Wiping over Khuffs (Waterproof Footwear)

Mas-h (Wiping)

What does to wipe over khuffs mean?

What are the conditions that make wiping over khuffs permissible?

What are the sunnahs of mas-h (wiping)?

How is wiping over khuffs performed?

How long is mas-h valid?

When does the period of mas-h start?

What are the things that invalidate mas-h?

Mas-h over bandages

 

MAS-H (WIPING)

The religion of Islam regards performing prayers one of the basic duties but it also gives great importance to eliminating the difficulties in all kinds of duties.

One of the examples of it is the permission of wiping on khuffs (waterproof footwear) and bandages while making wudu; thus it makes worshipping easy.  

Mas-h means to move the hand on something, to wipe it. In fiqh, mas-h is a kind of cleaning; it means symbolic cleaning by wiping over an organ, khuffs or bandage with the wetness in the hand in wudu and wiping the face and hands with clean earth in tayammum. Wiping over the head, neck and ears while making wudu is an essential deed of wudu but wiping over khuffs and bandages is a deed replacing washing.

The period of mas-h starts after the first state that invalidates wudu after the khuffs are put on following wudu. After that period ends, wudu is made by washing the feet; the khuffs need be put on again if it is necessary. On the other hand, if a person who has made wudu by washing his feet puts on and takes off the khuffs as long as his wudu continues, his wudu is not invalidated. If a person who has made wudu by wiping over his khuffs takes off his khuffs, he can complete his wudu by washing his feet only.

 

What does to wipe over khuffs mean?

To wet the khuffs in accordance with certain rules worn on the feet instead of washing the feet while making wudu is called mas-h.   
Wiping over khuffs is ease and permission granted by our religion to all Muslims, men and women.
Wiping over khuffs is in question only in wudu. It is not permissible to wipe over khuffs instead of washing the feet.
Wiping over khuffs is sunnah al-muakkadah. It is definite through several hadiths close to the degree of tawatur that the Messenger of Allah sometimes put on khuffs and wiped over them.

 

What are the conditions that make wiping over khuffs permissible?

The following conditions are necessary for mas-h over khuffs to be permissible:

1 - Khuffs must be waterproof.

2 - Khuffs must be thick and sound enough to stand on their own without laces. They must be durable enough for a journey of 12 thousand steps (8-9 km).
Boots that cover the feet including the heels, half boots, aba shoes are also regarded as khuffs. They can be wiped over in wudu.

3 - Khuffs must cover the whole feet including the heels.
Mas-h is not permissible on khuffs below the heels.
It is permissible for khuffs to be buttoned or fastened after being put on the feet if they cover the heels. Khuffs with zippers are also permissible. It is necessary for khuffs to cover the whole feet including the heels when the buttons are done up or the zippers are zipped up. There must not be any holes or gaps in khuffs.

4 - There must not be any holes, gaps, rips and tears so big as to allow three fingers to enter in the part under the heel.  
If the holes and rips are in different places on khuff, the total area of the holes is taken into account. If all of them amount to three fingers, it is not permissible to wipe over that khuff.

The rips and tears on one khuff are calculated; those on two khuffs are not added together; they are calculated separately. Therefore, if there are two holes in one khuff and another hole or two holes in the other khuff, it is permissible to wipe over those khuffs.

According to Malikis, mas-h is not invalidated unless there is a tear in a khuff that shows at least one third of the foot. According to Shafiis and Hanbalis, if the amount of the foot that is fard to wash is seen through a rip on a khuff, mas-h is invalidated. Even if the amount that is fard to wash is covered by a sock or something else, the decree does not change.

5 - For mas-h, it is necessary for a foot to have a part as big as two fingers in the front part. If the front part of a foot is cut off or broken off, it is not permissible to wear a khuff on that foot and wipe over it.

6 - Khuffs have to be worn when one has wudu. For mas-h, it is necessary to make wudu first and to wear khuffss after that without breaking wudu.

According to Malikis, it is necessary to wipe over the whole khuff. Otherwise, mas-h is not valid. According to Hanbalis, to wipe over most of the top part of khuffs is enough. According to Shafiis, it is enough to wipe over an area as big as a finger.

 

What are the sunnahs of mas-h (wiping)?

There are two important sunnahs of mas-h:

1 - The amount of wiping by the hand should be at least three fingers.
The area to wipe is the top of the khuff and the front part of the foot. To wipe an area as big as three fingers on that part is enough for mas-h.

2 - Mas-h should be done by at least three fingers.

