Some other important events of the 2nd Year of Hijrah
Fasting in Ramadan is Rendered Fard
Fasting in Ramadan was rendered fard one month after the qiblah was changed to the Kaaba and in the beginning of the 18th month after Hijrah, in the month of Saban. The following were stated in the verses regarding fasting:
“O ye who believe! fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you that ye may (learn) self-restraint…
Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an as a guide to mankind also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong).
So everyone of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spent it in fasting, but if anyone is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (should be made up) by days later.
God intends every facility for you He does not want to put you to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful!” (1)
Fasting in Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam.
Ibn Umar (may God be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of God stated the following:
“Islam is based on five things: testifying that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger, establishing the prayer (salah); paying the zakah (wealth-tax), performing the Hajj and fast in Ramadan.” (2)
Sadaqa al-Fitr is Rendered Wajib
Toward the end of the month of Ramadan of the same year, sadaqa al-fitr was rendered wajib.
The Messenger of God ordered that every rich Muslim, whether young or old, free or slave, male or female, give one sa’ (1040 dirhams) (3) of dry dates or one sa’ of barley or raisin, or one mud (half a sa’) of wheat to the poor before the prayer of eid.
The First Eid Prayer is Performed
When the crescent of Shawwal was seen and when the sun rose in the morning, the Messenger of God ordered Muslims to break their fasts and to go to the open praying area for the eid prayer. Then he went to the open praying area and led the eid prayer there before the khutbah (sermon) and without adhan or iqamah.
When the Messenger of God honored Madinah, the people of Madinah had two festival days. The Prophet said to them, “God gave you two better festival days: eid al-fitr (Ramadan Festival) and eid al-adha (Sacrifice Festival).” (4)
The Messenger of God always performed eid prayers in the open praying area. The open praying area of Madinah was at the east gate of the city of Madinah.
The Prophet always walked to the open praying area. He went to the open praying area from one way and returned from another way. He always ate something before he set off for the prayer of eid al-fitr. He generally ate a few dates.
Zakah is Rendered Fard
Zakah was rendered fard in the 2nd year of Hijrah after the fasting of Ramadan was rendered fard and sadaqa al-fitr was rendered wajib.
Zakah is a financial kind of worshipping for rich Muslims that involves giving a certain amount of their goods, property or money to the poor every year.
Zakah is one of the five pillars of Islam. It was ordered in the Quran: (an-Nur, 56; al-Muzzammil, 20; al-Hajj, 78; al-Baqara, 110). It is mentioned in 32 places in the Quran together with prayer (salah)
The Prophet stated the following in a hadith:
“Every day in the morning, two angels come down and one of them says, ‘O my Lord! Give to those who give zakah and sadaqa and spend their property for the sake of God the amount that they spend’. The other one says, ‘O my Lord! Destroy the property of those who do not give zakah or sadaqa!” (5)
Death of Hazrat Ruqayya
Hazrat Ruqayya, the daughter of the Prophet who was married to Hazrat Uthman, became ill during the Expedition of Badr. Hazrat Uthman stayed in Madinah to look after her upon the order of the Prophet. He could not go to Badr. When Zayd b. Haritha brought the news of the Victory of Badr to Madinah, Hazrat Ruqayya had died.
Umm Ayman washed her dead body. Hazrat Uthman led her janazah prayer and buried her in the cemetery of al-Baqi.
Hazrat Ruqayya was born after Hazrat Zaynab when the Messenger of God was 33 years old. She became a Muslim together with Hazrat Khadija, her mother. Then, she married Hazrat Uthman. Hazrat Uthman migrated to Abyssinia with her. When the Messenger of God saw that they were migrating together, he said, “After Lot (pbuh), Uthman is the first person to migrate in the way of God with his family.” (6)
Abu Darda Becomes a Muslim
Abu Darda Uwaymir b. Sa’laba became a Muslim during the Expedition of Badr.
