Are there any verses stating that the Prophet (pbuh) is the explainer of the Quran?

Details of the Question

Are there any verses stating that the Prophet (pbuh) is the explainer of the Quran?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Click for the answer to the question “Are there any verses stating that Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is the explainer of the Quran?”: How should the sending down of the Quran clearly should be understood?

The answer to the second question:

Some people, especially recently, say, "The Quran is enough for us. Allah sent it to us and asked us to depend on it only; and He did not hold us responsible for anything else." Thus, they try to leave the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah knowingly or unknowingly, intentionally or unintentionally and they try to bring about doubts related to the Sunnah’s being evidence in religion, its soundness and narrators;1 some people act lazily about the Sunnah of the Prophet and assume an attitude like "it is all right if you follow or not follow the Sunnah"; when a hadith is mentioned as evidence regarding an issue, they sneer. In fact, in the Quran, Allah Almighty places the Prophet and his Sunnah in a very exceptional place and regards obedience to the Prophet the same as obedience to Him.

It is stated in the Quran that the Prophet is a blessing of Allah for people, especially for believers; belief in him is associated with obedience to Allah; he is shown as a model for people; it is stated that he was given wisdom, which means the Sunnah in many places, along with the Quran so that he will convey them to people and revelation is not limited with the Quran only; obedience to the Prophet is mentioned with obedience to Allah, and obedience to the Prophet is emphasized separately too.

However, it is doubtless that the Sunnah has never been accepted to be in the same level as the Quran; the Quran has always been in the first place and the Sunnah has followed it.

As a matter of fact, this is determined clearly in the instructions given by the Prophet to Muadh b. Jabal when he was sent as the governor to Yemen.2 In addition, the practices of the Companions were like that both when the Prophet was alive and after his death; they referred to the Quran first and the Sunnah after that.3

Let us see how the verses of the Quran manifest the determinations we have just made.

Doubtlessly, it is a great blessing that Allah Almighty chose a prophet from among us, as human beings, and showed him to us as a living model.

1) The verses of the Quran stating that Hz. Prophet is great blessing of Allah Almighty for believers:

"Allah did confer a great favor on the believers when He sent among them an apostle from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom, while, before that, they had been in manifest error" (Aal-i Imran, 3/164).

"Now hath come unto you an Messenger from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that ye should perish: ardently anxious is he over you: to the Believers is he most kind and merciful. But if they turn away, Say: "(Allah) sufficeth me: there is no god but He: On Him is my trust,- He the Lord of the Throne (of Glory) Supreme!" (at-Tawba, 9/128-129) .4

Doubtlessly, what we need to do as human beings, is to know the value of this great blessing as it is indicated in the verse 5, to regard the Prophet as more valuable than our souls, to love him very much and to follow this great person shown as a model to us.

Belief in Hz. Prophet is one of the main requirements of being a Muslim. His name exists with the name of Allah in kalima ash-shahada. Besides, there are many verses about the necessity of believing in him in the Quran.6 Doubtlessly, belief in Hz. Prophet has a meaning beyond his being only a prophet, which necessitates accepting all of what he took from Allah and brought us, the trueness of all of his orders, prohibitions, advice, practices, interpretations and explanations related to them, in short, to regard him as a model in terms of all aspects.

Another point showing the exceptional place of Hz. Prophet in this religion is that he is presented as a person to be taken as a model in all aspects by Allah Almighty Himself.

2) The verses of the Quran showing Hz. Prophet as a model:

We see in the Quran that the Prophet is presented by Allah Almighty as a model to be taken as an example by believers with clear expressions. It is understood that he is presented as a model for people in all aspects since there are no conditions laid in the verses regarding the issue.

Some of those verses are as follows:

"Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah" (al-Ahzab, 33/ 21).

That the Messenger of Allah is presented as a beautiful pattern of conduct for those who believe in Allah and the hereafter and that accepting him as a model is associated with belief in Allah and the hereafter shows clearly how much importance is given to his Sunnah in the religion.

