What are the exclusive qualities (hasais) of our Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh)?

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What are the exclusive qualities (hasais) of our Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh)?
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Dear Brother / Sister,

The word “hasais” is the plural form of the word “hassiyyat” which stems from the root “hass” that means “attributing superiority to someone or to something because of a characteristic that is exclusive only to that person or to that thing.” In this sense, “hasais” means “virtues and superior qualities.” (Lisanu’l Arab, “hss” ). There are many proofs of the Prophet’s exclusive qualities in Quran and Sunnah. Especially, the half of the chapter al-Ahzab narrates these qualities exclusive to the Honorable Messenger (pbuh) (al-Ahzab, 28-59). The statement “And as for the night keep awake a part of it an additional prayer for thee: soon will thy Lord raise thee to a Station of Praise and Glory!” (al-Isra, 79) also points out to it. It is seen in hadiths that some practices of the Prophet are just exclusive to him. For instance, while he was listing the prohibited acts in the Harem area of Mecca, he stated that only he was permitted for these acts for a short time by Allah only on the day of conquest and then Harem was given its former status after that. (Bukhari, Knowledge, 37). Ibn Hajar, while explaining the judgments deduced from this hadith, recorded that this act was one of the Prophet’s exclusive qualities and that this hadith proved that the Prophet had some concessions only exclusive to him. (Fethu’l Bari, I, 199). 

Authors of hasais generally evaluated divine judgments and gifts which are only exclusive to the Prophet in four categories as fards, harams, mubahs and superiorities which are endowed upon him only. 

Fards which are exclusive to the Prophet only are as follows: 

Mid-morning prayer, vitr prayer and tahajjud prayer, sacrificing (al-adha), using miswaq, negotiating with mild peope, fighting against enemy even though they may be superior in number, paying the debts of Muslims who die before they pay their debts back, not leaving a nawafil prayer before it is finished, abolishing negativity in the most convenient way. There are, although recommended for all Muslims as well, were fards exclusively for the Honorable Messenger only. 

The matters which are haram exclusively for the Prophet are as follows: 

Accepting alms, avoiding fight in war although it is compulsory to fight, being eager for worldly materials, (al-Hijr, 88), ordering that a criminal be punished secretly without his crime has been proved and declared and overestimating his favor and boasting about it. (Muddassir, 6). Although being eager for worldly materials and boasting about a favor are not favorable also for all Muslims, these are prohibited as harams exclusively for the Prophet in Quran. 

Some mubahs (neither enjoined nor prohibited) which are exclusive for the Prophet are as follows: 

Fasting for a few days following each other, without giving a break to fast (sawm-i wisal), taking whatever he likes from the captured properties before they are shared, using one fifth of captured properties and taxes taken from non-Muslims as he likes (al-Anfal, 41, al-Hashr, 7), entering Mecca without ihram, not bequeathing his property to any of his inheritors after his death, deciding (judging) in cases which are related to himself and his children according to a widely accepted view (actually, as prophets are innocent and pure, they can not be thought to take sides), his ablution is not invalidated by sleep. 

Some other mubahs exclusive to the Prophet are related to marriage. Marrying more that four women, marrying a woman who dedicated herself to the Messenger of Allah, without giving her mahr (see al-Ahzab, 50), and marrying while in the state of ihram are amongst concessions exclusive to him. According to those who interpret the verse (al-Azhab, 51), which allows him to take anyone of his wives whom he likes to his side, as he can visit them one by one in turns, the Honorable Prophet is rightful to spend more time with anyone of his wives whom he prefers more than others. Notwithstanding, the Prophet treated all his wives equally during his life. The reason why some matters have been made mubah exclusively to the Prophet only is to show how widely authorized he was by Allah and to point out to that these mubahs did not prevent the Prophet from obeying and worshipping, unlike it would prevent other people. 

Superiorities endowed upon the Prophet: 

Some of the works written on superiorities endowed upon the Prophet and which are so many in number that can constitute a literature of “virtues of the Prophet” discuss the superiority of the Messenger over other prophets and some of them discuss his superiority over other human beings, the jinn, angels and all other beings. Authors primarily put forward proofs deduced from the verses in order to prove the superiorities of the Prophet. It has been deduced from the verses which stated that some prophets were made superior to others and they were elevated as stated in Quran (al-Baqarah, 253; al-Isra, 55) that prophets have got different degrees in the eyes of Allah. And from the verses stating that the Messenger of Allah was sent down as mercy for all realms (Anbiya, 107) and that Allah would not send his wrath over his tribe as long as he lived amongst them (al-Anfal, 33), it was deduced that he was superior to all other prophets. 

There are many verses that point out to the Prophet’s virtues in Quran: 

Al-i Imran, 81: “Behold! God took the covenant of the prophets, saying: "I give you a Book and Wisdom; then comes to you an apostle, confirming what is with you; do ye believe in him and render him help." God said: "Do ye agree, and take this my Covenant as binding on you?" They said: "We agree." He said: "Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses.”

Al-Hujurat, 2: “O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet.”

