Did the Prophet Muhammad get furious too?

The Details of the Question

- What did the Prophet advise us in order to overcome our fury and anger?
– What were the incidents and things that infuriated him?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

“Everyone acts according to his own disposition.” [1]

When the verse above

“The children of Adam were created in various classes. Some of them rarely get angry and calm down quickly; some of them get angry quickly and calm down quickly; some of them get angry quickly and it is very difficult to soothe them; they are the worst ones. The best ones are those who rarely get angry and calm down quickly.[2]

and the hadith above are taken into consideration, we see that fury (anger) is a natural feeling, and that it cannot be eliminated but that it can be channeled into a good direction.

From this point of view, it will be appropriate to divide fury into two as the fury that is praised and the fury that is criticized.

The fury that is praised is the one for the religion and the truth. It is one of the good traits. Those who have this trait act according to the orders of the mind and religion where determination and effort are required. However, they control themselves where lenience will be beneficial.[3] Therefore, the Prophet's advice to a companion who said to him, “Give me some advice” as "Do not become furious"[4] should be related to worldly affairs. On the other hand, it becomes even fard to get angry with the unbelievers and the people of wrong religions when it is necessary.

The fury that is criticized is the one that occurs unjustly. As a result of such fury, harming a person and taking revenge occur, which can be defined as aggression. What draws our attention here is the issue that fury (anger) was created from fire. When we think of the description of anger as heat coming from the liver, and the boiling of blood in the heart together with the issue that Satan, whom the Islamic doctrine regards as the first and most ferocious enemy of man, was created from fire, it  becomes evident how meaningful it is.

As a matter of fact, Ghazali pointed to this issue and said, “There is a vein in human that attracts Satan. A person who becomes furious becomes close to Satan.”[5]

The hadith of the Messenger of Allah that fury is of Satan[6] should be about the fury that is criticized. The believers are described as follows: in the Quran:

“When they are angry even then forgive”[7],
“They restrain anger, and pardon (all) men.”[8]

All believers are given the following advice along with the Prophet (pbuh):

“Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; But turn away from the ignorant”.[9]

In addition, it is stated that anyone who overcomes his anger even though he has enough power to take revenge will be called first by Allah on the Day of Judgment and will be rewarded.[10]

The Ways of Treating Anger

We see the practical advice of the Prophet related to the anger that is criticized. He advises us to seek refuge in Allah from Satan, who is the source of mischief and the main cause of anger/fury.[11]

 “Fury is of Satan; Satan was created from fire; fire is extinguished with water; when one of you becomes furious, he should make wudu.”[12]

Thus, he states that making wudu will soothe the fury.  

Stating that fury is a piece of ember in the heart of humanity, the Prophet recommends that a person who gets furious should stick to soil[13]. Imam Ghazali interprets this advice as follows: “Man will think that he was created from soil and hence attain peace”.[14]

Another suggestion of the Prophet as a method of treating fury is keeping silent.[15] In addition, he advised changing one’s position:

“If one of you gets angry while standing, let him sit. If sitting does not soothe him, let him lie down.”[16]

We see that another suggestion is to take ideal personalities that are symbol of patience as an example.[17]

The Prophet’s Characteristics as a Model

Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) was sent as a guide to all humanity and is a perfect example with his lifestyle. His exemplary nature applies to every area of ​​ life except for the cases reported to be specific to him. For this reason, the sadness, sorrow and anger of the Prophet (pbuh) are models for us in addition to his mercy and compassion.

His sadness as a human being, a father, a friend and a wife was definitely different from the sadness he experienced as a leader, a commander, a messenger of guidance, a guide and a head of state [18]. It will be useful to present the sadness and anger of the Prophet as a whole without separating them as “a human being or a prophet” and to mention the general characteristic of the things that he got angry with.  

In essence, this idea is a result of the necessity that the anger of the Prophet is to be based on legitimate and justified reasons. Besides, it is impossible to think of anything other than that for a prophet.

