Makruhs of prayer
To abandon one of the wajibs of prayer deliberately is makruh tahrimi. To abandon one of the sunnahs or adabs of prayer is makruh but not tahrimi.
After this general rule, let us list the primary makruhs of prayer:
1 - To play with one's body and clothes. To fan oneself with the hand in order to cool down.
The prayer becomes perfect when a person attains awe and tranquility spiritually and bodily, and breaks off his relationship with the worldly affairs; therefore, such deeds are regarded as makruh. The following is stated in a hadith: "Allah does not regard it nice playing with something in prayer."
2 - To start a prayer when one's wudu is about to break or when delicious and attractive food is ready at the table. They are regarded as makruh because they prevent tranquility in prayer by keeping the heart and the mind busy.
3 - To crack one's knuckles or to intertwine fingers.
According to Ibn Abidin, to crack one's knuckles is makruh outside prayer too. Intertwining is not makruh if it is done in order to massage.
4 - To yawn, stretch one's body and to put one's hand on his sides in prayer are makruh.
5 - To turn one's head and look at something without turning his chest from the direction of the qiblah. To turn the chest from the direction of the qiblah invalidates prayer.
6 - To place the arms on the ground/floor in prayer. It is not makruh for women.
7 - To answer one's greeting by gesture.
8 - To hold and raise one's garment by the hand while going to sajdah from the front or behind.
9 - To put the jacket or coat on his shoulder or head without wearing it. If it is done due to conceitedness or ignoring the prayer, it is makruh. If it is done due to an excuse, it is not makruh.
10 - To perform a prayer in bad clothes, dirty overalls or clothes that one will not wear in the presence of others. When Hz. Umar saw somebody praying in dirty overalls, he asked the person, "If I sent you to some people with these clothes, would you go?" When the man said no, he said, "God Almighty is the one who deserves the best clothes to be worn in His presence."
What is mustahab in prayer is to wear casual, normal clothes. Nightgowns and pajamas are usual clothes that are worn at home, so, it is permissible to perform prayers wearing them. However, it is better not to perform prayers with them because they might not be clean.
11 - To perform prayers with short-sleeved garments. It is also makruh to perform prayers with garments by rolling up their sleeves up to the elbows.
12 - To bow down before completing qira'ah.
13 - In the second rak'ah, to read a chapter or verses located before the ones read in the first chapter in the Quran.
14 - To read a chapter in the first rak'ah and to read a chapter two chapters after the first one in the second rak'ah; that is to skip only one chapter. For instance to read the chapter of al-Fil in the first rak'ah and the chapter of al-Maun in the second rak'ah by skipping the chapter of Quraysh.
It is necessary to skip at least two chapters in order to get rid of karahah.
15 - The second rak'ah of a prayer should not be longer than the first one, and the fourth one should not be longer than the third one.
16 - To read the same chapter in both rak'ahs. If a person does not know any other chapters to read, it is not makruh.
It is not makruh to read the same chapters in supererogatory prayers.
17 - To skip one or more verses of the same chapter deliberately.
18 - To close one's eyes or to stare at the sky. It is among the adabs of prayer to look at the place of sajdah in prayer. To close the eyes means to abandon this adab. However, it is better to close the eyes if there exists a risk of seeing something that will eliminate the awe or distract one's attention.
19 - To do a minor deed (amal qalil) that is not appropriate for prayer like plucking a hair from one's own body.
20 - To scratch oneself, to wipe one's sweat in prayer. If the itching and the sweat disturb him a lot and keep his mind busy, it is permissible to scratch and to wipe the sweat. If a person scratches himself three times in a rak'ah, it is regarded as a major deed (amal kathir) and invalidates wudu.
21 - To prostrate on the picture of a living being.
22 - To wear clothes that have pictures of living beings; to have pictures of living beings over one's head, behind, in front of, next to and opposite him.
If the picture is too small to see when the person is standing, or if it is big but the head is cut so that it cannot live or if organs are incomplete, it is permissible. However, it is necessary to ensure that they are not hung on the direction of the qiblah.
23 - To put only the forehead but not the nose on the ground/floor in sajdah despite having no excuse.
24 - To perform a prayer on a busy road, on a grave, in a public bath, on animal dung, and near dirty places.
25 - To perform a prayer behind despite the existence of a gap in the front line.
26 - To perform a prayer facing hot cinder. It is permissible to perform a prayer facing a candle, lamp, etc.
27 - Regarding having a cap with one as a burden due to laziness or regarding covering the head with a cap as unimportant and perform prayers without covering his head. However, it is sunnah to cover the head while praying for men. Some scholars regard it better to pick up the cap that falls off the head in sajdah and put it on the head without committing amal kathir (for instance using only one hand). If a person has an excuse, it is permissible for him to perform prayers without covering his head.
Some scholars say there is no drawback to leaving the head uncovered with the intention of modesty and awe.
* It is sunnah to wrap a turban around the cap. The Messenger of Allah said, "A prayer performed with a turban is 70 times better than a prayer performed without a turban." (Taj) According to some scholars, covering the head with a cap can be equal to covering it with a turban.
28 - To count the verses that one reads and the tasbihat in ruku' and sajdahs with fingers.
29 - It is makruh to perform a prayer facing a person who is sleeping or a person or facing the face of a person. There is no drawback to performing a prayer facing a person's back.
30 - It is makruh for a person not to put a sutrah in front of him while performing a prayer in a place where people can pass in front of him.
31 - It is makruh to lean on something without any excuse and to swing to the right and left while performing a fard prayer.
32 - It is makruh to put the hands on the ground/floor before the knees without any excuse while going to sajdah; it is also makruh to raise the knees before the hands or by pushing against his hands.
33 - Not to keep the head and the back straight in ruku' and raise up or bend down.
34 - To utter basmala and amin loudly.
35 - To utter tasbihat in ruku and sajdah fewer than 3 times.
36 - To perform a prayer by placing a child on his back or lap if he has no excuse.
37 - To perform a prayer by wearing silk clothes (for men). It is permissible to pray on a silk prayer rug because it is haram to wear silk clothes for men, It is permissible to use silk.
1 - It is not makruh to perform a prayer facing a mushaf (Quran) burning candle, lamp, lantern, etc.
2 - It is not makruh to perform prayers on a cloth having photos of living beings if those photos are under the feet of the praying person.
3 - It is not makruh to kill a snake, a scorpion. However, if this killing necessitates amal kathir or turning the chest from the direction of the qiblah, the prayer is invalidated.
4 - It is not makruh if there is a man in front of a praying person if that man's back faces the praying person.
5 - There is no drawback to looking at something without turning the face but it is better not to do so.
6 - If the floor/ground is impossible to prostrate on, one can perform the prayer on the bed.
7 - If the dust, sticks, etc on the ground stick to the forehead in sajdah and keep a person busy, it is not makruh to wipe them as if wiping the sweat.
- What is amal kathir in prayer? I know that changing the place of things in prayer invalidates prayer. Is prayer invalidated if a person changes the place of things involuntarily?
- In what order should we read chapters of the Quran in prayer? Is it makruh to read them without an order? Will you give information about the lengths of chapters and the order of reading them in prayer?
- Did our Prophet (pbuh) ever pray (perform salat) without covering his head or wearing a cap or turban?
- How Many Pillars (Essential Parts) are there in a Prayer?
- The Principles of Prayer
- Sajdah as-Sahw
- Is the prayer invalidated when three movements are made with one hand while praying? What is the limit of three movements in prayer?
- Prayers in Congregation
- What chapters and verses did the Prophet (pbuh) read in prayers?
- What chapters and verses did the Prophet (pbuh) read in prayers?