The Quran does not only state that the Prophet is a model for people but it also emphasizes that he is an exalted standard of character:

"Nun. By the Pen and the (Record) which (men) write,- Thou art not, by the Grace of thy Lord, mad or possessed. Nay, verily for thee is a Reward unfailing: And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character" (al-Qalam, 68/ 1-4).

Another element showing the value of the Sunnah in the religion is its being a product of revelation in general. As a matter of fact, when we look at the Quran, we see many signs that revelation is not limited with the Quran and that the Prophet received revelation outside the Quran too.

3) Verses stating that Hz. Prophet received revelation outside the Quran too:

It is stated in the Quran that Allah Almighty generally sends revelation to His slaves in one of the following ways:

"It is not fitting for a man that Allah should speak to him except by inspiration, or from behind a veil, or by the sending of a messenger to reveal, with Allah.s permission, what Allah wills: for He is Most High, Most Wise" (ash-Shura, 42/51).

As it is seen, Allah states in the verse above that He addresses His slaves He wishes using one of those ways and he does not limit His address to His slaves with a book.

In addition, one of the issues indicating that the Prophet received revelation outside the Quran too is the statement of the Quran that the Prophet and some other prophets7 were given “hikmah (wisdom)” along with the books given to them. For instance, the following is stated in the chapter of al-Baqara:

“A similar (favor have ye already received) in that We have sent among you an Messenger of your own, rehearsing to you Our Signs, and sanctifying you, and instructing you in Scripture and Wisdom, and in new knowledge” (al-Baqara, 2/151). 8

This “hikmah”, which is mentioned to be given to prophets in addition to the Book in the verse above and similar ones, is generally interpreted as “sunnah” given to the messengers of Allah. For instance, Imam Shafii expresses his view regarding the issue as follows:

"Allah mentions the Book, which is the Quran, first here and "hikmah" after that. I have heard from the people who are definitely qualified related to Quranic sciences that what is meant by here is the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah. For, the Quran is mentioned first and "hikmah" is added after that."9 al-Awzai (D. 157/774) reports that Hassan b. Atiyy said, "Jibril brought the sunnah to the Prophet just like he brought the Quran".10

We come across with information in the Quran that that other prophets were also sent revelation outside the books that were sent to them. The statements of the angels sent to Hz. Ibrahim and Hz. Lut with the duty of destroying the nation of Lut are kinds of revelation like that. The address of Allah to Hz. Zakariyya, who was not sent a book, that he would have a son12 and His address to Hz. Maryam13, though she was not a prophet, are like that. There are many verses showing that Hz. Prophet had contact with Allah apart from revelation.14 One of them is as follows:

"Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers, especially the Middle Prayer; and stand before Allah in a devout (frame of mind). If ye fear (an enemy), pray on foot, or riding, (as may be most convenient), but when ye are in security, celebrate Allah’s praises in the manner He has taught you, which ye knew not (before)" (al-Baqara, 2/238-239).

As it is seen, after ordering that prayers and especially the middle prayer (that is, as the Prophet interprets it, the afternoon (asr) prayer) need to be performed in the best way, Allah states that prayers can be performed on foot or riding if one fears a danger while travelling but that they must be performed normally as He taught you after the danger is over. The phrase "in the manner He has taught you" here is interesting. As it is known, prayer is not taught in detail in the Quran. In that case, it is certain that the Prophet received some information from Allah through Jibril outside the Quran too. As a matter of fact, there are some narrations stating that Jibril came to the Prophet and taught him the five daily prayers in detail by practicing it himself.15 Hz. Prophet taught this to his Companions in the same way and said, "Perform prayers in the manner that you see me pray"16.

In addition, Hz. Prophet is often ordered in the Quran to follow what is revealed to him17. If revelation had consisted of only the Quran, and since it is clear that Islam does not consist of the Quran only, it would have to be accepted that the Prophet did many things outside revelation. In that case, some impossible things like the Prophet’s not fulfilling Allah’s orders would have to be accepted, which is impossible to think about the Prophet.18 If something like that had happened, Allah would have intervened.