The Prophet’s getting angry for Allah

The fury of the Prophet (pbuh) occurred in the form of the fury that is praised throughout his life because we see that he got angry and furious only for Allah, not for his own self and interests. As a matter of fact, the following statement indicates it:

The Messenger of Allah did not take revenge for his own self. However, he took revenge for Allah’s sake if Allah's prohibitions were violated.”[19]

However, we see that he tried to quell his anger in places when he himself was insulted.[20]

The Prophet’s Anger is Mercy

We see that the state of fury and anger that can lead to hatred, grudge and troubles in the life of an ordinary person turn to mercy in the life of the Prophet. For, even when the Prophet was angry with or insulted a person, he also prayed for that person as a sign of his being sent with high ethics and mercy to the realms so that the anger and insult would turn to mercy for that person. He said,

“O Lord! I am a servant, and I get angry like all servants. Therefore, if I got angry with a Muslim, insulted or cursed him, make it a means of purification and mercy for him on the Day of Judgment.”[21]

He is a superior man with his great ethics, solid character, supreme spirit, merciful heart, sharp wit, profound prudence, noble attitude and high characteristic along with being a prophet.

The Prophet Never Told a Lie

“O Lord! Always make me to tell the truth when I am both happy and angry.”[22]

As a reflection of the above prayer of the Prophet, the following narration exists in resources: Abdullah b. Amr wrote everything that he heard from the Prophet. When people criticized him by saying, “You write everything that the Messenger of Allah says. However, he is a human being; he sometimes becomes happy and sometimes becomes angry”, he told the Messenger of Allah about it. The Prophet put his hand on his blessed mouth and said,

“Write! I swear by Allah, in whose hand is in my life, that nothing but the truth comes out of this mouth.”[23]

As it is understood from this narration, the anger of the Prophet (pbuh) never caused him to say anything wrong.

When we look at the explanation of the hadith of the Messenger of Allah

“One of you should not make a decree when he is angry”[24],

we see that the scholars hold the view that this hadith is not valid for the Prophet and that he could make a decree when he was angry; they say the state of anger and joy were equal for the Prophet[25]

The Incidents that Made the Prophet Angry and the Reasons for His Anger

Ignorance

One of the most important reasons for the anger of the Prophet (pbuh) was the Muslims’ wrong practices caused by their views without making any research and without knowing, that is by their ignorance. Jabir b. Abdillah narrates one of those incidents:

We were on an expedition. One of us was wounded in the head. He had a wet dream. He asked the people around him if he could make tayammum instead of ghusl (having a bath) since he was wounded. They said he had to make ghusl and that he could not make tayammum. He had a bath and died because of water and cold weather.

When we returned and entered in to the presence of the Prophet (pbuh), he was informed about the incident. Thereupon, the Prophet said angrily: "They killed the man. May Allah kill them. If only they had asked what they did not know. The remedy for ignorance is to ask."[26].

The severe expression of the Prophet “May Allah kill them” and his criticizing those who attempted to give fatwa though they did not know is probably a very serious warning for the people living today. It should not be forgotten that those who make decrees in religious issues randomly, ignorantly and without any Islamic and human concern every day are the addressees of this this anger and warning [27].

People Acting Lazily to Obey his Orders

One of the reasons for the anger of the Prophet (pbuh) was the people’s acting lazily to obey his orders. For instance, when the Muslims entered ihram for hajj once, the Prophet ordered them, “Change your hajj to umrah.” They said, “We entered ihram for hajj; how can we regard it as umrah?” Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, “Do as I told you.” However, they opposed again; he went to Hz. Aisha angrily. When Hz. Aisha asked why he was angry, he said, “How should I not get angry seeing that they do not obey me though I give them an order?” [28].

During the disease that led to his death, the Prophet (pbuh) appointed Hz. Abu Bakr as the imam to lead the prayer a few times but he got angry with his wives because they acted lazily regarding the issue and said, “Tell Abu Bakr to lead the prayer.”[29] He got angry with their lazy act.

The Prophet got so angry with the Companions who acted negligently in helping poor Bedouins that the color of his face changed; when one of them gave a pouch of silver as charity, he rejoiced.[30]

Extremism

Another reason for his anger was those who deviated from the moderate line of the Sunnah for various reasons and fell into extremism in two opposite ends in practicing Islam by doing too little or too much of something.

Hz. Aisha narrates: Some Companions acted timidly and abstained related to something that the Prophet personally did and allowed others to do. Thereupon the Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘What happens to some people who avid doing something that I personally do and allow others to do? I swear by Allah that I know Allah better than they do and I fear Allah more than they do.’[31]

His address to the Companions who undervalued their deeds and who intended to do extreme things like fasting every day, worshipping all night without sleeping and keeping away from their wives in bed by saying, ‘Your sins have been forgiven; we need to do more things’[32] is meaningful:

He who turns away from my Sunnah will have abandoned my way.”[33]

The Prophet’s warning the Companion who lengthened the prayer in a way to tire the congregation by saying,

“There are people among you who make others hate. If you lead a prayer, keep it short because there are ill, weak and busy people in congregation”[34]

is a reflection of the moderate understanding away from extremism, which the Prophet wanted to establish.

