What is the difference between Belief and Unbelief?

The word kufr (unbelief) lexically means "to cover". In religious terminology, it means to refute what Hz. Prophet (pbuh) brought from Allah and to deny one or more than one of the religious principles he definitely brought.

Iman (belief) means to believe in Allah, that there is no god but Him, that Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is Allah's slave and messenger, in Allah's angels and books, in the hereafter, in predestination (qadar) and that the good and the bad were created by Allah. (Bukhari, Iman, 37; Muslim, Iman, 1, 5, 7; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 15)

Belief means to approve whatever Hz. Prophet (pbuh) brought and unbelief means to deny what he brought. Accordingly, what mainly distinguishes between belief and unbelief is the approval of the heart. However, the approval of the heart cannot be known by other people; so, uttering belief and fulfilling the religious duties showing the utterance, that is, deeds, are regarded as the indication of belief in the heart.

The most distinctive sign of unbelief is to reject one or all of the principles of belief or to dislike, ignore or disdain them.

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