Will you give information about the children of the Prophet (pbuh)?

The Details of the Question
Will you give information about the children of the Prophet (pbuh)?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

The Messenger of Allah had seven children: three of them were boys and four of them were girls. Their names are as follows in the order of birth: Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum, Fatima, Abdullah, Ibrahim. Six of them were born of Hz. Khadijah and the last one was born of Hz. Mariya, the Egyptian.

Ibn Ishaq says that the Prophet had two more children called Tahir and Tayyib but it is stated that they are the attributes of Abdullah.

1) Qasim:

Qasim was the first child of the Messenger of Allah. Therefore, his nickname became Abul-Qasim (Qasim's father). The Prophet liked it when they called him Abul-Qasim. The Companions also called him like that. According to Ibn Sa'd, Qasim lived for two years. He died in Makkah. The first child of the Messenger of Allah that died was Qasim.

2) Zaynab:

She was the oldest daughter of the Prophet. She was born after Qasim. When Zaynab was born, the Messenger of Allah was thirty years old. Zaynab, who was born in Makkah, died in the eight year of the Migration in Madinah. When she died, she was about thirty years old. 

Zaynab married her aunt's son Abul-As first. He did not become a Muslim at first. When he was enslaved by the Muslims during the Battle of Badr, he promised that he would send Zaynab to Madinah after he was freed. The Messenger of Allah sent Zayd bin Haritha with Abul-As to fetch Zaynab to Madinah. Zayd took Zaynab back to Madinah. Zaynab returned to Madinah but her husband, Abul-As, stayed in Makkah.   

During a sariyya, Abul-As was enslaved by the Muslims again. However, he was freed thanks to the protection of Hz. Zaynab. When Abul-As was freed from slavery for the second time. He went to Makkah. He returned the things entrusted to him to their owners and became a Muslim. Then, he migrated to Madinah. He married Hz. Zaynab again in Madinah.

Abul-As treated Hz. Zaynab very well. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah appreciated him. Zaynab did not live long after marrying her husband again. When she died, her dead body was washed by Hz. Umm Aym and Hz. Sawda. Her janazah prayer was led by the Messenger of Allah. Abul-As placed her in the grave.

3) Ruqayya:

She was the second daughter of the Messenger of Allah. When she was born, Hz. Prophet was thirty-three years old. Before her father became a prophet, Ruqayya was engaged to Utba, Abu Lahab's son. When the Messenger of Allah started to call people to Islam, Abu Lahab called his son, Utba, and said to him,

"My son! If you do not leave Muhammad's daughter, I will leave you." Utba left Ruqayya due to his father's request. After that, Ruqayya married Hz. Uthman. Hz. Usman and his wife Ruqayya took part in the first group that migrated to Abyssinia. Afterwards, Hz. Uthman returned to Makkah from Abyssinia. Before the Battle of Badr, Ruqayya became very ill; therefore, Hz. Uthman could not take part in the Battle of Badr. He was regarded as one of the excused people since his wife was ill.

Hz. Ruqayya died on the same day as Zayd bin Haritha brought the good news that the Muslims won the battle. The Messenger of Allah could not take part in her daughter's funeral due to the Battle of Badr.

4) Umm Kulthum:

She was born before the advent of Islam. Her mother was Hz. Khadijah. Umm Kulthum was engaged to Utayba, Abu Lahab's second son, before Islam. When Islam came, Abu Lahab did not become a Muslim and became a fierce enemy of Islam. When the chapter of al-Masadd was sent down about him, he told his son to leave Umm Kulthum. He obeyed his father and left Umm Kulthum. 

She married Hz. Uthman one year after the death of Hz. Ruqayya, in the third year of the Migration.

According to what Bukhari narrates, when Hafsa was widowed, Hz. Umar went to Hz.Uthman and asked him to marry Hafsa, his daughter. Hz. Uthman hesitated. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah said to Hz. Umar,

"I will find you a better man than Uthman and I will find Uthman a better man than you. Marry your daughter off to me and I will marry my daughter off to Uthman." 

