What does to check hadiths against the Quran mean? Did the Prophet say, "Whatever comes to you from me, check it against the Book of Allah; if it is in accordance with the Book of Allah, then I said it, but if it goes against it, then I did not say it."?

Details of the Question

Did the Prophet say, "Whatever comes to you from me, check it against the Book of Allah; if it is in accordance with the Book of Allah, then I said it, but if it goes against it, then I did not say it."? If he did, how should we understand it?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

1. Information about checking against the Quran (Ard)

When we consider the issues that the Quran and the Sunnah are based on the same source, that both of them are revelations and the Prophet (pbuh) will not insist on a mistake, etc., the fact that they cannot be contrary to each other becomes clear. Therefore, the issue whether anything that is attributed to the Prophet (pbuh) is in accordance with the Quran or not has been discussed. Some people say, "We look at the hadiths that are narrated; if they arein accordance with the Quran, we will accept them; if not, we will not accept them." They show evidence from the Prophet (pbuh) and the Companions for these claims.

“Whatever comes to you from me, check it against the Book of Allah; if it is in accordance with the Book of Allah, then I said it, but if it goes against it, then I did not say it.”(1) They base their views on the hadith attributed to the Prophet (pbuh) above and lay compatibility with the Quran as a condition in order to decree about the soundness of a hadith. This checking is called “ard”.

There are some scholars who base the idea of Ard to the Prophet (pbuh) through the hadith of Ard but there are also some scholars who say that this hadith was made up by sinners and that it is not possible to act based on it. 

When the Prophet said a decree about something, he read a verse immediately after it on some occasions (2). Such practice was accepted as evidence for checking hadiths against the Quran. Those who do not accept Ard say those narrations are mudraj (interpolated) (3) and hence they cannot be used as evidence for the issue.

Hz. Umar stated the following about a narration of Fatima bint Qays: “We cannot leave the book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger based on the words of a woman, whom we do not know whether she forgot or not.”(4) Acting upon this statement, it is necessary to think that Hz. Umar checked the Sunnah against the Quran. For, the understanding that all of the hadiths need to be checked against the Quran and those that are in accordance with it need to be accepted and those that are not need to be rejected is contrary to this attitude of Hz. Umar. Hz. Umar evaluated a statement that he heard for the first time based on the whole Quran and the Sunnah. Those who go to extremes regarding the issue of the understanding of Ard approach the issue with a style that rejects the Sunnah as a source.   

One of the evidences shown by those who support the view of checking the hadiths against the Quran is some practices of Hz. Aisha. Zarkashi collected some of her rejections related to some Companions in a book (5); some of them are as follows:

When Hz. Aisha heard the hadith “The illegitimate child is the evilest of the three evils” reported by Abu Hurayra, she said, "May Allah show mercy to Abu Hurayra! That hadith is about a munafiq. He pestered the Messenger of Allah a lot. The Messenger of Allah asked people about him. They said, “He is an illegitimate child.” Then, he spoke like that. Otherwise, the Quran says, “Nor can a bearer of burdens bear another´s burdens”; how can the Messenger of Allah say such a thing?"(6). That is, the woman and man who commit fornication are guilty. The illegitimate child is innocent.

As it is seen, Hz. Aisha corrects the incident first and says that it is misunderstood; then, she mentions a verse that is in accordance with the decree from the Sunnah in order to state that the Quran and the Sunnah cannot be contrary to each other since they come from the same source.

Hz. Aisha asked not only the Companions but also the Prophet (pbuh). As a matter of fact, once, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “Anyone whose account will be taken will be ruined.” Hz. Aisha said, “O Messenger of Allah! May Allah make me be sacrificed for you! Does Allah not say, ‘Then he who is given his Record in his right hand, Soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning’(7)?" The Prophet (pbuh) said, “That is only the presentation of the accounts; but he whose record is questioned, will be ruined." (8) Thus, he clarified the issue.