Harshness

Usama b. Zayd narrates one of the incidents that angered the Prophet because people tried to make the religion of Islam fit in their personal thoughts: In a war, we were following a polytheist together with a Muslim from Madinah. When the polytheist realized that he would be caught, he immediately read kalima at-tawhid. Thereupon, my Muslim friend gave up killing him. I thought, “He became a Muslim to save his life.” Therefore, I killed him.

When we returned, we informed the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) about the incident, The Prophet (pbuh) got angry and said

O Usama! So, you killed him after he said La ilaha illallah? He repeated this sentence several times. He repeated it so much that I wished I had not become a Muslim before that day.”[35]

The Issues about which the Prophet Got Angry

It is possible to divide the issues about which the Prophet got angry included in hadith collections into three as belief, worshipping and social relations related to their causes.

Belief

The Messenger of Allah got angry with those who acted as if they were bargaining about faith and determined their belief according to worldly interests. For example, once, he said to a delegation from the sons of Tamim said, “O Sons of Tamim! Glad tidings for you!” They said, “Give us goods and property as glad tidings.” He got angry with them because they reduced the glad tidings to a worldly dimension.[36]

We see something similar in a Bedouin's attitude. When he tried to change the glad tiding of the Messenger of Allah with worldly interests, he made the Prophet (pbuh) angry.[37]

One of the issues related to creed that angered the Prophet was about him or other prophets. For example, when a Jew swore an oath due to commercial problems by saying, “I swear by the one who made Moses (Musa) superior to humanity”, somebody from Ansar said, “Do you say this when the Prophet is among us?” and hit him. When the Prophet was informed about the issue, he said, “Do you argue about the superiority of Allah’s prophets over one another?” Thus, he ended that discussion and similar ones.[38]

After reading the letter sent by Musaylama, who claimed to be a prophet, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) asked the two men who were Musaylama’s messengers,  “What do you say about the prophethood of Musaylama?” They said, “We agree with him fully.” This answer angered the Prophet and he said,

I swear by Allah that if the principle ‘do not shoot the messenger’ did not exist, I would have you killed.”[39]

Not Showing Consent to the Division of Things

The Prophet also got angry with those who did not agree with his decree and acted lazily in obedience. The reason for his anger was not his soul, but for the sake of Allah and due to the rank of prophethood. For instance, while distributing booty, somebody came and said, “This is not a division based on the consent of Allah.” He got very sad and angry.[40] For, to think that the Prophet did not act in a fair manner about such an issue is something that a person with belief problems can do.

Laziness in Sticking to the Quran

The Prophet addressed people as follows in the Farewell Hajj:

“O People! Try to obtain knowledge/science before it is removed.”

A companion who did not fully understand what it meant said, “O Messenger of Allah! How can knowledge/science be removed when the Quran is among us and since we have taught him to our wives and children?” The Prophet said,

“May your mother lose you! Do you not see that though the Jews and Christians have their books in their hands, they do not obey a single letter of their books? Be careful! One of the ways of the removal of knowledge/science is the death of scholars.”[41]

Hz. Umar took sections of the Torah from a Jew belonging to the Jewish tribe Sons of Qurayza in Madinah and wanted to present them to the Prophet. When the Prophet heard it, the color of his face changed. When Hz. Umar realized that he got angry, he said, “We have adopted Allah as the Lord, Islam as the religion and Muhammad as the Messenger.” He tried to approve the Prophet. Then, the Prophet said,

“I swear by Allah, who holds my soul in his hand, that if Musa was among us and if you left me and obeyed him, you would surely go astray. You are my share among the nations. I am your share among the prophets.”[42]

Lack in Deeds of Worship

There are narrations mentioning the anger of our Prophet related to worship, especially prayer (salah) and charity (zakah).