Finally, Allah states the following about the Prophet regarding the issue:

"Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him:" (an-Najm, 53/ 3-4). 19

What is meant by inspiration/revelation mentioned in the verse above is only the Quran according to some scholars but the Quran and some sunnah according to other scholars. For, hadiths are sometimes revelation and sometimes ijtihad of the Messenger of Allah. However, even if he is wrong in his ijtihad, he is corrected by Allah.20 Thus, all of his words, deeds and practices are under the control of Allah.21 Therefore, his religious orders and practices that are not based on revelation but that were not annulled or corrected by divine revelation are regarded as revelation. This kind of revelation is named as "wahy batini" by the majority of Hanafi scholars.22

One of the evidences showing that Hz. Prophet received revelation form Allah apart from the Quran is that he was given the duty and authority to explain the Quran along with conveying the Quran. It is certain that he would do it with the inspiration he received from Allah, not based on his personal knowledge and ijtihad.

4) Verses showing that Hz. Prophet was given the duty and authority to explain the Quran:

"We sent not an apostle except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them..." (Ibrahim, 14/4).

"And We sent down the Book to thee for the express purpose, that thou shouldst make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe" (an-Nahl,16/ 44).

According to what is understood from the verse above, it is not possible to reach the interpretation of some verses without the explanation of the Messenger of Allah.23

"And We sent down the Book to thee for the express purpose, that thou shouldst make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe" (an-Nahl, 16/64).24

Doubtlessly, with those verses, Allah did not leave His Prophet, whom He gavethe duty and authority to explain the Quran, without help and supported him with the revelations outside the Quran. As a matter of fact, the following verse indicates this issue:

"(Move not thy tongue concerning the (Qur'an) to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to promulgate it: But when We have promulgated it, follow thou its recital (as promulgated): Nay more, it is for Us to explain it (and make it clear)" (al-Qiyamah, 75/16-19).25

Doubtlessly, it is necessary to understand this statement of Allah, in which He makes a promise, that some verses will be explained by other verses that will be revealed in the future and that some verses that need to be explained will be explained by His Messenger after His revelation and teaching.

There is no doubt that Hz. Prophet, who is in contact with Allah, who is the source the Quran, which is sent down to him, and who is the source of the divine revelation, is the most authorized person to understand and explain the Quran and therefore believers have to adhere to his verbal and actual explanations.

Hz. Prophet explained the Quran in the following ways: He gave details about some verses that were concise, limited some general verses, clarified some verses that were difficult to understand and that were ambiguous, explained some rarely used words, stated what is meant by some verses that included literary arts and indicated abrogated verses.26 He rendered the mosque in Madinah a school with this intention, tried to settle all of the issues of his Companions without feeling tired and served as a model as a living Quran with his words and deeds.27

In addition to giving the authority to explain the verses that need to be explained to the Prophet, Allah gave him the authority to make decrees related to the issues that did not exists in the Quran.

5) The verses that gave the Prophet the authority to make decrees:

Hz. Prophet has the authority to make decrees in general without being limited with the decrees that existed in the Quran. As a matter of fact, he waited for revelation regarding some issues but when no revelation was sent, he decreed based on his own ijtihad or revelation that he received outside the Quran. Doubtlessly, these decrees of his, were under the control of revelation. Therefore, even some small mistakes of the Prophet, for whom it was unthinkable to make big mistakes, were corrected by revelation.

Therefore, all of his decrees were, in a sense, decrees that were approved by revelation. Let us have a look at the verses that express the authority of the Prophet to make decrees in general:

"But no, by the Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against Thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction." (an-Nisa, 4/65).

"It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path." (al-Ahzab, 33/36).

"The answer of the Believers, when summoned to Allah and His Messenger, in order that He may judge between them, is no other than this: they say, "We hear and we obey": it is such as these that will attain felicity" (an-Nur, 24/51).

"If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day..." (an-Nisa, 4/59).28

Some examples of the decrees made by Hz. Prophet about the issues that did not exist in the Quran are as follows: the times and rak’ahs of five daily prayers, how to perform five daily prayers, witr prayer being wajib, turning toward Bayt al-Maqdis in prayers before the Kaaba was made the qiblah, things that invalidate and do not invalidate fasting, determining the people for whom zakah is fard, the way of divorcing, many decrees about diyahs, the penalty for drinking alcohol, the amount of theft that necessitates a thief to be punished, menstruating women not performing prayers and not fasting, the inheritance of the grandmother.