This example is significant. Hz. Aisha did not check a narration that reached her against the Quran; she asked it the Prophet (pbuh) himself because she did not understand the compliance of the decree with the Quran. This shows a different aspect of the issue. Therefore, the objection of a person who does not understand the compliance of the Quran and the Sunnah can be easily settled by someone else. This shows us the relativity of the issue.

2. Views about Ard

Those who say it is necessary to check hadiths against the Quran and their evidences, and those who say it is not appropriate to check hadiths against the Quran and their evidences do not interest our topic very much. Therefore, we do not regard it necessary to enter into details (9); instead, we regard it more appropriate to mention the views of the scholars regarding the issue and the practices about it.

It is claimed that the madhhab in which checking hadiths against the Quran developed as a method is Hanafi madhhab. However, to deduce such a decree without evaluating the understanding of the madhhab can mislead us. Since the Sunnah cannot be contrary to the Quran, for instance, those who accept Ard will not be able to lay conditions for its decree and will not convey it. However, Hanafi madhhab, especially its imam, (10) explains the position of the Sunnah according to the Quran as follows:

a) The Sunnah strengthens the Quran.
b) The Sunnah interprets and explains the Quran.
c) The Sunnah specifies (takhsis) one decree of the Quran (11).

However, it is necessary for the Sunnah to be mutawatir or mashhur to abrogate or specify the Quran. Khabar wahid that is contrary to the decree of the Quran cannot change its decree. What they say "Hanafis check the hadiths against the Quran" are these kinds of hadiths. Hanafi methodologists call it manawi inqita (disconnection in meaning) (12). In that case, Hanafi scholars act in accordance with hadiths without limiting the strengthening and interpretation of the Quran by the Sunnah but they lay it as a condition for a hadith to be mutawatir or mashhur if a hadith is to change or specify decree of the Quran (13). Therefore, it is not appropriate to say Hanafis check the hadiths against the Quran directly.

Imam Malik also adopts the three functions of the Sunnah exactly (14). According to him, even khabar wahids sometimes specify the Quran in general and limit its absoluteness. Besides, if it is supported with the practice of the people of Madinah, it becomes stronger. He even regards the hadiths about ru’yah (seeing Allah) to be in compliance with the verse “Some faces, that Day, will beam (in brightness and beauty)”; and, he accuses those who reject those hadiths of not following the Quran (15). If the rejection of khabar wahids due to the opposition to the Quran in some cases is called Ard, we can say that such Ard is in question for Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik.

Imam Shafii, who calls the narration mentioning the hadiths being checked against the Quran fabricated (16), states that it is Allah’s order to act in accordance with sound hadiths and that a person who does not act in accordance with such a hadith is insane (17). Therefore, the Sunnah interprets and limits the Quran, and it imposes independent decrees related to the issues that the Quran does not make a decree. The decrees imposed by the Sunnah might apparently seem to be contrary to the Quran but it is because the indications that show the determination of the purpose are not known (18).

It is important that Imam Shafii describe the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) as what he understands from the Quran. Therefore, he regards rejecting the Sunnah by using its contrariness to the Quran as an excuse as ignorance (19).

However, his evaluations are about sound hadiths. If a hadith is shazz and if it is contrary to the Quran, one cannot act in accordance with that hadith (20). In that case, the decrees of the sound hadiths that seem to be contrary to the Quran are understood not to be contrary when its indications are known; however, if the narration is shazz, the opposition is taken into consideration and one cannot act in accordance with it. In that case, we can say that Imam Shafii check shazz hadiths against the Quran virtually if they introduce additional decrees to the Quran.

According to Ahmad b. Hanbal, who thinks like Imam Shafii, Sunnah is not rejected by the apparent meaning of the Quran. For, the Sunnah determines the meaning and indications of the Quran. Therefore, a hadith is not rejected because it is contrary to the Quran in general. In fact, such a hadith explains and interprets the Quran (21). In that case, according to him, the Sunnah and the Quran are a whole. The opposition that is seen is apparent; it can be explained. Therefore, hadiths cannot be abandoned with the excuse of being contrary to the Quran.