In the Quran, mosques are described as places belonging to Allah. [43] This is regarded as evidence that it is necessary to show respect to mosques. The Prophet gave importance to the cleaning and care of the mosque and got angry with those who dirtied mosques. As a matter of fact, when he entered the mosque one day, he saw some snot on the qiblah wall and got angry with the congregation and said,

“Allah is in front you. When one of you prays, he should not spit or blow his nose.”[44]

As it is known, the Prophet (pbuh) gave great importance to prayer and got angry with those who acted lazily in this regard. When he came to the mosque in order to lead the night prayer one night, he saw that a small number of people were sitting in a dispersed way and he became very angry; he had never been so angry before; he said,  

“I swear by Allah that after appointing somebody as the imam, I want to go to the houses of those who did not come to the mosque to pray and burn them.”[45]

The Prophet put forth the principle of making things easier in every issue and stated that people should not be made bored and tired even in daily prayers. As a matter of fact, he got angry with the Companion Muadh b. Jabal, who lengthened the prayer a lot, and said, “O Muadh! Do you tire and bore people?” three times; he advised him to lead prayers by taking into consideration those who are busy, weak and ill.[46]

Laziness in Zakah and Sadaqah (Charity)

The Prophet got angry with the Companions who acted negligently in helping poor Bedouins; when one of them gave a pouch of silver as charity, he rejoiced and said,

“If a person starts a good thing in Islam and if others do the same thing after him, he will receive as many thawabs as they get. If a person starts a bad thing in Islam and if others do the same thing after him, he will receive as many sins as they get.” [47].

Another issue that the Prophet was angry about was the gain through abusing one’s position. As a matter of fact, when an officer he sent to collect zakah returned, he showed the things he collected by saying,

O Messenger of Allah! Those are yours; these were given to me as a gift.” The Prophet got very angry and said,

 “Go and sit at your parents’ house and see if gifts will come to you or not.”

Thus, he expressed his reaction.[48]

On the other hand, a Companion called Abu Huzaym made a will neglecting his three children and bequeathed his best 100 camels to a fatherless girl whom he guarded. When the Prophet heard about it, he got very angry and stood up from the place he was sitting. He said, “No! No! No!” and then expressed the religious criteria about sadaqah.[49]

Carelessness Related to Harams, Halals and Ethics (Social Relations)

The Prophet (pbuh) always wanted people to pay attention to halal-haram framework determined by the religion and got angry with those who did not care about harams and makruhs and reacted to them.

The Jewish men did not have sexual relations with their wives who were menstruating; the Prophet (pbuh) got very angry about the proposal of two Companions called Usayd b. Khudayr and Abbad b. Bishr in order to do the opposite of what Jews do: “O Messenger of Allah! Shall we have sexual relations with our wives when they are in menstruation?”[50]

He got very angry when he was asked insistently about what to do related to a lost camel. He said, “It is none of your business. Leave the animal alone until the owner finds it. The camel can drink water and eat grass on its own.”[51]

He got angry with those who asked unnecessary and many questions by violating the manners of asking questions due to the respect of the prophethood when he said, “Ask whatever you want to ask.” As a result of his statement, people asked so unnecessary and absurd questions that Hz. Umar realized their mistakes and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! We seek refuge in Allah.’ [52]

The Prophet got angry with Abdullah b. Umar, who wanted to divorce his wife when she was in menstruation, and ordered him not to divorce her until she was cleaned [53]. When he heard that a man divorced his wife with three talaqs in the same place, he stood up with anger and said, “Do you play with the book of Allah though I am among you?”[54].

Conclusion

The Prophet is a human being. As a natural result of it, he can get angry and furious like other human beings. The wisdom behind creation and prophethood requires it.

However, the anger of the Prophet differs in content though it is like that of the normal people in appearance. For, he gets angry not for his own self and interests but when one of the rights of Allah or a person/Muslim is violated or due to the position of his prophethood. That is what suits the honesty of the prophethood.

As a sign of his vast mercy and humbleness, when the Prophet got angry with a Muslim, he prayed so that it would turn to a mercy for that person; this clarifies the meaning of the fact that he was sent as mercy for the realms.

That the anger of the Prophet had those qualities also shows us the meaning of his being presented as the best example for us. The obligation to act in accordance with the Sunnah in this aspect, as it applies to all aspects, teaches us to overcome unjust and improper anger and shows us the field where to use our anger.

Today, the basic mistake of the efforts to neglect the Sunnah consciously or unconsciously originates from ignorance in these issues. For, it is inevitable for a perspective that does not know the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in all aspects to become an enemy of the unknown and to be shallow and prejudiced. 