We see the following incident in resources regarding the issue:

In a meeting where Imran b. al-Husayn (D.52/672) was present, somebody said, "Do not mention anything that does not exist in the Quran." Imran said to him, "You are an insane person. Did you see in the Book of Allah that the fard of the noon prayer is four rak’ahs and that qira’ah cannot be aloud in it?" Then, he mentioned zak’ah and similar decrees and said, "Can you find their explanations in the Quran? They are not clear in the Book of Allah. The Sunnah explains them." 29

Hz. Prophet was given the authority to make decrees and decisions in general related to some issues that occur in practice; in addition, he was given the authority to render some things that are not stated in the Quran haram and halal. As a matter of fact, this issue is expressed in the following verses:

6) The verses that give Hz. Prophet the authority to render things halal and haram:

"Those who follow the apostle, the unlettered Prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own (scriptures),- in the law and the Gospel;- for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper." (al-A’raf, 7/157).

"Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued" (at-Tawba, 9/29).

Some examples related to the issue are as follows: Although it is haram to eat the meat of dead animals30,the Prophet stated that sea animals were exempt; he explained it as follows: "The water of sea is clean and the dead of it are halal.";31 The Prophet also stated thattwo dead things and two bloods were halal as follows: "Two dead things and bloods are rendered halal for us: two dead things are locust and fish; two bloods are liver and spleen."32

In addition, although they are not mentioned among the ones who are rendered haram to marry33, the Prophet added that a woman’s paternal aunt, maternal aunt, sister, daughter and her brother’s daughter are haram for a man to marry while he is married to that woman.34

Although they are not mentioned in the Quran, it became definite by hadiths that the flesh of the animals animals like mule, donkey, lion, tiger, elephant, wolf, hedgehog,35 monkey and dog, and the flesh of the birds of prey like eagle, hawk and falcon are haram.36 It was also made definite by hadiths that it is haram to wear gold and silk for men. It was also made definite by hadith that those that are haram by kinship are also haram by milk kinship.

Doubtlessly, it is necessary not to regard this authority of the Prophet’s as independent from Allah. He definitely makes those decrees acting upon the authority given to him by Allah and under His control. Besides, when the Prophet made those decrees, he always based them on a general principle in the Quran. For instance, the decree of the Prophet stating that the flesh of domestic donkeys and birds of prey is haram is based on the following verse:  "He allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure)" 37. Therefore, the real legislator (Shari’) is Allah; His Messenger was given this name metaphorically based on the authority he takes from Allah.

The Prophet states the following in a hadith regarding the issue: "Know it very well that I have been given the Quran and something like it, yet the time is coming when a man replete on his couch will say, ‘Keep to the Quran; what you find in it to be permissible treat as permissible, and what you find in it to be prohibited treat as prohibited.’ Know it that what the Messenger of Allah renders haram is like what Allah renders haram."38

In addition, we are ordered to obey this lofty person, who is presented as a model for us in the Quran and who is stated to have high ethics; and obedience to him is mentioned together with obedience to Allah in many places. Thus, it is emphasized many times that obedience to the Prophet means obedience to Allah. There is no doubt that obedience to the Messenger of Allah was fard when he was alive and it is also fard after his death. This obedience will take place through following his Sunnah.39 As a matter of fact, the Prophet states the following in a hadith: "He who obeys me is regarded to have obeyed Allah; he who disobeys me is regarded to have disobeyed Allah. He who obeys me is the one who obeys my orders." 40

7) The verses that orders obedience to Hz. Prophet:

"He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah...." (an-Nisa, 4/80).

"... So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you..." (al-Hashr, 59/7).

It is interesting that love of Allah is associated with obedience to Hz. Prophet in the following verse:

"Say: "If ye do love Allah, Follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Say: "Obey Allah and His Messenger.: But if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject Faith" (Aal-i Imran, 3/31-32).

