31)

The following is stated in a hadith narrated by Ibn Abbas:

"Somebody came and asked,

"O Messenger of Allah! My mother died. Will it be beneficial to her if I give sadaqah for her?" The Prophet said,

"Yes." The man said,

"I have an orchard. I want you to be a witness that I am giving it away for my mother." (32)

It is stated that scholars agree unanimously that the thawab of the sadaqah given whether by a close relative of the dead person like his child or any other person will reach the dead person. (33)

What sadaqah is more virtuous is expressed in the hadith of Sa'd Ibn Ubada. Sa'd narrates: I asked,

"O Messenger of Allah! My mother died. What sadaqah will be more beneficial to her?" The Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Water." Thereupon, Sa'd dug a well and said,

"This well is for Sa'd's mother."(34)

This hadith is one of the evidences showing that charity can be done on behalf of the dead. In the narration included in Nasai, Sa'd first asks whether he can give sadaqah for his mother. When he was given a positive answer, he asked what sadaqah was more virtuous. Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) said, "Water." (35)

It is more virtuous for those who want to give nafilah sadaqah to make niyyah for all believing men and women. For, its thawab will reach them and his thawab will not decrease. (36)

4. Debts of fasting of the dead being performed by his relatives:

Two cases are in question about a person who dies with debts of Ramadan fasting:

     a. He dies before performing fasting for the days he has missed in Ramadan due to lack of time, illness, being on a journey and being too weak to fast: According to the majority of the scholars, nothing is necessary for it because the dead person has no fault about it; therefore, he is not regarded as a sinner. He could not have the opportunity to perform that fasting before he died. Therefore, his debt is removed without any money like in hajj. Thus, if a person dies when he is ill or when he is on a journey, qada is not necessary for the days that he could not fast.  

     b. If a person dies with debt of fasting after having the opportunity to perform them as qada but has not done so, his guardian cannot perform fasting for him. According to the majority of fiqh scholars, it is not wajib to perform fasting for the missed fasting of a dead person. According to Shafiis, if his guardian fasts for him, it is not valid because fasting is a deed done by the body. It was rendered fard by the shari’ah. It cannot be performed by anybody else on behalf of a person whether he is dead or alive. It is like prayer in this aspect. The following is stated in a hadith regarding the issue:

"Nobody can perform prayers and fasting on behalf of another person. However, one can give one mudd (it is a unit that changes from country to country; it is about eighteen liters according to Iraqis) of food to the poor on behalf of the person who cannot fast for each day." (37)

According to Hanbalis, it is permissible for the guardian to perform fasting on behalf of the dead. For, it is a more cautious deed in terms of enabling the dead person to be saved. (38)

In a hadith related to the issue, Hz. Aisha states that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"If a person dies with a debt of fasting, his guardian performs fasting for him." (39)

In a hadith narrated by Jabir Ibn Abdullah, a woman came to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and said that her mother died before performing fasting that she had vowed. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "Let her guardian perform fasting on behalf of her." (40)

In another hadith mentioned in Bukhari and Muslim, it is stated that a woman died with a debt of one month fasting; her son came to the Prophet (pbuh) and asked him, "Is it appropriate if I fast on behalf of her?" The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to him, "If you mother had a debt, would you pay it?" He said, "Yes." Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) said, "The debt to Allah deserves to be paid more." (41)

Fasting is a deed of worshipping done by the body. Since fasting is mentioned here and it is stated that the thawab of the fasting performed by others will reach the dead person, scholars disagree whether the same thing is valid in other deeds of worship done by the body. Acting upon the hadiths narrated about fasting, some scholars decree that even the debts of fasting of Ramadan, which is fard, of the dead can be performed by the living people while some other scholars hold the view that only fasting of vow can be performed by others. (42)