There are also some other scholars who say that it is not appropriate to reject the Sunnah with the excuse of checking it against the Quran, that the Sunnah explains and interprets the Quran, that the Sunnah can impose some decrees that do not exist in the Quran, that hadiths cannot be rejected due to apparent opposition because the source of both of them is revelation, that they cannot be contrary to each other and that apparent contrariness can definitely be explained. Ibn Hazm, Ibn Abi Shayba, Suyuti, Ibn Abdil-Barr, Qurtubi, Shawkani, Saghani, Fattani, Ibnul-Arraq, Aliyyul-Qari(22) are some of them. Especially the writers of mawduat are against checking the Sunnah against the Quran by saying that the narration of Ard is fabricated.

However, we regard it appropriate to check shazz and weak hadiths against the Quran and the sound Sunnah when they are used to make decrees. As a matter of fact, acting upon the explanations we have made above, we see that they also do it actually though they do not use the name Ard. Besides, this is probably what the scholars who essentially reject Ard mean. It can be said that they express their concern that sound Sunnah can be abandoned with the excuse that it is contrary to the Quran.

The narration about Ard exists in fabricated resources but it is also present in reliable resources (23). Therefore, we think it will be more useful to place it on a certain ground instead of rejecting it completely. In our opinion, it will be more appropriate to apply Ard actually for the shazz or weak narrations that introduce additional decrees to the Quran, not for sound narrations. As a matter of fact, this is what the fiqh scholars do.

On the other hand, we do not approve eliminating many sound hadiths under the pretext of checking all hadiths against the Quran (24). This will lead us to the understanding of the Quran without Sunnah. In that case, it will be inevitable for the Sunnah that reflects the life of the Prophet (pbuh), who is the living interpretation of the Quran, to be replaced by other understandings and systems.

3. Checking the Life of the Prophet against the Quran

Checking the hadiths against the Quran and hence rejecting some narrations because they are contrary to the Quran, doubting everything that reached us from the Prophet (pbuh) with the understanding that it is necessary to check all narrations against the Quran by going to extremes will mean to accuse the previous of fourteen hundred years. It means to push those who reported these narrations to us, primarily the Companions, and to replace them with ourselves.

However, if we put aside the discussions whether the practice of Ard existed or not, let us see how the Prophet (pbuh) used his right to understand and interpret the Quran, which was sent down to him. Did he find it enough only to answer some questions and problems he was asked; or, did he practice the Quran actually with all aspects? 

As the person who understood and lived the realities practiced by the Quran in the best way, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) was also the person who reflected them in his life in the best way. Therefore, we will deal with the issue of Ard (checking the hadiths against the Quran) from a different viewpoint. We see the lifestyle that the Prophet (pbuh) displayed individually, familially and socially in all aspects as the explanation of the issues mentioned in the Quran and the seeds in the Quran being transformed into trees.

Therefore, instead of looking at the Quran with the same eye-glasses, it is necessary to think what outcomes will be brought about if we look at it from the window of the life of the Prophet (pbuh).

The reason why the Prophet who was sent to human beings was chosen from among them, not from among angels and jinn, is to shed light on all aspects of life and serve as a model. As Qardawi puts it (25), when life is dealt with in terms of length, width and depth, it will be seen that there is nothing left outside. The length includes life from birth to death and even from the realm of spirits to life in the hereafter; the width includes all aspects of life, the house, market, mosque, road, job, spouse, food, relationship with Allah, individual, family, Muslims, non-Muslims, human beings, animals, man’s relationship with all living and non-living beings; the depth includes the inner structure of man, that is, his apparent and hidden feelings like his body, mind, spirit and secrets, words, deeds and intentions. Form this viewpoint, it is necessary for the Prophet (pbuh) to be a model and example in terms of all these aspects that interest man.

