What are the evidences for Allah's oneness (Tawhid)?

• The claim that there is more than one god is logically invalid

Islamic theology scholars mentioned various evidence in order to prove the oneness of Allah. The most important of them is the evidence called reductio ad impossible that refutes the claim that there is more than one god.

When we assume that there are two equal gods in the universe, it is definite that there will be discussions between them and conflicts between their wishes.

In the end of such a conflict, for instance, when one god wanted something to happen and the other wanted it not to happen, one of the following three possibilities would happen.

1. Both of the gods’ wishes would take place.

2. Neither of the gods’ wishes would take place.

3. One of the gods’ wish would take place and the other’s wish would not.

All of those possibilities are rationally invalid and impossible.

If the wishes of both of them took place,a state in which something would happen and would not happen at the same time would take place, that is, two opposites like existence and non-existence would come together, which is logically impossible.

If neither of the gods’ wishes would take place, it would mean something would be deprived of existence and non-existence, that is, the opposites would disappear, which is also rationally and logically impossible.

In addition, the gods would suffer weakness when their wishes were not realized. Weak beings cannot be divine beings; they cannot create anything.

In the third possibility, the wish of one of the gods would take place and the other would be prevented; then the god whose wish did not take place would become weak. A weak being cannot be a god.

Moreover, we mentioned that the gods would be equal; when one of them turned out to be weak, the other would be weak too because they were equal. Then, both of them would be weak. Weak beings cannot be gods.

Thus, all of the possibilities turned out to be invalid; and the theory that there are two or more gods is proved to be invalid spontaneously.

Then, the divine being that created the world is one. And that being is Allah, the Exalted, who has absolute perfection, power and greatness as a necessity of the existence of His pre-eternal and post-eternal personality.

There is other evidence that proves the belief of oneness. Let us mention some of them that we regard as important:

Evidence that “His sovereignty does not accept any partners”:

The most important and indispensable law of the truth of sovereignty is independence and freedom. That is, rejection of others’ intervention and partnership in sovereignty.

It is obvious that even weak men who have a slight shadow or part of sovereignty reject the outer interventions in order to protect their independence and they act aggressively when others interfere in their business. In history, kings who were full of love and compassion killed their innocent children and beloved brothers lest they should intervene in their sovereignty. It clearly shows that the truth that no intervention is in question in sovereignty is dominant so absolutely and essentially.

Since the shadow of the feeling of sovereignty in weak and needy men rejects intervention so much and does not accept partnership in their sovereignty and try to protect their independence by all means, it will be understood that God Almighty, ‘who has absolute sovereignty in the form of being the Lord of the worlds, absolute dominance in the form of divinity and absolute independence in the form of oneness’ is free from having a partner, counterpart and rival.

Therefore, independence and uniqueness is an indispensable principle of the absolute sovereignty of Allah.

• Evidence of order:

The perfect order and unerring system seen in the beings on the earth from atoms to stars in individuals and in all of them is the greatest proof and the brightest evidence of oneness. If anybody other than the Maker intervened in the divine activities and creation in the universe, that highly delicate order and balance would be spoiled and the marks of disorder would be seen everywhere.

Evidence of “ease at oneness and difficulty in plenitude”:

If the creation of things is attributed to only one Maker and Creator, it will be easy like the creation of one thing. If it is attributed to the nature, a fly will be as difficult as the skies, a flower as difficult as a spring and a fruit as difficult as an orchard.

Since an eternal ease is seen in the creation of things in the universe, it is understood that the Creator is one and single...

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