Regarding fasting on behalf of the dead, Ahmed Ibn Hanbal states that the guardian can perform fasting of Ramadan, vow and atonement on behalf of the dead. According to Imam Malik, Shafii and Abu Hanifa, the guardian of the dead person needs to give sadaqah of one sa' (unit of weight equal to a thousand dirhams) of barley or half sa' of wheat for each day of missed fasting. Similarly, the same amount needs to be given as sadaqah for every prayer (or prayers of one day). However, the majority of the scholars state that deeds of worship done by the body cannot be performed on behalf of the dead by others. (43)

However, acting upon the anxiety that opening such a door to people will cause people to ignore the deeds of worship they have to do when they are healthy and alive, some scholars say, "the guardians cannot perform any fasting on behalf of the dead but that they can only pay kaffarah for them." (44)

5. Hajj to be performed on behalf of a dead person:

A person can perform hajj for a dead person and can donate its thawab to him. As a matter of fact, in a hadith reported from Burayda in Abu Dawud, a woman asked the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) whether she can perform hajj for her mother who died before performing hajj, he said, "Yes, perform hajj on behalf of her." Thus, he allowed her to perform hajj for her mother. (45)

The majority of the scholars says deeds of worshipping done by the body cannot be performed by others on behalf of a person but they regard only hajj permissible to be performed by others due to the person’s weakness. What is meant by weakness is death or no hope of recovery; an invalid person is weak. Some scholars say nafilah hajj can be performed for a dead person. (46)

In another hadith, it is stated that the deeds of worshipping performed on behalf of a dead person will pay his debts and that this good news will be given to the spirit of the dead person in the sky: Zayd Ibn Arkam narrates:

"Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said,

"If a person performs hajj on behalf of his father or mother, he pays the debt of him or her. This good news is given to the spirit of the dead person in the sky. Even if this person was disobedient to his parents, he would be written among the good slaves in the eye of Allah due to this good deed."

The following is stated in another narration:

"One hajj is written for his father and seven hajjs are written for himself." (47)

The meaning mentioned in those narrations indicates the permissibility performing a deed of worship and donating its thawab to the dead. It is hoped from the vast mercy of Allah Almighty that He will forgive His slaves that came to him with debts thanks to that thawab; otherwise, the people who abandon worshipping when they were healthy and die like that will be called to account and punished. 

As Ibn Qudama states, a dead person can benefit from the deeds of worship that are done by others and whose thawabs are donated to him. For, deeds of worship like fasting, supplication, asking for forgiveness and hajj are done by the body. Allah conveys the thawabs of such deeds and others to the dead. (48)

However, there must be a legitimate excuse for these debts of worshipping like not being able to perform fasting in Ramadan because of being ill and not recovering enough to perform fasting before death. Allah will forgive those people who missed fasting due to a legitimate excuse when others pay his debt, not those who skip worshipping deliberately. (49)

6. Sacrificing an animal for a dead person:

It is permissible to sacrifice an animal, to give away its meat and donate the thawab to a dead person. The following incident shows that it is permissible to sacrifice an animal in the absence of a dead person and to donate the thawab to him. Hanash narrates:

"I saw Hz. Ali. He sacrificed two rams." He said,

"One of them is for me and the other for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)." He added,

"The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) willed it. I will never give up doing it as long as I am alive." (50)

The animal Hz. Ali sacrificed was after the death of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).  Abu Dawud includes this hadith in the chapter called "sacrifice on behalf of the dead". Tirmidhi states that some scholars regard it permissible to sacrifice animals for the dead and that others do not.  