In that case, when we evaluate the Sunnah from a wide window that include all aspects of life, it will not be wrong to describe it as all words, deeds and consents of the Prophet (pbuh) (26).

Then, let us check all aspects of the life of the Prophet (pbuh), whether you call it his lifestyle or way of life, against the Quran with a new point of view.

First of all, let us start with the issue whether the Prophet (pbuh) can make decrees in addition to the Quran. In fact, our intention is to go to the Quran from the Sunnah but we will go to this issue from the verses of the Quran due to its importance.  

All laws belong to Allah: the laws He imposed in the universe, in man and finally the laws in the Quran. We do not deal with the issue from a narrow viewpoint. We evaluate it with a wide and comprehensive understanding. For instance, Allah placed the whole program of the tree in its seed, of people and animals in their seeds or eggs but not everybody understands it. Even some experts do not understand it. He even wrote a separate program in both trees and human beings and placed a tree and a human being in every cell of a tree and human being.   

This law of Allah is also valid in the verses of the Quran. Besides, is the Quran not a book that reads the book of the universe and the Prophet (pbuh) a teacher that interprets and explains that book? Therefore, if the statements in the Quran are nuclei, seeds and eggs, every aspect of the life of the Prophet are their displays, trees and human beings, or roses, flowers, eyes and hearts.

Let us listen to Allah Almighty now:

“...The Prophet commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure);....”(27)

“...Fight those who do hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger.”(28)

Allah clearly states in the verses above that He gave the Prophet (pbuh) the authority to render things haram and halal. In the second verse, Allah mentions the name of the Prophet (pbuh) along with His name; thus, he closes the door to all interpretations to be made. If it is laid as a condition for the Prophet (pbuh) also to forbid anything Allah forbids and if it is understood as the Messenger of Allah and Allah forbid together, it will be meaningless. If the opposite is valid, if it is said that it is necessary for Allah to forbid clearly anything that the Messenger of Allah forbids, it will also be meaningless. In that case, it is a command related to the duty of the Prophet (pbuh) rather than stating the authority to render things haram and halal for both of them. Form this point of view, all of the commands and prohibitions of the Prophet (pbuh) as an indication of this verse means his commanding good (clean) things and ordering bad (dirty) things.

Since Allah gave the authority to render things haram and halal, which is the highest degree, it is clear that he definitely has the authority related to issues like wajib, makruh, adab, etc, which are under this level (29). As a matter of fact, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “I have been given the Quran and something like it.”(30) Thus, he showed the authority given to him and his position in the religion.

If we look at the Sunnah from the Quran,

1.  Hz. Prophet (pbuh) reiterates, states and interprets the deeds of worship like prayer, zakah, fasting and hajj mentioned in the Quran (31).
2. He specifies a general decree (32).
3. He limits an absolute decree (33).
4. He imposes a decree that does not exist in the Quran (34) (35).

If we combine these explanations, the following result is seen: Hz. Prophet (pbuh) explained and stated all of the issues in the Quran, specified those that expressed general things, limited those that were absolute and hence imposed decrees acting upon what Allah informed him.

Let us clarify the issue by giving a few examples from the chapter of al-Fatiha, the first chapter of the Quran.

For instance, the name of Allah in "Bismillah"; all of the explanations about it are either in the Quran or in the Sunnah; the same thing is valid for Rahman and Rahim; the first word of al-Fatiha: al-Hamd. How is hamd made? How will a person praise and thank Allah as it is necessary in prayer, hajj, street, at home, at work, in bed, in the toilet, etc.; the explanations are all in the Sunnah.  Maliki yawmiddin: All of the information related to the hereafter, principles of belief, Paradise, Hell, Sirat, Reckoning, Book of Deeds and the grave are explained by the Sunnah. From this viewpoint, every issue that is mentioned in the Quran is explained and interpreted by the Sunnah. 