It is not permissible to wipe by one finger three times. However, if the hand is wetted separately three times and different parts of the khuffs are wiped, mas-h by one finger is permissible.

The two issues mentioned above are sunnah. It is possible to perform mas-h by pouring water on khuffs or by wetting khuffs by something like a sponge. However, in that case, a sunnah is abandoned and a makruh deed is committed.
Along with the two issues mentioned above, the following are also sunnah:

* The fingers should not be adjacent to one another while wiping.
* The fingers should be used while wiping.  
* Wiping should be started from the tips of the toes and pulled upwards.

 

How is wiping over khuffs performed?

After wudu is made, khuffs are worn without breaking wudu. If the khuffs have buttons or zippers, the buttons are done up or the zipper is zipped up so that the heels are covered.

When wudu is broken after a while, wudu is made again; when it is time to wash the feet, water is poured on both hands and the wet fingers (at least three fingers) are put on the tips of the toes and pulled upwards.

The right hand is put on the khuff on the right foot and the left hand is put on the khuff on the left foot. The fingers are placed on the toes and are pulled upwards.

It is not appropriate to wash the khuffs instead of wiping over them. It is makruh.

 

How long is mas-h valid?

Mas-h over khuffs worn on the feet is valid for a certain period of time.

The valid period of mas-h for a resident is one day and night, that is, 24 hours. For a traveller (musafir) it is three days and nights, that is 72 hours.

According to Malikis, there is no time limit for mas-h. Mas-h is valid until ghusl becomes necessary. However, it is mandub for a person to take off his khuffs and wash his feet every Friday for the Friday prayer. According to Shafiis and Hanbalis, the time limit for mas-h for a traveler who is on a legitimate journey is three days and nights (seventy-two hours). If a person is on a journey in order to commit a sin, it is twenty-four hours.

 

When does the period of mas-h start?

The time period of mas-h starts when wudu is broken for the first time after putting on khuffs.

For instance, if a person who makes wudu at 1 pm and puts on his khuffs and breaks his wudu at 5 pm, his mas-h period starts at 5 pm. This period ends 24 hours later if he is a resident and 72 hours later if he is a traveler. Mas-h period does not start when a person puts on his khuffs.

 

What are the things that invalidate mas-h?

Anything that invalidates wudu also invalidates mas-h. However, if the period of mas-h has not ended, the khuffs are wiped over instead of being washed while making wudu.

Mas-h is invalidated completely in the following three situations. After them, washing the feet becomes necessary instead of wiping the khuffs:

1 - When the period of mas-h ends.

We have mentioned that the period of mas-h is 24 hours for a resident and 72 hours for a traveler. When this period ends, it is not permissible to wipe over the khuffs while making wudu. If this period ends when one has wudu, it is enough to take of the khuffs and wash the feet only for the validity of wudu. A person who does so can put on his khuffs again and wipe over them if he wishes.

2 - When the khuffs come off or when a person takes off his khuffs.

Mas-h is invalidated if khuffs come off on their own or if a person takes off his khuffs. If a person has wudu, it is enough to wash the feet only in that case.

3 - When something that necessitates wudu like sexual intercourse, menstruation and puerperum occurs.
In such cases, mas-h becomes invalid.

A person who fears that his feet will freeze if he takes off his khuffs, he can keep his khuffs even if its time period ends. The time period is not taken into consideration in such a case. The end of excuse is taken into consideration.

 

Mas-h over bandages

* The cloth wrapped around a wound or an aching organ is called a bandage. If there is a bandage on a wudu organ and if it is harmful to remove it and to wash under it, it is permissible to wipe over the bandage instead of washing that organ or part; thus, it is regarded to have been washed.

The plaster, brace or splint one a broken leg, arm, etc is regarded as the same.

A wound covered by ointment is also regarded as the same.

* It is not necessary to wipe over the whole bandage. It is enough to wipe most of the bandage.

* There is no time limit for the bandage that is wiped over. Mas-h is done as long as the excuse goes on. The sound area around the bandage is washed.

* It is not compulsory for the bandage to have been wrapped while one has wudu.

* If the bandage on a wound comes off or is changed, mas-h is not invalidated. Mas-h does not have to be renewed when a new bandage is placed. The state of wudu continues.

* Mas-h over a bandage is invalidated when the wound heals completely.

Filled or plated teeth are like bandaged wounds or wounds covered with ointment - or an organ stained with paint that prevents water from touching the skin but that is very difficult to remove. It is enough if the water touches the plate or filling.

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