What are the attributes of Allah?

The divine attributes are divided into two groups: personal and affirmative.

Personal Attributes:

1. Wujud (Existence),
2. Qidaam (Pre-eternity, eternal existence in the past),
3. Baqa (Eternity, immortality),
4. Wahdaniyyah (Oneness, having no partner),
5. Qiyam bi nafseehee (The continuation of His existence stems from nothing but Himself),
6. Mukhalafath-un lil hawadith (His essence does not resemble that of His servants and His attributes do not resemble those of His creatures)

Affirmative attributes:

1. Hayaat (Life)
2. Ilm (Knowledge)
3. Iraade (Will)
4. Kudrah (Power)
5. Sam (Hearing)
6. Basar (Sight)
7. Kalaam (Speech)
8. Takween (Creation, making).

As far as the attribute of takween (creation) is concerned, it is regarded as one of Allahs attributes according to the Maturidi school of thought. Another religious leader, Imam Ashari, does not regard this attribute as separate. Thus, there are seven affirmative attributes according to this school of thought.

It is possible to see that in some Islamic sources, the divine names are also considered attributes. For example, Kareem (All-Munificent) is one of Allahs names. At the same time, in terms of qualifying Allah munificent, it functions as an attribute as well. When we say "Allah the Munificent", we also use the name of Munificent as an attribute.

Again, in those sources, the attributes of Allah Almighty are evaluated in three groups:

1. Personal attributes
2. Actual attributes
3. Spiritual attributes

All of Allahs beautiful names rest on one of these attributes. For example, the name of All-Knowing rests on the attribute of "knowledge" from the affirmative attributes, the name of Powerful on the attribute of "power", and the name of Speaker on the attribute of "speech". In the same way, the name of First rests on the attribute of qidaam (eternal in the past) from the personal attributes the name of Last rests on the attribute of immortality.

Most of the divine names rest on actual attributes. The name of Creator rests on the act of creation; the name of Life-Giver on the act of resuscitation; the name of Giver of Form on the act of shaping, the name of Giver of Death on the act of giving of death.

In addition, some names rest on the spiritual attributes. The name of All-Wise rests on the attribute of wisdom of Allah; the name of Most Great on the attribute of having grandeur; the name of All-Gracious rests on the attribute of beauty of Allah.

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