Let us give a different example: Will it be appropriate to say that the Prophet (pbuh) did not understand the verse that mentions the stages of the creation of a child but the people living today did? In that case, it would be necessary to reject all of the hadiths mentioning the state of the child in the womb. However, it will be more appropriate to see the details of those verses in hadiths. The special states of women, wife-husband relationships, the strike of Doomsday, and the verses giving information about the future were narrated by the Prophet (pbuh) to the ummah in detail with divine permission.

We think every verse and decree can be checked against the Sunnah with this understanding and the target will be reached.

Let us look at the issue from the viewpoint of the Prophet (pbuh) this time. That is, let us not reach the tree from the seed but let us reach from the branches, flowers and fruits of the tree to its sapling and seed.

Since we deal with the relationship of the deeds and attitudes of the Prophet (pbuh) in the community with customs and manners in terms of our topic, we will give some examples related to issues other than worship and principles of belief:

All of the deeds and advice of the Prophet (pbuh) and his wives in their private lives and in the community related to tasattur (hijab), their relationships with others, talking, being alone, etc. are the explanations of the relevant verses. They are what the Prophet (pbuh) understood from those verses (36).

His attitudes toward children, his explanations and statements related to their education, treatment among children and relationships between parents and children (37) are the explanations of some verses related to those issues (38).

Similarly, it can be said that the relationships with neighbors, students and teachers, non-Muslims, orphans, administrators and officials, and the issues of greetings, visitors, feasts, cleanliness and clothing are explanations of relevant verses (39).

As for ethical qualities (40) and customs, which are human characteristics, we see that the Prophet is a model related to them.  

We see that the mental, lustful and furious feelings in man are not limited in his nature. Therefore, the Sunnah teaches us to use them in a moderate way, without going to extremes. Similarly, the ethical virtues like mildness, patience, thanking, justice, asceticism of the Prophet who was the addressee of the order “Therefore stand firm (in the straight Path) as thou art commanded”(41) and the prayer “Show us the straight way”(42), his easing humanity, intellect, bravery, mildness, and mercy, his good thoughts about others, fury, his attitude toward and warning against mistakes, his modesty, solemnity and generosity, his attitude toward invitations, his attitude toward his addressee in bilateral relations, his jokes, patience and perseverance, his chastity, generosity, good manners and modesty, his praise and criticism, his contentment, justice, loyalty, fulfilling trusts, keeping his promise and his attitude toward living and non-living beings (43), explain the verses in which these characteristics are mentioned, and show the moderate way, away from extremes, related to those characteristics.

Due to his nature, man is a being that eats, drinks, walks, sits, sleeps, meets his human needs, cries, laughs, yawns and sneezes. They are his natural acts. However, the time, manner and degree of these acts are seen in the nice customs and attitudes of the Prophet (pbuh).

The walking, sitting, clothing and manners of the Prophet (pbuh), who is a model of good manners, are the actual and verbal explanations of the verses that mention those issues. He showed the verses related to natural deeds that are present in man while going to the mosque, knocking on the door, walking, talking, laughing, eating, crying, yawning and even going to sleep through his words and deeds (44).

While looking at his life from the viewpoint of sound Sunnah, whether we look at the Quran from his life or from the Quran to his life, we can say that all of the things that he displays whether they are religious, worldly, customary, humane, etc. in both cases are explanations, expressions and actual indications of the things that Allah mentions in the Quran. The answer to be given to the question, “O Lord! What are the appropriate forms of our deeds and acts that we do in Your presence that deserve to be displayed in Your presence” is virtually “the life of the Prophet (pbuh)”.

In that case, the source of the Sunnah, which means the words, deeds, consents and attitudes of the Prophet (pbuh), is the Quran. In other words, it is what he understands from the Quran and his approval by Allah in this understanding.

