Can you give some information about the children of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?

The Details of the Question
How many children did prophet Muhammed (Pbuh) have and what were their names?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, had three sons, Qasim, Abdullah, Ibrahim, and four daughters; he had, in total, seven children. They are as follows according to the birth sequence: Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayya, Ummu Kulthum, Fatima, Abdullah and Ibrahim. Six of those seven children were from Khadija, and the seventh was from Mary of Egypt, may Allah be pleased with them all.
Although Ibn Ishaq says that the Prophet had two more sons named Tahir and Tayyib, it is stated that they are the titles of Abdullah.

 1) Qasim:
The first child of Allah's Messenger was Qasim. For this reason, he was named Abu'l Qasim (the father of Qasim). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) liked being called Abu'l Qasim. And the Companions would call him by this name. According to Ibn Sa'd, Qasim lived for two years. He passed away in Makkah. The first one among the children of the Prophet was Qasim.
2) Zaynab:
She was the oldest daughter of the Prophet. She was born after Qasim. When Zaynab was born, Allah's Messenger was thirty years old. Zaynab, born in Makkah, passed away in Madinah in the eighth year of the Migration. She was thirty years old.
Zaynab first married Abul'as, her maternal aunt's son. As Abul'as did not leave idolaters at first; he was caught as prisoner of war in the Battle of Badr, and when he was saved, he promised to send Zaynab to Madinah. Allah's Messenger sent Zayd Ibn Haritha to fetch his family. It was Zayd who brought Zaynab to Medina. Zaynab went to Madinah but her husband, Abul'as, stayed in Makkah.
Abul'as was captured again as prisoner by Muslims but was freed because of Zaynab's protection.
When Abul'as was saved from being prisoner once again, he went to Makkah. After giving the trusts to their possessors, he accepted Islam. He migrated to Madinah. As he became a Muslim, their marriage was renewed. Abul'as behaved well toward Zaynab. For this reason, he earned the appreciation of the Prophet. After reuniting with her husband, Zaynab could not live long. Upon her death, her body was washed by Ummu Ayman and Sawda, may Allah be pleased with them. Her funeral prayer was led by Allah's Messenger and she was put into her grave by Abul'as.
3) Ruqayya
She was the second daughter of Allah's Messenger. When she was born, the Prophet was 33 years old. Ruqayya was engaged to Utba, Abu Lahab's son, before her father's prophethood. When Allah's Messenger started calling people to Islam, Abu Lahab summoned his son and said to him:
“My son! If you do not separate from Muhammad's daughter, I will separate from you.” And Utba left Ruqayya as a result of his father's inducements. Then Ruqayya married Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him. Uthman and his wife Ruqayya joined the first group of people who migrated to Ethiopia. Uthman returned to Makkah from Ethiopia and from there migrated to Madinah. Ruqayya became ill during the Battle of Badr and therefore Uthman could not take part in the Battle of Badr. He was counted among the excused because he had to stay with his wife.
The day when Zayd Ibn Haritha brought the news of Badr victory to Madinah, Rukayya passed away. And Allah's Messenger could not take part in his daughter's, Ruqayya's, funeral because of the Battle of Badr.
4) Ummu Kulthum:
She was born before the onset of Islam. Her mother is Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her. Ummu Kulthum was engaged to Utayba, second son of Abu Lahab, before Islam came. Upon the onset of Islam, Abu Lahab did not believe and became a ferocious enemy of Islam. When Tabbat Surah (a Quranic Chapter) was revealed about him, he asked his son to separate from Ummu Kulthum. And he obeyed his father and left her.
At the end of the Battle of Badr, one year after the death of Ruqayya, in the third year of the Migration, she married Uthman.

As is narrated by Bukhari, when Hafsa was widowed, and when Umar, her father, applied to Uthman, he showed hesitation. Then Allah's Messenger said to Umar:
I will find a man to you better than Uthman and to Uthman a man better than you. Give your daughter to me, and I will give my daughter to Uthman.