The address in the verse is to unbelievers as it is understood from the reason for the revelation of the verse,41 belief in Allah and obedience to Him without belief in and obedience to His Messenger is not regarded as a valid claim.

"We sent not an apostle, but to be obeyed, in accordance with the will of Allah..." (an-Nisa, 4/64).42

There is no doubt that the obedience mentioned in those verses is not only obedience to the orders of the Quran sent down to him by Allah. For, in that case, it would be meaningless to mention obedience to the Prophet together with obedience to Allah in many places. Therefore, hadiths are not the words of an ordinary person but the words of a person whom we have to obey upon the order of Allah. As a matter of fact, the Companions, who were the first addressees of the Quran, understood it like that; they tried to fulfill his orders meticulously and to learn anything that they did not know from him. 43

Allah orders us to obey the Prophet and prohibits us from disobeying him.

8) The verses that prohibit disobeying Hz. Prophet:

"But those who disobey Allah and His Messenger and transgress His limits will be admitted to a Fire, to abide therein: And they shall have a humiliating punishment" (an-Nisa, 4/14).

"If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,- what an evil refuge!" (an-Nisa, 4/115).

"This because they contended against Allah and His Messenger. If any contend against Allah and His Messenger, Allah is strict in punishment" (al-Anfal, 8/13).44

Those verses, which order us to obey the Prophet and prohibit us from opposing him, show that obedience to him is compulsory, not optional. This is a natural result of believing in him.

Along with obedience and avoiding opposing the Prophet, Allah also wants us to show respect to him and to love him. These verses definitely and clearly show the honor and value Allah gives the Messenger of Allah.

9) The verses that orders us to respect and love Hz. Prophet:

"The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers..." (al-Ahzab, 33/6).45

"Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! Send ye blessings on him, and salute him with all respect (al-Ahzab, 33/56).

"O Ye who believe! Put not yourselves forward before Allah and His Messenger. but fear Allah. for Allah is He Who hears and knows all things. O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not" (al-Hujurat, 49/1-2)46.

Finally, the Prophet leads those who obey him and who follow him to the true path. Allah states it in many verses:

10) The verses stating that Hz. Prophet lead people to the true path:

"... If ye obey him (the Prophet), ye shall be on right guidance..." (an-Nur, 24/54).

"... And verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way, -The Way of Allah, to Whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Behold (how) all affairs tend towards Allah" (ash-Shura, 42/52-53).

"But verily thou callest them to the Straight Way" (al-Mu'minun, 23/73).47

It is understood from those verses with the guarantee and witnessing of Allah that Hz. Prophet is on the true path with all of his words, deeds and consents and that he leads people to the truth. It is not possible, but if he had caused people to go astray or if he had made up a verse or hadith on behalf of Allah (God forbid), Allah Almighty would have definitely intervened as He expresses it in a verse48. This clearly shows the soundness and bindingness of the Quran and the Sunnah.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, we can say that it is a great blessing for humanity that Allah chose a prophet from among them as a model and sent him as a prophet. To believe in him does not mean only to accept that he is a prophet; it is also necessary to obey him.

Allah Himself educated and trained the Prophet and stated in His book that he had high ethics and that it was necessary to accept him as a model.

In addition, the revelation sent to him does not consist of the Quran only; "hikmah", which is stated to have been given to him in the verses along with the Book and which means Sunnah, is also based on revelation. Besides, the deeds he did based on his own ijtihad and the words he uttered were also under the control of the revelation; therefore, his small mistakes called “zallah” were corrected by revelation; thus, his words and deeds were cleared of all kinds of mistakes. This shows the soundness of his Sunnah and the necessity of obeying him.

Since Allah Himself gave the Prophet the authority to explain the verses of the Quran, it is clearly seen that his Sunnah is binding for believers.

That obedience to the Prophet is mentioned together with obedience to Allah in verses is a clear expression of the value given to the Sunnah of the Prophet. This obedience took place by obeying him when he was alive and it will take place by following his Sunnah after his death.