References:
(1) For evaluation, see Saghani, Abul-Fadail, Mawduat, Beirut, 1985, s.76; Ajluni, Kashful-Khafa, I, 86; Haythami, Majmauz-Zawaid, I, 170; Suyuti, Miftah, 16.
(2) For examples, see Bukhari, Tafsir, Sura 1,3,4,6; Tirmidhi, Sifatu Ahlil-Janna, 1; cf. Yıldırım Suat, Peygamberimizin Kur’an Tefsiri, İst., 1983, s.138-147; Çakın, Kamil, Hadislerin Kur’an’a Arz Meselesi, AUİFD. XXXIV, Ank, 1993, p.240-243; Keleş, Arz, p.15 ff.
(3) Mudraj means addition of something that does not exist in the chain of narrators or text. Aydınlı, İstılah, p.106; For the evaluation of the narrations, see, Çakın, ibid, p.240-243.
(4) Ibn Hajar, Fath, IX, 596,603; Çakın, ibid, p.243-245; cf. Keleş, Arz, 24.
(5) Zarkashi, Badruddin Abu Abdillah, al-Ijaba li Iradi ma Istadrakathu Aisha ala’s-Sahaba, Beirut, 1985.
(6) Zarkashi, Ijaba, p.119; see Musnad, II, 311; VI,109.
(7) Inshiqaq, 7.
(8) Bukhari, Tafsiru Inshiqaq, 2; Musnad, VI, 103,206.
(9) see Keleş, Ard, 69 ff; Apaydın, Yunus, Hanefi Hukukçularının Hadis Karşısındaki Tavırlarının Bir Göstergesi Olarak Manevi İnkıta Anlayışı”, EÜİFD, p.8, Kayseri, 1992, Çakın, ibid;
(10) Abu Hanifa states the following: I refer to Allah’s book. If I cannot find there, I refer to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)..” Ibn Hajar, Asqalani, Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, Beirut, nd, X. 451.
(11) Abu Zahra, Abu Hanifa, 292-294.
(12) Bukhari, Kashf, III, 19,29; see, Sarakhsi, Usul, I,364; Ünal, Imam Abu Hanifa, p.84-88,141; Apaydin, ibid, It is the result of the understanding that a text that is definite cannot be abrogated and changed by a text that is not definite.
(13) However, for the practices in which even khabar wahid adds something to the Quran, see Ayni, al-Binaya fi Sharhil-Hidaya, Beirut, 1988, VI,261-262, 274-381; Ünal, Abu Hanifa, 141-142; For hadiths, see Bukhari, Hudud, 13; Muslim, Hudud, 7; Musnad, III, 253.
(14) That is, the Sunnah states and interprets the Quran. It introduces a decree that does not exist in the Quran. The Quran cannot be understood without the Sunnah. Abu Zahra, Imam Malik, 260-267.
(15) In some cases, he would not act in accordance with khabar wahids due to their contrariness to the Quran. Abu Zahra, Imam Malik, 283-86,296; al-Qiyama, 22-23; Imam Malik’s approach is parallel with the understanding of Abu Hanifa.
(16) Shafii, Risala, 80; In return, he mentions the hadith,“I have been given the Quran and something like it. I also order and prohibit.” Thus, he states that the Sunnah has a legislative value. 
(17) Dhahabi, Tadhkiratul-Huffaz, Beirut, nd, I, 362; The hadith was placed into the heart of the Prophet by Jibril. Therefore, the Sunnah is not contrary to the Quran. Shafii, Risala, 76-89.
(18) Shafii, al-Umm, Beirut, nd. VII, 273,286; see, Ghazali, Mustasfa, I,179.
(19) Shafii, Risala, 85,103; Qasimi, Qawaid, p.58.
(20) Shafii, Umm, VII, 307-308.
(21) Abu Zahra, Ahmad b. Hanbal, 239.