Besides, it is stated in various narrations that the Prophet (pbuh) sacrificed animals for the people from his ummah who witnessed Allah’s oneness and his prophethood. (51)

Since the Prophet (pbuh) sacrificed animals for the dead people and donated the thawab to them, it is thought that the dead become aware of the charities done on behalf of them and that they benefit from their thawabs. However, many people sacrifice animals next to the graves in order to please the dead and attain what they wish; they devote it to the dead, which is a wrong belief and a bid’ah. Therefore, the Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Sacrificing cattle, camels and sheep in the graveyard does not exist in Islam." (52)

Thus, he prohibited it. For, sacrificing an animal is a deed of worship, which is done only for Allah. Therefore, an animal sacrificed for a grave or a saint lying in a tomb does not gain man any thawabs; on the contrary, it is a deed that can remove man’s belief and make him a polytheist. It is definitely necessary to avoid it. (53) It is a custom dating back to the Era of Jahiliyya. For, the Arabs living in that period used to sacrifice a cattle, camel or sheep next to the grave at certain times or as soon as a dead person was buried and give away the meat. As a matter of fact, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, 

"Avoid opposing the religion. Everything introduced to the religion afterwards is a bid’ah and every bid’ah is a cause of deviation." (54)

Thus, he warned us against bid’ahs. He also said, "I leave to you two things that you will not go astray as long as you adhere to them: The book of Allah and the Sunnah of the prophets..."(55) Thus, he advised us to adhere to the Quran and the Sunnah so as not to fall into bid’ahs and deviation. (56)

7. Reading the Quran and donating its thawab to the dead:

Scholars disagree whether the thawabs of the deeds of worshipping like performing prayers and reading the Quran can reach others and they put forward two views:

According to Hanafi and Hanbali scholars and the scholars of Shafii and Maliki madhabs who came later, the thawab of the Quran read next to the grave and the supplication made after reading the Quran reaches the dead person even if he is not there. To say prayers after reading the Quran is hoped to be accepted more.  

The view of the previous Maliki fiqh scholars and the famous view of Shafiis is that the thawab of worshipping does not reach anyone except the one who does it.

According to Hanafis, man can donate the thawab of a deed he has done to others; it can be prayer, fasting, sadaqah and any similar deed. Donating their thawabs to the dead does not decrease his own thawab.  

According to Hanbalis, it is permissible to read the Quran next to the grave.

According to Malikis, it is makruh to read the Quran after a person dies or next to his grave. For, salaf did not do something like that. However, according to the Malikis, who came later, it is permissible to read the Quran, make dhikr and to donate the thawab to the dead. Thawabs will reach the dead with the permission of Allah.  

According to the famous view of Shafiis, only his own deeds will be beneficial to the dead person. However, Shafii fiqh scholars that came later made explanations stating that the thawab of reading the Quran will reach the dead. Thus, the view of the fiqh scholars of Shafiis that came later is in compliance with the view of the other three madhhabs.

Since reading the Quran benefits the living people for a certain purpose, it is more likely to benefit the dead. According to Ibn Salah, it is more appropriate for a person who reads the Quran to say "O Allah! Convey the thawab of the Quran I have read to such and such person" and to render the Quran a supplication. It does not matter whether the dead person is near or far away. It is necessary to believe that it will be useful. (57) As a matter of fact, the Prophet sometimes visited graves and prayed for the people in the grave. A hadith reported from Ibn Abi Shayba regarding the issue is as follows:

"Hz. Prophet (pbuh) went to the graves of the martyrs at Uhud at the beginning of every year and addressed them as follows:

"Greetings and salvation to you for the things that you showed patience!  This is the best result of the world."

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) sometimes went to the cemetery of Baqi and said,

"Peace be upon you, abode of a people who are believers. Greetings to you! God willing we shall join you. I ask health for us and for you and salvation and protection from the fears and troubles of the hereafter." (58)

As it is seen, the Prophet (pbuh) prayed for the people who died and wished health and salvation for them. If the prayers said after the dead people had been useless, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would not have done such a thing. Otherwise, it would have meant the Messenger of Allah did something useless; he is free and away from such useless things. For, as the Quran puts it, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) does not speak out of his own desire. Whatever he says is based on revelation. (59)

It is mustahab for the thawab of the Quran that is read to be sent to the Prophet (pbuh) as a gift first. For, he saved us from deviation. It is a kind of thanking and addressing him nicely. Each of the chapters of al-Fatiha and Yasin and the khatm al-Quran can reach the spirits of countless people at the same time, and all of them can take their shares from it. For, it is not difficult for the power of Allah.  