Furthermore, the authority to make decrees, to render things haram and halam about the things that do not exist in the Quran was given to the Prophet by Allah Himself. Therefore, the Sunnah of the Prophet is a religious resource about the issues that are not present in the Quran. Lastly, we can say that the enemies of the religion of Islam who know that the words and practices of the Prophet have an important place in the worshipping and ethics of Islam and in practicing Islam in social life try to shake the place of the Prophet and his Sunnah in the religion and to cast doubt on his hadiths since they cannot attack the Quran directly. Believers have to be careful so as not to be deceived by them and they have to adhere to the leadership of the Prophet and the guidance of his Sunnah.

FOOTNOTES:

1) These efforts are not new. Their basis dates back to the first periods. However, we want to attract attention to today with that expression. See. Abu Zahw, al-Hadith wal-Muhaddithun, Egypt, 1378/1958, p.21; as-Sibai, as-Sunnatu wa Makanatuha fit- Tashri’il-Islam, Cairo, 1966, p.11-14; Abdulghaniy Abdulkhaliq, Hujjiyyatus-Sunna, Beirut, 1407/1986, p.278; KIRBAŞOĞLU, M.Hayri, Kur'an'a Göre Sünnetin Konumu, (unprinted article), p.1-3 regarding the issue.

2) Tirmidhi, Ahkam, 3; Musnad, V, 230; Abu Dawud, Aqdiya, 11.

3) For detailed examples related to the issue, see Hujjiyyatus-Sunna, p.283-291.

4) For another verse regarding the issue, see al-Baqara, 151; at-Tawba, 61; al-Anbiya, 107: al-Jumua, 2-4.

5) al-Ahzab, 6.

6) See al-A’raf, 158; an-Nisa, 136; at-Tawba, 91: an-Nur, 62; al-Fath, 8-9, 13; al-Hujurat,15; at-Taghabun, 8.

7) See al-Baqara, 251; Aal-i Imran, 48; an-Nisa, 54; Sad, 20; az-Zukhruf, 63.

8) For similar verses, see al-Baqara, 129,231; Aal-i Imran, 164; an-Nisa, 113; al-Ahzab, 34; al-Jumu'a, 2

9) ash-Shafii, ar-Risala, p.78.

10) Darimi, Vol. I, 117; Ta'wilu Mukhtalifil-Hadith, p.166; Qurtubi, I.33.

11) See al-Ankabut, 31-32; al-Hijr, 52-77.

12) Aal-i Imran. 38-40.

13) Aal-i Imran, 42-45.

14) For two examples of them, see al-Anfal, 9-10; at-Tahrim, 3; al-Baqara, 142-144.

15) See Bukhari Bad'ul-Khalq, 6; Muslim, Masajid, 166; Abu Dawud, Salat, 2; Ibn Majah, Salat, 1; Musnad, I, 333, 111, 30.

16) Bukhari, Adhan, 18.

17) See an-Nisa, 105; al-Maida, 48-49,67; al-An'am. 106; al-Ahzab. 1-2; al-Jathiya, 18.

18) For, He praised His Prophet, stated that He was pleased with him and made him a witness for his ummah. For instance, see al-Enbiya, 107; al-Ahzab, 45-46; al-Baqara. 143.

19) For similar verses, see Yunus, 15; al-Ahqaf, 9; al-Baqara, 142-144.

20) For examples regarding the issue, see at-Tawba, 43, 84; al-Anfal,67; al-Isra, 74; al-Ahzab, 2,37; Abasa, 1-10; Yunus, 94; al-An'am, 35,52; at-Tahrim, 1; an-Nisa, 105; al-Munafiqun, 6. See also al-Matrafi, Ayatul Tabil-Mustafa (pbuh), Cairo, 1977.

21) See Shatibi, al-Muwafaqat, IV.15; Muhammed Hamdi Yazır, Hak Dini Kur'an Dili, İstanbul, 1935-1939, VI.4571

22) Hujjiyyatus-Sunna, p.340.

23) See Tabari, 74.

24) See also these verses: al-Baqara, 151: an-Nisa, 105: al-Maida, 67; Qiyamah, 19.