(22) See respectively Ibn Hazm, Ihkam, I,114-117; Ibn Qayyim, I’lamul-Muwaqqi’in, Beirut, 1994, II, 220 ff.; Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Beirut, 1989, VIII, 363 ff.; Suyuti, Miftah, 2 ff.; Ibn Abdil-Barr, Jami, II, 190; Qurtubi, Tafsir, I, 38; For the views of some writers and their outlook on the issue of Ard, cf. Akseki, Riyazu’s-Salihin Tercümesi, I, XX-XXI; Abu Zahw, Mukanatus-Sunna, 32-36; Abu Shahba, Sunna, I, 58; Ajjaj, as-Sunna, 49-50; Sibai, as-Sunna, 81-83,98-100; Keleş, Ard, 90 ff.
(23) see Musnad, V, 425; Daraqutni, I, 208; Abu Yusuf, ar-Rad, 31; Jassas, Ahkamul-Quran, Beirut, 1993, IV, 201; Shatibi, Muwafaqat, IV, 19; Qasimi, Kur’an’ı Anlamak, translated by Sezai Özel, İst, 1990, p.170.
(24) For instance, for the rejection of the hadith about the caliphate belonging to Qurayshis, see Hatiboğlu, Hilafetin Kureyşiliği, AUİFD XIII, Ank, 1979; Atay, for the views of Öztürk and Reşit Rıza, see Keleş, Arz, 53-58.
(25) Qardawi, Sunnah, p.115; Kulaçoğlu, Sünnet, p.98.
(26) The issue of the bindingness of the Sunnah will be explained later; therefore, it should be noted that the issue will be dealt with within the wholeness of the Sunnah and the Quran.
(27) al-A’raf, 157.
(28) at-Tawba, 29.
(29) For the Quran itself placing the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) into an equal level with the Quran without giving rise to any doubts (on whatever the Prophet says on behalf of the One who sent him, it is accepted within the concept of ethics), see Hamidullah, İslam Devlet İdaresi, translated by Kemal Kuşçu, İst. 1963, p.18; Koçkuzu, Haber-i Vahitler, p.107.
(30) Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 6.
(31) For, reiteration, cf. al-Baqara, 43, 183; Aal-i Imran, 97; an-Nisa, 29; Hud, 102; an-Nahl, 44; Bukhari, Iman, 1; Muslim, Iman, 19-22; Musnad, V,72; Ibn Majah, Fitan, 22; For the interpretation of concise things, see Bukhari, Adhan, 18; Adab, 27; Buyu, 78; Muslim, Musaqat, 81-84; Nasai, Buyu, 50; Darimi, Salat, 42; Musnad, III, 318; Ibn Majah, Tijarah, 48; For explaining difficult issues, see al-Baqara, 187; Tirmidhi, Tafsir, 3.
(32) Like the limitation of verse 11 of the chapter of an-Nisa showing that inheritance is given to all inheritors by the hadith there is no inheritance to an unbeliever. (Musnad, I,49; Abu Dawud, Diyat, 18; Darimi, Faraid, 41). The people that are haram to marry are determined by verses 23-24 of the chapter of an-Nisa. The others are rendered halal. However, the Prophet specified this general verse by stating that a woman cannot be married to the same man at the same time with her paternal and maternal aunt. see Muslim, Nikah, 37-38; Bukhari, Nikah, 27.
(33) There is no limitation in the verse stating that the hand of the thief needs to be cut off. (al-Maida, 38). The hadith specified the lowest amount stated that the hand of a thief who steals a quarter dinar and more be cut off. (Muslim, Hudud, 2-5; Ibn Majah, Hudud, 22; Musnad, VI, 104,249,252.