Umm Kulthum, who married Hz. Uthman, lived with him for six years. She died in the ninth year of the Migration. Her janazah prayer was led by the Messenger of Allah. She was buried by Hz. Ali, Hz. Fadl and Hz. Usama.

Hz. Uthman was given the nickname "Zinnurayn" (the owner of two lights) since he married two daughters of the Messenger of Allah: Ruqayye and Umm Kulthum.

5) Fatima:

She was the youngest but most beloved daughter of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). She was born in Makkah when the first revelation came. She married Hz. Ali in Madinah in the second year of the Migration. When they got married, Hz. Fatima was fifteen and Hz. Ali was twenty-four years old. The Messenger of Allah prepared a bed linen, two grinders and a water-skin for his daughter Fatima. Hz. Fatima used the grinders and the water-skin throughout her life.

The Messenger of Allah wanted Hz. Ali and Hz. Fatima to get on well. Once, Ali treated Fatima harshly; thereupon, Fatima went to the Messenger of Allah and complained about Ali. After Fatima, Ali arrived and complained about her. However, the Messenger of Allah reconciled them.

Once, Hz. Ali wanted to have another wife; when the Messenger of Allah was informed about it, he said in a sermon,

"My daughter is my part, what makes her uneasy makes me uneasy."

Thereupon, Hz. Ali gave up the idea of marrying another woman. He did not marry anybody else when Hz. Fatima was alive.

Hz. Fatima died in the eleventh year of the Migration, six months after his father's death. She was twenty-five years old when the Messenger of Allah passed away. 

The Messenger of Allah loved his daughter, Fatima, very much. When he was ill, he called her. He whispered something to her ear. Hz. Fatima cried. He whispered to her again; this time Fatima smiled. Hz. Aisha asked what happened. Hz. Aisha said,

"First, the Messenger of Allah said that he would die and I cried. Then, he said that the first person to rejoin him after his death would be me and I smiled." 

Hz. Fatima continued the generation of the Messenger of Allah. Fatima had five children: Hasan, Husayn, Muhsin, Umm Kulthum, Zaynab. Muhsin died when he was very young.

6) Abdullah:

He was born eleven years before the Migration in Makkah. He lived for three months and died. "Tahir and Tayyib" were Abdullah's other names.

7) Ibrahim:

He was the youngest child and son of the Messenger of Allah. He was born in the eighth year of the Migration in Madinah. According to Ibn Ishaq, all of Hz. Muhammad's children except Ibrahim were born before his prophethood. Ibrahim was born of Mariya, the Egyptian, and according to the narration of Hz. Aisha, he died when he was seventeen or eighteen months old.

The Messenger of Allah became very pleased when Ibrahim was born; he gave a feat seven days after Ibrahim was born and doled out money to the poor. He named his child Ibrahim. For, all of his sons born of Hz. Khadija had died when they were very young. He did not have any children from his other wives.  

Salma, who was Abu Rafi's wife, fostered newborn Ibrahim as his wet-nurse. Bukhari states that Umm Sayf breastfed Ibrahim. The Messenger of Allah visited the wet-nurse frequently to see, caress and kiss Ibrahim.  

Ibrahim died in Umm Sayf's house. When Hz. Prophet heard that his son was ill, he went to see him with Abdurrahman bin Awf. When he saw that he was in agony, he could not help crying. Abdurrahman said:

"O Messenger of Allah! What are you doing?" The Messenger of Allah said,

"My feelings of compassion overwhelmed."

The Messenger of Allah led his son's janazah prayer.  Fadl bin Abbas, Usama bin Zayd and Uthman Maz'un placed him in the grave. He was buried in the cemetery of Baqi.

When Ibrahim died, the sun was eclipsed. People said that the sun had also joined the mourning. The Messenger of Allah said,

"The sun and the moon are signs of Allah. They are not eclipsed because of the death of an ephemeral person!"

Thus, he drove people away from such wrong beliefs.

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