Some scholars say the thawab of every nice deed reaches the dead as long as the thawab is donated to the dead along with the thawab of the Quran that has been read. (60) However, it is necessary to do them in a way to gain thawabs, that is, for Allah’s sake. That is, it is not appropriate to give money to make others read the Quran and donate the thawab to the dead. For, reading the Quran is a deed of worship. Thawab is gained when worship is done for Allah’s sake, not when it is done for money. Otherwise, there will be no thawabs to donate.

According to the famous view in Maliki and Shafii madhhabs, the thawab of none of the deeds of worship done by the body including reading the Quran reaches the dead but when the Quran is read next to the grave, the dead person receives the thawab of listening since he listens to the Quran. (61)

Some other mujtahids say that the fasting, prayer and hajj done by the children and close relatives only can reach the dead. However, the most appropriate decree is that the dead people of the Muslims will benefit from the thawabs that are donated but without being saved from debts and responsibilities. (62)

However, it is a fact that the dead person will be questioned for the deeds of worship that he skipped and ignored. The dead person will not be saved from all responsibilities when money is given to the poor for his prayers, fasting and vows as some ignorant people think. If they are done properly, one can only hope that when the thawabs of those good deeds are donated, he will be forgiven. (63)

References:

1. Abu Dawud, Wasaya, 3; Tirmidhi, Wasaya, 7.
2. Muslim, Wasiyyat, 14; Abu Dawud, Wasaya, 14; Tirmidhi, Ahkam, 36; Nasai, Wasaya, 8; Darimi, Muqaddima, 4; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 2/372.
3. Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 20.
4. Bukhari, Sahih, Riqaq, 42; Muslim, Sahih, Zuhd, 5.
5. Bukhari, Anbiya, 1; Muslim, Wasiyyat, 3, Ilm, 6; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Wasaya,14, Jihad, 15; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, 2/372 (Maymaniyya-Cairo 1313); Ibn Majah, Sunan, Muqaddima, 20, 1975.
6. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 453, 2nd impression, Sebat Ofset, Konya, 1989.
7. Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, ar-Ruh, 117; Beirut, 1975.
8. An-Najm,53/39.
9. Yasin, 36/54.
10. Al-Baqara, 2/286.
11. Al-Hashr, 59/10.
12. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 453.
13. Abu Dawud, Sunan, Janaiz, 59.
14. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 453.
15. Abu Dawud, Janaiz, 56.
16. Muslim, Janaiz, 103; Ibn Majah, Janaiz, 36; Nasai, Janaiz, 103.
17. Hayrettin Karaman, İslamın Işığında Günün Meseleleri, 105-107, Marifet Publications, 3rd impression, Istanbul, 1984.
18. Tirmidhi, Sunan, Janaiz, 76; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Sadaqat, 12.
19. Abdulqadir Mutlaqur-Rahbawi, Ahiret Günü, 33; Translated by Ahmet Serdaroğlu-Lütfi Şentürk, Nur Publ., 5th impression.
20. Bukhari, Sahih, Hawalat, 3; Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 453.
21. Abu Dawud, Sunan, Adab, 12; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Adab, 2.
22. Al-Hashr, 59/10.
23. Hayrettin Karaman, İslamın Işığında Günün Meseleleri, 107.
24. Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, 2/509,6/252, (Maymaniyya-Cairo 1313); Abu Dawud, Sunan, Janaiz, 72; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Adab, 1.
25. Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqhus-Sunnah, 1/568, Beirut, nd.
26. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 453.
27. Ash'ari, Maqalatul-Islamiyyin, 282.
28. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 453.
29. Muslim, Sahih, Wasiyyat, 3; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Wasaya, 14.
30. Bukhari, Sahih, Janaiz, 94; Muslim, Sahih, Zakah,15; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 2/371.
31. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 453.
32. Bukhari, Sahih, Wasaya, 15, 20, 26.
33. Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqhus-Sunnah, 1/568.
34. Abu Dawud, Sunan, Zakat, 42; Nasai, Sunan, Wasaya, 9.
35. İbrahim Canan, Kütüb-i Sitte Muhtasarı Terceme ve Şerhi, 10/54, Akçağ Publications, Ankara, 1990.
36. Wahba Zuhayli, İslam Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi, (Translated by a committee. Hayat) 3/9; Risale Publications, Istanbul, 1990.
37. Jamaluddin Abi Muhammad Abdillah Ibn Yusuf al-Hanafi az-Zaylai, Nasbur-Raya li Ahadithil-Hidaya, 2/463; Darul-Hadith, Cairo, nd.
38. Wahba Zuhayli, ibid, 3/207-208.
39. Bukhari, Sahih, Sawm, 42; Muslim, Sahih, Siyam, 27.
40. Nasiruddin al-Albani, Silsilatul-Ahadithid-Daifa wal-Mawzua, 1/169-170; Damascus, 1964.
41. Bukhari, Sahih, Sawm, 42; Muslim, Sahih, Siyam, 27.
42. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 459.
43. İbrahim Canan, ibid, 2/488.
44. Nasiruddin al-Albani, Ahkamul-Janaiz, 170; Beirut, 1969.
45. Muslim, Sahih, Siyam, 27.
46. İbrahim Canan, ibid, 2/488.
47. İbrahim Canan, ibid, 2/488.
48. Wahba Zuhayli, ibid, 3/99.
49. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 460-61.
50. Tirmidhi, Dahaya, 2; Abu Dawud, Dahaya, 2.
51. İbrahim Canan, ibid, 6/61.
52. Abu Dawud, Sunan, Janaiz, 70.
53. Ibn Kayyim al-Jawziyya, Zadul-Maad, 1/146; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, 2/379; Shawkani, Naylul-Awtar, 4/97; Sheikh Ali Mahfuz, al-Ibda, 186.
54. Darimi, Muqaddima, 16.
55. Imam Malik, Muwatta', Qadar, 3.
56. İsmail Lütfi Çakan, Hurafeler ve Batıl İnanışlar, 64; Hayrettin Karaman, İslam’ın Işığında Günün Meseleleri, 109; Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 471; Recep Aktaş, İslam Dininin Yasak Ettiği Batıl İnanışlar, 43; Bahar Publications, Istanbul, 1973.
57. Wahba Zuhayli, ibid, 3/98-100.
58. Muslim, Sahih, Janaiz, 102; For different narrations, see: Abu Dawud, Sunan, Janaiz, 79; Nasai, Sunan, Taharah, 109, Janaiz, 103; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Janaiz, 36, Zuhd, 36.
59. An-Najm, 53/3.
60. Sayyid Sabiq, ibid, 1/383.
61. Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 462.
62. Hayrettin Karaman, İslamın Işığında Günün Meseleleri, 108.
63. Azimabadi, Awnul-Ma'bud, 3/160, India Impression, Ayni, Umdatul-Qari, 5/283, Istanbul Impression, Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, 2/423-424; Shawkani, Naylul-Awtar, 4/98-100, Egypt, 1952; Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqhus-Sunnah, 1/567-569, Beirut, 1969; Rashid Riza, 8/255; Seikh Ali Mahfuz, al-Ibda fi Madarril-Ibtida, 235 (4th impression); Süleyman Toprak, Ölümden Sonraki Hayat-Kabir Hayatı, 460.

(Assoc. Prof. Hüdaverdi ADAM, Köprü Magazine, Autumn 2001, Issue: 76)

Questions on Islam

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