(34) In fact, each practice is a decree. Everything that the Prophet does, including the rak’ahs and times of prayers, how to perform prayers, determines the decrees of the Quran that can be understood differently. Therefore, we want to attract the attention to the vastness of the issue. If it is taken into consideration that there is nothing that is wrong in the Quran, every Sunnah is a statement; since most of the things that exist in the Sunnah are not present in the Quran exactly, it can be said that most of the practices of the Prophet are a decree each in this aspect.
(35) For evidences from verses, see, Aal-i Imran, 164; al-Jumua, 2; an-Nisa, 59; al-Ahzab, 36; an-Nur, 63; see also Bukhari, Ilim, 9; Tirmidhi, Ilim, 7; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 18; Darimi, Muqaddima, 24; Suyuti, Miftah, 19,23,27; Koçkuzu, Haber-i Vahitler 107-108.
* For the parts of the body that a man needs to cover in the presence of other men and women, and the parts of the body that a woman needs to cover in the presence of other women and men, and the manners of speaking with a woman, see Bukhari, Salat, 69; Nikah, 111; Muslim, Salatul-Idayn, 4; Salam, 8; Adab, 10; Abu Dawud, Libas, 37; Nikah, 44; Tirmidhi, Rada, 13; Adab, 38-40.
(36) al-Ahzab, 6,32,33; al-Baqara, 235; an-Nisa, 4; Bukhari, Nikah, 3,8,36,50,63,68,79; Muslim, Rada, 16; Nikah, 4,7,12; Tirmidhi, Rada, 1; Nikah, 5,38; Abu Dawud, Nikah, 20; The issues of asking a girl’s hand in marriage, engagement, nikah, marriage, the duties of husband and wife, etc. are explained in the Sunnah. Even the satisfaction of sexual desire (Abu Dawud, Salah, 367; Bukhari, Riqaq, 23), secret issues like sexual intercourse and the issues related to menstruation are stated.
(37) Bukhari, Adab, p.7,18; Isti’dhan, 35; Juma, 11; Nikah, 79; Abu Dawud, Adab, 66,129; Salat, 25,94-95; Sunnah, 18; Muslim, Itq, 25; Bir, 5; Ibn Majaj, Nikah, 28; Adab, 3; For detailed information, see. Canan, İ. Hz. Peygamberin sünnetinde Terbiye, Ank, 1980, D.I.B.
(38) al-Kahf, 46; al-Isra, 6; al-Furqan, 74; Aal-i Imran, 159; al-Maida, 8; ash-Shua’ra, 49; an-Nahl, 58-59; at-Tahrim, 6.
(39) For detailed information regarding these issues, see Duman, Adab.
(40) Hz. Aisha answered the question how the ethics of the Prophet (pbuh) was as follows: “His ethics was completely the Quran.” (Abu Dawud, II, 56) That is, he displayed the high ethics that the Quran ordered in the best way. 
(41) Hud, 112.
(42) al-Fatiha,
(43) see Bukhari, Iman, 30; Bad’ul-Khalq, 6; Adab, 27; Jihad, 50; Nikah, 1; Tirmidhi, Adab; Abu Dawud, Adab, Qadi Iyad, ash-Şifa, bi Ta’rifi Huquqil-Mustafa, Damascus nd. I,140-210; II, 330-341; Dihlawi, Hujja, II, 80 ff; Ghazali, Ihya, III, 50 ff; Nadwi, Sulayman, Konferanslar, translated by Osman Keskioğlu, DIB.1957; Bukhari, al-Adabu’l-Mufrad; Abdurrahman A’zam, Rasulü Ekremin Örnek Ahlakı, translated by Hayrattin Karaman, Ist, 1975; Bayraktar, Şemail; Yardım, Şemail; Canan, Terbiye.
(44) For instance, his deeds related to starting things from the right or left (al-Balad, 13-18; al-Waqia, 27-38; al-Baqara, 115; Inshiqaq, 7-8; Haaqqa 19-21;) styles of walking; al-Furqan, 63; Luqman, 18-19); are the explanations of these verses and similar ones.

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