Abdullah b. Rawaha (may God be pleased with him) was an intimate friend of Abu Darda. One day, Abdullah took an adze and broke the idol in Abu Darda’s house. When Abu Darda returned home, his wife told him about it. Abu Darda started to think and said to himself, “If this idol had been useful, it would have protected itself!” Then, he went to the Prophet to become a Muslim.
When Abdullah b. Rawaha saw him coming from a distance, he said, “O Messenger of God! Abu Darda is coming. He is probably coming here to see us!”
The Messenger of God said, “He is coming here to become a Muslim. My Lord had informed me beforehand that Abu Darda would be a Muslim!”
When Abu Darda went to the presence of the Prophet, he became a Muslim. His family had embraced Islam before him. (7)
Hazrat Fatima Marries Hazrat Ali
Hazrat Fatima married Hazrat Ali five months after the Messenger of God honored Madinah in the month of Rajab. Their wedding was in the month of Dhul-Hijjah in the 2nd year of Hijrah after the Battle of Badr.
Hazrat Fatima was the youngest and his most beloved daughter. Whenever the Prophet returned from a battle or expedition, he went to the mosque first to perform a prayer of two rak’ahs and then he went to Hazrat Fatima; after that, he went to his wives. (8)
Hazrat Aisha (may God be pleased with her) narrates:
“I have never seen anyone whose words and speech resemble those of the Messenger of God. When Fatima came, the Messenger of God would welcome her with compassion and greet her by saying, “Welcome!” I have never seen anyone more straightforward than Fatima.” (9)
The walking style of Fatima (may God be pleased with her) resembled that of the Prophet a lot.
Once, Hazrat Aisha was asked, “Who was the most beloved person for the Prophet?”
Hazrat Aisha answered, “Fatima”
When she was asked, “Who was the most beloved man for the Prophet?”, she answered, “Fatima’s husband. (10)
The Prophet Sends Someone to Makkah to Bring his Daughter Hazrat Zaynab
Among the captives of Badr was Abu As b. Rabi, the husband of Hazrat Zaynab and the son-in-law of the Prophet. As we mentioned under the topic of the captives of the Battle of Badr, Abu As went to Makkah when he was released. Abu As had prevented Hazrat Zaynab from migrating before; however, this time he let her go.
The Messenger of God sent Zayd b. Haritha and somebody from Ansar to Makkah a month or less than a month after the Battle of Badr and they brought Hazrat Zaynab. (11)
Death of Uthman b. Maz’un, from Muhajir Muslims
He is the first muhajir Muslim buried in the cemetery of al-Baqi.
The first Eid al-Adha Prayer is Performed
The Messenger of God reached Madinah on the ninth of the month Dhul-Hijjah from the Expedition of Sawiq. The next day, that is, the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah, he went to the open praying area with Muslims. He led the two-rak’ah eid al-adha prayer without adhan or iqamah. He recited a sermon after the prayer. In the sermon, he ordered Muslims to sacrifice animals. He himself sacrificed two animals. While slaughtering one of the fleshy white rams, he said, “O God! This is on behalf of my ummah, who witness your oneness and what came to me from you.” While slaughtering the second one, he said, “O God! This is for Muhammad and the household of Mu¬hammad. He himself, his household and the poor ate from the meat of the second ram. (12)
That was the first eid al-adha in Islam!
1. al-Baqara, 183-185.
2. Bukhari, Sahih, V. 1, p. 11.
3. One Dirham is 3 Grams
4. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, V. 3, p. 103.
5. Bukhari, Sahih, V. 2, p. 120.
6. Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, V. 8, p. 36-37.
7. Ibn Sa’d, ibid, V. 7, p. 391.
8. Ibn Abdi’l-Barr, al-Istiab, V. 4, p. 1895.
9. Tabari, Tarikh, V. 2, p. 290-292.
10. Ibn Sa’d, ibid, V. 1, p. 248-249.
11. Tabari, Tarikh, V. 2, p. 290-292.
12. Ibn Sa’d, ibid, V. 1, p. 248-249.