Are there any verses related to the incoherence of the view of evolutionism?

Details of the Question

Are there any verses and hadiths showing that the process of evolution does not exist?
Suppose that Hz. Adam is the first man of the process of evolution.

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

First of all, the verses mentioning the phases of the creation of man out of dust seem to be contrary to the theory of evolution. We see that the phases of the creation of man are explained in detail in the Quran though the phases of the creation of other beings are not explained in detail. We can list those verses as follows:

“Among His Signs in this, that He created you from dust; and then,- behold, ye are men scattered (far and wide).” (ar-Rum, 30: 20)

“He it is created you from clay...” (al-An’am, 6:2)

“Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay).” (al-Mu’minun, 23:12)

“…Them have We created out of a sticky clay.” (as-Saaffat, 37:11)

“We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape.” (al-Hijr, 15:26)

“He created man from sounding clay like unto pottery.” (ar-Rahman, 55:14)

As it is seen, the stages of the creation of man are explained in detail in those verses. Accordingly, the creation of man started with dust continued with clay and quintessence of clay and finally had a hard structure like pottery. It is clear that what is narrated through those stages is the creation of the first man. As a matter of fact, this view is supported when it is mentioned after some of those verses that the angels were asked to prostrate before Adam after this creation.

That it is stated in the first verse after it is expressed that man was created from dust that men were scattered on earth indicates that various races that spread to different regions of the world came from the descent of Hz. Adam. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a hadith: “Adam was created from a lump of dust taken from various regions of the world; therefore, sons of Adam have different colors.” (see Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 16; Tirmidhi, Tafsir, 2/1; Musnad, IV, 400, 406)

Since the plural pronouns are used in those verses (“He created you (plural) from dust”), those who defend evolution have interpreted it as the creation of all human beings, not Hz. Adam only.

However, what is meant by the statement “He created you from dust” is the creation of Hz. Adam from dust. For, when Adam is created from dust, other human beings are naturally regarded to have been created from dust. Therefore, the word “you” in the statement “He created you from dust” means “your father Adam”. Such a style, that is, addressing people as if addressing their ancestors or mentioning the bounties given to their ancestors as given to them is something that is often seen in the Quran. For instance, what is meant by “you” in the verses below “O Children of Israel! Call to mind the special favor which I bestowed upon you …” (al-Baqara, 2: 40, 47, 122) , “We, when the water (of Noah´s Flood) overflowed beyond its limits, carried you (mankind), in the floating (Ark),” (al-Haaqqa, 69: 11) is actually the ancestors of the people living in that period. What was done for their ancestors are narrated as if they were done for them.

In fact, the other human beings are also dust in terms of origin because they feed on plants and animals. The animals we eat feed on plants. Plants receive their nutrition from the ground (dust). 

Therefore, we are created from dust indirectly like the other living beings on earth. The statement “Everything on earth is earth” indicates this fact.

However, there is an important point that should be kept in mind here. If the word dust (turab) only had been used in the verses related to the creation of man, it could have been considered as a second possibility that not only the Prophet Adam but also all human beings were created from dust. However, as we have seen in the verses above, when the creation of man is explained, not only dust but also mud, drained mud, sticky mud, hardened mud are used.

Therefore, it is clear that the creation of Adam, the first human being, from dust is explained in detail in those verses. What is explained in the other divine books and many sound narrations also support this view.

Mention of the various stages of dust (soil) in those verses is contrary to the understanding of evolution, the understanding stating that man was evolved from ape-like beings, not from dust directly; therefore, those stages (mud, hardened mud, etc.) were tried to be interpreted with strained interpretations. (For examples, see İslamoğlu, 2016, 135 ff)

…He began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay, And made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised.” (as-Sajda, 32:7-8) The difference between the creation of the first man and that of the others is mentioned in the verse above.  It is clear that what is meant by “man” in this verse is “Adam” and by “naslahu” (his generation) is the other “people.

When Allah ordered, “Bow down unto Adam”, Iblis said, “Shall I bow down to one whom Thou didst create from clay?” (al-Isra, 17:61) and avoided prostrating; this is clear evidence that Hz. Adam was created directly from clay, that he was despised by Iblis because of this and that the person who was created from clay was Hz. Adam.  

It is He Who created you from a single person, and made his mate of like nature…” (al-A’raf, 7:189) In the verse above, Allah addresses human beings and tells them that He created them from a single person (nafs wahidah).

All tafsir scholars state that this person is Hz. Adam and that his mate created from him is Hz. Hawwa (Eve). The verses and hadiths related to the creation of Hz. Adam express this meaning; the statements in the Torah support the interpretations of tafsir scholars.

That is the meaning of the verse, but the word “nafs” is used in some translations and it is sometimes translated as “He Who created you from a single nafs” and sometimes as “He Who created you from a single essence”; thus, words like essence and ore are used to translate the word nafs.

In that case, the meaning of the verse becomes ambiguous and it is not clearly understood what is meant by nafs, essence or ore.

In that case, the meaning of the verse is as follows: “It is He Who created you from a single essence, and made its mate of like nature”; in this translation, Hz. Adam is not mentioned and something like “the mate of essence” is understood; mentioning “mate” becomes meaningless. In our opinion, it is clear that what is meant by nafs wahidah is “a single person”.

