Is it permissible if I read adhan and iqamah silently, without moving my lips, when I perform missed (qada) prayers at home?

Details of the Question

Is it permissible if I read adhan and iqamah silently, without moving my lips, when I perform missed (qada) prayers at home?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

They (adhan and iqamah) are Sunnah, not fard. The way of calling them in accordance with the Sunnah is to call them at least with a voice that the person who calls it himself can hear it. The prayer is valid even if it is not read (called) at all. 

It is more virtuous to call both adhan and iqamah in fard prayers that are performed alone at home or in the countryside. However, adhan can be abandoned; only iqamah is enough. It is makruh to abandon iqamah and to call only adhan.

The following hadith is reported from Salman regarding the issue:

“If a person is alone in a deserted place and if the time period for a prayer starts, he should make wudu. If he calls iqamah only, two angels will perform the prayer with him. If he calls both adhan and iqamah, a big congregation from divine armies whose ends cannot be seen will perform the prayer with him.”

• Is it necessary to call adhan and iqamah for each missed prayer when a person performs more than one missed prayer?

• If more than one missed prayer is performed in different places, adhan and iqamah are necessary for each one. If they are performed in the same place, it is more virtuous to call adhan and iqamah for each one but it is enough if a person calls both adhan and iqamah for the first one and only iqamah for the others. 

(Mehmed Dikmen, İslam İlmihali, p. 295)

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