How did the Expedition of Dumatul-Jandal under the command of Abdurrahman bin Awf end up?

The Details of the Question

How did the Expedition of Dumatul-Jandal under the command of Abdurrahman bin Awf end up?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

6th year of the Migration, the month of Shaban.

In this month, the Prophet prepared a company of seven hundred people under the command of Abdurrahman b. Awf. The duty of the company was to call the people of the land of Dumatu’l-Jandal to Islam.

When the Messenger of Allah gave the standard to Abdurrahman b. Awf, he addressed the mujahids after praising Allah:  

“Fight in the way and in the name of Allah! Fight the unbelievers! Do not betray the goods of booty! Do not violate your agreements! Do not cut off the noses, ears and similar organs of the people that you killed! Do not kill small children!” (Ibn Hisham, Sirah, 4:280; Insanu’l-Uyun, 3:184.)

Then, the Prophet preached Muslims in general as follows:

“O people! I take refuge in Allah from five misfortunes that will hit you:

"When ugly acts become widespread and are committed openly in a community, unprecedented diseases, pains and agonies will appear."

"When a nation deals in fraud and gives less than due when they give by measure or weight, they will suffer famine and drought, financial difficulty and oppression."

"If a nation does not pay zakah (alms) for their goods, they will lack rain."

"If a nation violates the treaty of Allah and His Messenger, their enemy will attack on them. The enemy will take some of their possessions."

"When the rulers of a nation do not act in accordance with the Quran, when they avoid applying the decrees of Allah, Allah will cause discord and battles among them.” (Ibn Hisham, Sirah, 4:280)

After that, Abdurrahman b. Awf set off toward Dumatu’l-Jandal together with the Muslims under his command. When he arrived there, he called them to Islam. He repeated his call for three days. On the third day, Asbagh b. Amr al-Kalbi, their leader, who was a Christian, became a Muslim. Many people embraced Islam with him. (Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, 2:89)

Those who did not become Muslims stayed there on condition that they paid jizyah (a kind of tax paid by non-Muslims). When the Prophet saw Abdurrahman b. Awf and the mujahids off, the Prophet had said to him, “If they embrace Islam, marry the daughter of their leader.”

Upon this order of the Prophet, Abdurrahman married Tumadir, the daughter of Asbagh, their leader; then, he returned to Madinah together with her and the Muslims. (Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat 2:89; 3: 129; Insanu’l-Uyun, 3:184.)

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