Therefore, we have to know and introduce the Prophet more in every aspect today.

Footnotes:

[1] al-Isra, 17/84.
[2] Tirmidhi, Abu Isa Muhammad b. Isa, Sunan, Istanbul, 1992, Fitan, 24.
[3] Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Ahmad, Ihya-u ‘Ulumid-Din, Istanbul, 1985, Vol. III, p. 96.
[4] Bukhari, Abu Abdillah Muhammad b. Ismail b. Ibrahim, Sahihul-Bukhari, Adab, 76; Tirmidhi, Birr, 73; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Istanbul, 1992, Çağrı Yay., Vol. II, p. 175; Vol. V, p. 34, 370.
[5] Ghazali, Ihya, Vol. III, p. 88.
[6] Abu Dawud, Sulayman b. Ash‘as as-Sijistani, Sunan, Istanbul, 1413/1992, Çağrı Yay., Adab, 3; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 226.
[7] ash-Shura, 42/37.
[8] Aal-i Imran, 3/134.
[9] al-A‘raf, 7/199.
[10] Tirmidhi, Birr, 74; Qiyamah, 48; Abu Dawud, Adab, 3; Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 18; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. III, p. 438–440.
[11] Bukhari, Adab, 44; Abu Dawud, Adab, 4; Tirmidhi, Daawat, 51; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. V, p. 240–244.
[12] Abu Dawud, Adab, 4; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 226.
[13] Tirmidhi, Fitan, 26.
[14] Ghazali, Ihya, Vol. III, p. 105.
[15] Ahmad b. Hanbal. Musnad, Vol. I, p. 239, 283, 365.
[16] Abu Dawud, Adab, 4; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. V, p. 152.
[17] Bukhari, Ahadithul-Anbiya, 26; Khumus, 19; Maghazi, 56; Adab, 53, 71; Muslim, Zakah, 140, 141; Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 63; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. I, p. 380, 396, 411, 436, 441, 453.
[18] ÇAKAN, İsmail Lütfi, “Hüznü’n-Nebî”, Ebedî Risalet Sempozyumu Tebliği, Işık Yay., 1993, p. 240.
[19] Bukhari. Manaqib, 23; Adab, 80; Muslim, Fadail, 77; Abu Dawud, Adab, 4; Muwatta, Husnul-Khuluq, 2; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. V, p. 130, 223, 232.
[20] Bukhari, Ahadithul-Anbiya, 27; Nasai, Tahrimud-Dam, 26.
[21] Bukhari, Daawat, 33; Muslim, Birr, 95; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 10; A. b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. II, p. 317, 390; Vol. III, p. 33, 391, 400; Vol. V, p. 437, 439; Vol. VI, p. 45.
[22] Nasai, Sahw, 62; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 264
[23] Abu Dawud, Ilm, 3; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. II, p. 162, 192; Darimi, Muqaddima, 43.
[24] Bukhari, Ahkam, 13; Muslim, Aqdiya, 16; Abu Dawud, Aqdiya, 9; Tirmidhi, Ahkam, 7; Nasai, Qudat, 32; Ibn Majah, Ahkam, 4; Ahmat b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. V, p. 36–38, 46–52.
[25] Ibn Hajar, Fathul-Bari Sharhus-Sahihil-Bukhari, thq. Abdulaziz b. Baz, M. Fuad Abdulbaqi, Darul-Fikr, 1046/1986, Vol. I, p. 187; YILDIRIM, Celal, Kaynaklarıyla Ahkam Hadisleri, Konya, 1986, Vol. VI, p. 617–618; Qastallani, Shihabuddin Ahmad, Irshadus-Sari li Sharhi Sahihil-Bukhari, Vol. XV, p. 107–108; Ibnul-Arabi, Aridatul-Ahwazi Sharhus-Sahihit-Tirmidhi, Darul-Kutubil-Ilmiyya, Beirut, nd., Vol. VI, p. 63; Nawawi, Sharhu Sahihil-Muslim, Beirut, 1972, Vol. XII, p. 379; Ayni, Badruddin, Umdatul-Qari Sharhu Sahihil-Bukhari, Beirut, 1972, Vol. XVI, p. 404.
[26] Abu Dawud, Taharah, 125, Ibn Majah, Taharah, 93; Darimi, Wudu’, 70, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. I, p. 230; Vol. VI, p. 298.
[27] ÇAKAN, İsmail Lütfi,  ibid, pp 252-253.
[28] Ibn Majah, Manasik, 41; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 286.
[29] Bukhari, Adhan, 39; Muslim, Salah, 94, 95, 101 Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 16; Nasai, Imamah, 40; Ibn Majah, Iqamatus-Salah, 142; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, 61, 96, 109; Darimi, Muqaddima, 14.