Similarly, it is not coherent to interpret this word (nafs) as “species” (for such interpretations, see Mustafa Öztürk, Kur’an ve Yaratılış, 2016, p. 161 ff). For, in that case, the meaning of the verse is as follows: “It is He Who created you from a species, and made its mate of like nature.” Thus, the meaning of the verse becomes ambiguous. In that case, since the verse starts with the phrase “We created you” the phrase that follows should have been “azwajakum/your mates”, not “zawjaha/its mate”.

Therefore, as we have mentioned above, the meaning of the verse is “It is He Who created you from a single person, and made his mate of like nature.”

“And your creation or your resurrection is in no wise but as an individual soul…” (Luqman, 31: 28) As a matter of fact, it is clear that individual soul (nafs wahida) mentioned in the verse above means “a single person”. And that single person is Adam, who is the first man.  

A similar verse in the chapter of an-Nisa continues as follows: “…and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women…” (an-Nisa, 4:1) It proves that the two people mentioned in the verse are Adam and Hawwa and that they are the parents of all human beings.

The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: "Be". And he was” (Aal-i Imran, 3:59) This verse is one of the clearest and most important evidences that Hz. Adam is the first man and that he was created directly from dust. For, in this verse, Allah addresses Jews, who do not believe that Hz. Isa (Jesus) came into the world without a father and who claim that something like that is impossible, and Christians, who deify Hz. Isa since he came into the world without a father and claim that he is the son of Allah, and tells them that the creation of Hz. Isa is like that of Adam, mentioning a more interesting example of creation. That is, if you cannot understand it, the creation of Adam is much more interesting: Allah created him without a mother and father, directly from dust; He said to him: "Be". And he was.   

Adam was created without a father from dust and became a living human being as a result of Allah’s order kun (be); similarly, Allah, who created him without a father and mother, created Isa without a father. 

Thus, this verse explains the miraculous creation of Isa without a father by a more miraculous creation, that is, the creation of Adam from dust without a mother and a father; in addition, it states that the creation of Hz. Adam is miraculous like the creation of Hz. Isa and that he was created directly from dust

“…I make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by Allah´s leave...” (Aal-i Imran, 3: 49) This verse narrates how Allah gives life to a piece of mud in the shape of a bird through Hz. Isa’s hands and shows how easy and quick it is.

Thus, clues are given about how creatures were created. Besides, it is clearly understood that there is no need for millions of years to pass (contrary to the claims of evolutionist) for the piece of mud to transform into a bird and for Adam to transform from mud into a human being.

And He taught Adam the names of all things…” (al-Baqara, 2:31), “(Allah) Most Gracious! It is He Who has taught the Qur´an. He has created man: He has taught him speech (and intelligence).” (ar-Rahman, 55:1-4) These verses show that first man was created with the ability to speak like us. Similarly, That Hz. Isa started to talk by saying, “I am a slave of Allah...” upon the sign of his mother when he was a baby in swaddling clothes shows that Adam could speak after his creation was completed. There is no need to wait for a long time to speak.

We have honored the sons of Adam...” (al-Isra, 17:70), “We have indeed created man in the best of molds” (at-Tin, 95 4) These verses state that man is an honorable and valuable being; they show that man was not created from other species, but as an independent being in a different way, and that it has no relation with animals like apes.  

As a matter of fact, the expression “despised and rejected” used for a group of people from Sons of Israel who insisted on opposing Allah’s orders in the verse “Be ye apes, despised and rejected!” (al-A’raf, 7:166) shows that apes are lower creatures than humans in the eye of Allah. Since it is very easy for Allah to create man separately, it is unthinkable for Him to make human beings relatives of apes or similar beings.

He Who has made everything which He has created most good…” (as-Sajda, 32:7) “…the artistry of Allah, who disposes of all things in perfect order…” (an-Naml, 27:88), “…No want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious…” (al-Mulk, 67:3) It is stated in these verses that the beings and living beings in the universe were created in the best way and perfectly.

This is clear evidence against the theory of evolution because, according to this theory, the organs of living beings developed gradually and adapted to the environment. That is, there is no perfect living but there are constantly changing and evolving creatures. In fact, every being and living thing is perfect. Even the living beings regarded as primitive and simple are perfect and flawless. As a matter of fact, as all Islamic scholars state, لیس فی الإمکان أبدع مما کان that is “there is nothing more perfect than what exists within the boundaries of possibilities.” That is beings were created in the best way. Something more perfect cannot be put forward. Man cannot say, “it would be better if it were like this or that” for any being. What he sees as imperfect is actually his own viewpoint. 

In conclusion, we can say that there is no expression that supports evolution in the verses of the Qur'an; on the contrary, some verses indicate that species were created independently and it is clearly stated in some verses that Adam, the first man, was created from dust.

Those who put forward opposite views have no clear evidence; what they put forward as evidence is nothing but interpretations and distortions based on their own opinions. In other words, they are subject to their conjectures only.

It is not a scientific approach to be subject to conjectures. As it is stated in the following verse, “…Conjecture avails nothing against Truth” (an-Najm, 53:28)

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