In addition to these, although Allah addressed to other prophets by their names (al-Baqara, 35; al-Maidah, 110; Hud, 32, Maryam, 12) He addressed to the Prophet Mohammad as “O Prophet” (al-Anfal, 64; al-Ahzab, 33/1) or as “O Messenger” (al-Maidah, 67; at-Talaq, 1). Moreover, it is sworn only on the Prophet Muhammad’s life in Quran (al-Hijr, 72) and the companions were not allowed to call the Prophet by his name (al-Nur, 63). All of these verses indicated his virtuousness. The fact that the Prophet Muhammad was sent to all humankind as prophet although other prophets were sent only to their own people (al-Araf, 158; Anbiya, 107; Saba, 28) proves that he is more virtuous that other prophets. Almost all ahl-i sunnah scholars agree that the Prophet is superior to all angels. (see Nebhani, al-Fezailu’l-Muhammadiyya, p.68-70). 

Although almost all verses which are related to the Prophet was taken into consideration in works written on the virtues of the Prophet, it is hard to tell that all these verses over 100 which were considered to be related to the topic are actually on the superiority of The Prophet. However, the fact that it is prohibited to give him hardships, it is ordered that people send salat-u salam to him, it is stated that he was sent as a supervisor, harbinger and warning to people and it is stated how he should treat his followers and how followers should treat him in those verse can be seen as indicators of his superiority. (For these verses see Nebhani, p.45-73). 

The fact that the Prophet’s qualities are mentioned in former holy books and “people of the book culture” formed around them is another proof of his superiority. It is possible to see what these qualities are in narrations by companions from the Muslim amongst people of the book. They describe the Honorable Messenger as someone who does not act rudely and harshly, who does not speak aloud or shout out in public places; who does not respond to negativity by negativity and who is forgiving and a servant who has submitted himself to Allah. (see Ahmad Hijazi as-Sakka, Cairo, 1977).

It is possible to divide hadiths related to the Prophet’s superiorities into two categories as the ones related to worldly superiorities and the ones related to otherworldly superiorities. 

The ones related to his worldly superiorities are not many. The most well-known of them is the one that says he was given five qualities which had not been given to former prophets. (Bukhari, Tayammum 3, Salat 56; Muslim, Masajid 3). Accordingly, Prophet Muhammad was given the power of placing fear in enemy’s hearts from a distance of one month. Earth was made a place of worship, clean and means of cleanliness for him. Captured properties were made halal to him. Although all other prophets were sent only to their own peoples, he was sent to all humankind and he was given the right of intercession. According to another narration, it is stated that he was given the gift of telling so many things with few words (jawamiu’l kelim) (gnomic and concession) and that the keys to the treasures of the world were brought and put in front of him in his dreams. Another worldly superiority of the Prophet is that he came from a purest and a most honorable family. The Prophet who mentioned this in various statements stated that all marriages in his lineage were lawful. (Suyuti, Hasais, I, 37). This superiority of his has continued with his descendants. When the fact that Allah wished to make the Prophet’s family all pure by purifying them from all dirtiness (al-Ahzab, 33), that the Messenger of Allah was prohibited to accept zakat and alms and yet was allowed to take one fifth of captured property (al-Anfal 41; al-Hashr 7) is taken into consideration, it is comprehended that the Prophet is at the zenith of nobility and purity. The religion of Islam which Prophet Muhammad brought to continue until the Day of Judgment is necessarily the most perfect religion. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah expressed that he was sent in order to complete the good and high moral values which all religions tried to earn people and that he was sent in order to represent this cause with his words and behaviors. (Musned, II, 381; Muwatta, Husnu’l-Hukuk, 8). 

Doubtlessly, one needs to be at the zenith of high moral in order to fulfill this supreme duty. For this reason, the Messenger of Allah was adorned with the highest moral values and virtues (Kalem 4). In addition, it is stated in Quran that the Prophet is closer and merciful to believers more that their own selves, and thus than their fathers are and that the Prophet’s wives are the mothers of all Muslims. (al-Ahzab, 6, 53). 

The superiorities endowed upon the Honorable Messenger in otherworldly life are many. Some companions found it astonishing that Allah took Abraham for a friend for Himself (al-Nisa, 125), that He talked to Moses in person (al-Nisa, 164), that Jesus is Allah’s words and spirit (al-Nisa, 171) and that Adam is a chosen servant in the eyes of Allah and the Prophet Muhammad said that this all is true. However, he also stated that he is the dearest for Allah, that Adam and all other prophets were going to be on a level lower than him, that he was going to bear the vexillum of gratefulness, that he was going to be the first one to intercede, that he was going to be the first one to move the knobs of the doors of heaven, that Allah was going to let him firstly in together with the poor believers and that he was the most precious of all people to came and left and to come. And after each of these sentences, he added that he had not told them in order to boast. (Darimi, Mukaddima 8; Tirmidhi, Menakib 1). 

Moreover, he stated that he was going to be the first one to stand up from grave and he was going to speak in the name of everyone on that violent day when nobody could dare to speak and going to tell their problems in the Divine Presence. He also stated that he was going to intercede so that the accounting would begin when the queue in the Gathering Place would go on and on and people would be so tired; and that he was going to give the good news of that his intercession was accepted when people would be hopeless. The Prophet and his followers, being the last prophet and last believers on earth, are going to be at the front on the Day of Judgment. (Bukhari, Juma 1, 12; Muslim, Juma 19, 21). The right of intercession is an important one amongst The Messenger of Allah’s virtues related to the otherworld. The messenger of Allah, having said that each prophet has got a supplication which was accepted, stated that he saves his supplication for the Day of Judgment in order to intercede for his followers. (Muslim, Faith 335). 

Source: Ahatlı, Erdinç, Hasasiu’n-Nebi, TDİA, Hasasiu’n-Nedi Maddesi.

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