25) A similar verse: an-Nisa, l 13.

26) For detailed information and examples regarding the issue, see Suat Yıldırım, Peygamberimizin Kur'an Tefsiri, İstanbul, 1983.

27) The following words of Hz. Aisha expresses the issue in the best way "His ethics was the ethics of the Quran." That is, he served as a model as a human being who practiced the Quran with his words and deeds. For this narration, see Muslim, 6, Salatul-Musafirin, 18, no:139.

28) For similar verses, see an-Nur, 47-52.

29) Shatibi, al-Muwafaqat, IV.19; Ibn Abdiberr, Jamiu Bayanil-Ilm wa Fadlih, Madinah, 1388/1968, II.234.

30) al-Maida. 3; al-An'am, 145.

31) Abu Dawud, Vol. I, p.54.

32) See Ibn Majah, Sayd, 9; At’ima, 31; Abu Dawud, At’ima, 34; Muwatta, Sifatun-Nabiy, 30. Musnad, II.97; as-San'ani, Subulus-Salam, IV.76.

33) an-Nisa, 23.

34) Bukhari, Nikah, 27.

35) See al-Muvafaqat, IV.23 for the prohibition of the flesh of hedgehog.

36) See Muslim. 34. as-Saydu wadh-Dhabaih, 3, no:12.

37) al-Araf, 157.

38) For various versions of the hadith, see Abu Dawud. as-Sunna, 6.bab, no:4604, 4605; Tirmidhi, 42, Ilm, 10; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 2; Darimi, as-Sunnatu Qadiyatun alal-Kitab, 49; Musnad, IV.131: al-Mustadrak, I.109 See also Kanzul-Ummal, I.173-174; Muqaddimatan. p.195; Khatib Baghdadi. Kitabul-Kifaya fi Ilmir-Riwaya. p.8.10, 12: al-Muwafaqat, IV.10-11.

39) See Tabari, V.147; Razi. III.357: Tusi. Tibyan, III. 235-236; Ibn Hazm, al-Ihkam, I.97-98.

40) Bukhari, Jihad, IV.8; I'tisam, VIII. 139-140; Ahkam, VIII, 104; Muslim, Imara. III. 1466. 41)Tabari, III. 143; Razi, II. 650.

42) For other verses regarding the issue, see Aal-i Imran, 132,172: an-Nisa. 13, 59, 61, 65, 69; al-Maida, 92; al-Araf, 157,158; al-Anfal, 1, 20, 24, 46; at-Tawba,. 62, 71, 91; an-Nur, 51-54, 56; al-Ahzab. 33, 36, 37, 64-66, 71: Muhammad, 33; al-Fath, 17-18; al-Hujurat, 14; al-Mujadala, 13; at-Taghabun, 12.

43) As an example, see a practice of Hz. Abu Bakr, Dhahabi, Tazkim, I, 2.

44) For other verses regarding the issue, see an-Nisa. 42,80-81: al-Anfal, 13.27; at-Tawba, 61, 63, 120; an-Nur. 47-50, 63; al-Ahzab, 36, 57; Muhammad, 32; al-Fath, 10, 17; al-Hujurat, 1-3; al-Mujadala,9; al-Jinn, 23.

45) The following hadith explains that verse very well: "None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father and his children." See Bukhari, Iman, 8; Muslim, Iman, 70; Nasai, Iman, 29; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 9: Darimi, Riqaq,29.

46) For similar verses, see an-Nur, 62-63: al-Hujurat, 3-5.

47) For similar verses, see an-Nisa, 83: al-A’raf, 158; Yusuf, 108; an-Naml, 79; al-Ahzab, 45-46; Yasin, 1-5.

48) al-Haaqqa, 44-47: "And if the apostle were to invent any sayings in Our name, We should certainly seize him by his right hand, And We should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart: Nor could any of you withhold him (from Our wrath)."

Doç. Dr. Mevlüt Güngör Yeni Ümit, June-July-August-Issue :21,  October-November-December 1993 Issue :22 Year :1993

Questions on Islam

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