Ummu Kulthum, who married Uthman, lived with him for 6 years. She passed away in the ninth year of the Migration. Her funeral prayer was led by Allah's Messenger. She was buried by Ali, Fadl, and Usama, may Allah be pleased with them all.
As Uthman married two daughters of Allah's Messenger, Ruqayya and Ummu Kulthum, he was given the title “Zinnurayn” which means “Owner of two lights.”
5) Fatima:
Prophet Muhammad's youngest and most beloved daughter. She was born in Makkah when the Divine Revelation started to come. She married Ali in Madinah in the second year of the Migration. When they married, Fatima was 15, and Ali was 24 years old. Allah's Messenger prepared for his daughter a bedcover, two grinders, a water bag, and Fatima used the grinders and the water bag all her life.
Allah's Messenger wanted Ali and Fatima to get on well and if some dispute took place between them, he would reconcile them. One day, Ali behaved harshly toward Fatima and she came to Allah's Messenger and complained about him. After Fatima, Ali, too, came and complained about her, but The Prophet made peace between them.
Once, Ali wanted to take another wife; the Prophet, who heard about it, became very upset and said in one of his sermons: 

“My daughter is part of my heart. Whatever makes my daughter grieved makes me grieved, too.” Thereupon, Ali changed his mind and did not marry any woman when Fatima was alive.
Fatima passed away in the 11th year of the Migration, 6 months after her father's death. When Allah's Messenger passed away, she was 25 years old.

Allah's Messenger loved his daughter Fatima dearly. During his illness, he called her close to him. He whispered something to her, upon which Fatima cried. He whispered again. This time Fatima smiled. Thereupon Aisha, The Prophet's wife, asked about it. Fatima replied as follows:
Firstly, Allah's Messenger said that he would die after his illness; so I cried. Then he informed me that the first one in his family to reunite with him would be me; this time, I became happy.”

It was Fatima who continued the lineage of the Prophet. Fatima had five children: Hasan, Husayn, Muhsin, Ummu Kulthum, and Zaynab. Among them Muhsin passed away as a child.
6) Abdullah:
He was born in Makkah before the Migration. He lived for three months. He passed away as a baby. 'Tahir' and 'Tayyib' were Abdullah's other names. 

He was the youngest child of the Prophet. He was born in Madinah in the 8th year of the Migration. According to Ibn Ishaq, all other children of the Prophet other than Ibrahim were born before his prophethood. Ibrahim was born of Egyptian Mary and, as is narrated from Aisha, passed away when he was 17 or 18 months old.

Allah's Messenger was very pleased by Ibrahim's birth and gave a feast on the seventh day, distributed alms to the poor and named his son after Prophet Abraham, because:
The Prophet's sons born of Khadija had passed away when they were very young. And he did not have any children from his other wives.
Salma, Abu Rafi's wife, became a wetnurse for Ibrahim. Bukhari narrates that Ummu Sayf breastfed Ibrahim. Allah's Messenger would drop by the wetnurse, see Ibrahim, caress and kiss him.

Ibrahim passed away in Ummu Sayf's house. When The Prophet heard that his son became ill, he went to him with Abdurrahman Ibn Awf, and cried when he saw Ibrahim suffer in the clutch of death, he could not help crying. When Abdurrahman remarked:
“Allah's Messenger, what are you doing?” he replied:
“My feelings of compassion became highly aroused.”

Allah's Messenger led the funeral prayer of his son; Fadl son of Abbas, Usama son of Zayd, Uthman son of Maz'un placed Ibrahim into his grave. He was buried in the Baqi' graveyard.

When Ibrahim passed away, the sun was eclipsed. When people said “The sun joined the mourning.” Allah's Messenger said:
The sun and the moon are among the signs of Allah. They are not eclipsed because of a mortal's death!” and thus, he protected Muslims from such false beliefs.

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