Why was fasting rendered fard?

The following is stated in the Quran:

"O ye who believe! fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you that ye may (learn) self-restraint."(al-Baqara, 2/183).

It is known that the Messenger of Allah said,  

"Fasting is a shield that protects man from Hellfire just like a shield that protects you from that during a war." (Nasai, Sawm, IV, 167)

Fasting is a kind of worship that protects the person who fasts from all kinds of lust and that increases his sincerity. It is very important to resist hunger, thirst and the other desires of the soul. Believers who believe in Allah and decide to make jihad for His sake will have a strong will thanks to fasting.   

Ramadan comes ten or eleven days earlier every year since the Hijri calendar is based on the lunar year. Therefore, a person sometimes fasts in very cold weather in winter and sometimes in very hot weather in summer. In a sense, the believer makes this promise: "I am ready to fulfill the orders of Allah even in freezing cold and scorching heat."

Besides, it is a very important event for a believer to give up the lust of his soul for a month in order to attain the consent of Allah. 

Hypocrisy cannot intervene in fasting. As a matter of fact, the nature and characteristics of fasting and a believer who fasts are described as follows:

"Fasting is a shield (or a screen or a shelter). So, the person observing fasting should avoid sexual relation with his wife and should not behave foolishly and impudently, and if somebody fights with him or abuses him, he should tell him twice, 'I am fasting." The Prophet added, "By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, the smell coming out from the mouth of a fasting person is better in the sight of Allah than the smell of musk. (Allah says about the fasting person), 'He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake. The fast is for Me. So I will reward (the fasting person) for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied ten times." (Bukhari, Siyam).

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