[30] Muslim, Ilim, 15; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 359, 360, 361, 362; Darimi, Muqaddima, 44; Muslim, Zakah, 69; Nasai, Zakah, 164;
[31] Muslim, Fadail, 128; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. VI, p. 45.
[32] Bukhari, Iman, 13; Abu Dawud, Sawm, 37; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. VI, p. 56, 61, 67; Muwatta, Siyam, 13.
[33] Bukhari, Nikah, 1; Muslim, Nikah, 3; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. II, p. 158; Vol. III, p. 241, 259 Vol. V, p. 409.
[34] Bukhari, Ilm, 28; Muslim, Salah, 182; Ibn Majah, Iqamatus-Salah wa Sunnatuhu fiha, 48; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 118 Darimi, Salah, 46.
[35] Bukhari, Maghazi, 45; Diyat, 2; Muslim, Iman, 159; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. V, p. 200.
[36] Bukhari, Bad’ul-Khalq, 1; Maghazi, 67, 71; Tirmidhi, Manakib, 73; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 426, 433.
[37] Bukhari, Maghazi, 52; Muslim, Fadailus-Sahaba, 164.
[38] Bukhari, Ahadithul-Anbiya, 35; Muslim, Fadail, 159; Tirmidhi, Tafsir-u Suratiz-Zumar, 9; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 13, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. II, p. 264.
[39] Abu Dawud, Jihad, 154; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. I, p. 391.
[40] Bukhari, Ahadithul-Anbiya, 27; Muslim, Zakah, 48; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 31; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 33; Muwatta, Nidaus-Salah, 128.
[41] Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. V, p. 266; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 17.
[42] Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. III, 471; Darimi, Muqaddima, 39.
[43] al-Baqara, 2/114; at-Tawba, 9/ 17, 18; al-Jinn, 71/18.
[44] Bukhari, Salah, 33, 39; Nasai, Masajid, 35; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. III, p. 212.
[45] Bukhari, Adhan, 34; Khusumat, 5; Muslim, Masajid, 251–254; Tirmidhi, Salah, 48; Nasai, Imamah, 49; Abu Dawud, Salah, 46; Ibn Majah, Masajid wal-Jamaah, 17; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. I, p. 394; Vol. II, p. 244; Ibn Majah, Masajid wal-Jamaah, 17; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. I, p. 394; Vol. II, p. 244.
[46] Bukhari, Adhan, 60; Muslim, Salah, 128, 129; Nasai, Imamah, 41; Abu Dawud, Salah, 123.
[47] Muslim, Ilm, 15; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 361; Nasai,
Zakah, 64, Muslim, Zakah, 17; Muslim, Zakah, 69.
[48] Bukhari, Ayman wan-Nudhur, 3; Abu Dawud, Kharaj, 11, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. V, p.423; Darimi,
Zakah, 31; Siyar, 51.
[49] Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. V, p. 68.
[50] Muslim, Hayd, 16; Tirmidhi, Suratu Aal-i Imran, 24; Nasai, Hayd-Istihada, 8; Taharah, 102; Abu Dawud, Taharah, 2; Nikah, 46; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. III, p. 132.
[51] Bukhari, Ilm, 28; Luqata, 2–9; Muslim, Luqata, 2, 4, 6; Tirmidhi, Ahkam, 35; Abu Dawud, Luqata, 1; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 116–117; Vol. V, p. 193.
[52] Bukhari, Ilm, 28; Muslim, Fadail, 137; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. III, p. 107.
[53] Abu Dawud, Talaq, 4; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. II, p. 130.
[54] Nasai, Talaq, 6;

Note: For hadiths and evaluations, see "Hz. Peygamberi Kızdıran Olayları Anlatan Hadislerin Sıhhat Değeri", Feyzullah Yılmaz, Trabzon Eğitim Merkezi, (Mezuniyet Tezi), Trabzon, 2007.

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