What are the common characteristics of prophets?

Common characteristics and qualities of prophets are as follows:

1. Sidq (Loyalty): Being truthful is one of the main attributes of prophets.All prophets tell the truth about the news that they receive from Allah. Telling lies is impossible for them.

Prophets are free from acting contrary to the truth and uttering unnecessary words whether when they are furious or happy. It is permissible for them to make jokes but the jokes must be based on a truth and be free from lies. The jokes they make are based on a truth. (Muhâkemât,  54;  For the jokes the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) made to his companions, see: Ghazali, Ihya trns., III, 287-293)

2. Amanah (Trust): Prophets are AMIN (reliable) personalities.Prophets are reliable and trustworthy people regarding fulfilling the duties that Allah gave them. Breach of trust is impossible for them.

All of the prophets are the most reliable and trustworthy people of their age. Everybody accepted that they were reliable people both before and after the prophethood. It is the greatest evidence showing that prophets are right and tell the truth regarding their causes. They asked their nations to accept the truth by reminding their tribes their attribute of reliability.(See:  al-A’raf, 68; ash-Shuara, 107, 128, 162,  178;  ad-Duhan, 18)

Is it possible for a person who is reliable before prophethood and who has never told a lie or deceived anybody to say, “I am the messenger of Allah” and slander and betray Allah although he is not a messenger? It is impossible. Right-minded and fair people will notice it.

As a matter of fact, that attribute was among the issues that Heraclius, the Emperor of Byzantium,  asked the delegation from Quraish in order to investigate the truth of the prophethood of the Messenger of Allah. He asked the Quraishi people whether they had heard any lies from him before his prophethood. When he heard the answer, “No”, he said, “A person who has never told a lie to people cannot dare to slander Allah. He is right in his cause.”(H. Jisri, ibid, 547)

3. Tabligh (Conveying): Prophets convey the orders that are revealed to them by Allah to their nations exactly, without missing or adding anything. It is not in question for them to hide the news or to change it. Kitman, that is, the property of hiding the news is not present in prophets.

4. Fatanah (Intelligence): Prophets have a superior mind and intelligence, a strong memory, a superior logic and ability of persuasion. 

Prophets have nothing to do with qualities like madness, heedlessness and ignorance.

5. Ismah (Innocence): Prophets are free from all kinds of sins, whether secret or open, faults, bad deeds, and acts that are not suitable for prophets. People should not even think that prophets could commit sins.

6. Mu’jiza (miracle): Allah gave all of His prophets the quality to produce some extraordinary things or events in order to enable them to prove that they are right and to cope with the objections and the obstinacy of the deniers. They are called miracles. Miracles are supernatural events. They are supernatural events that take place based on the power of Allah not prophets; for instance, the parting of the Red Sea by Hazrat Musa (Moses)...

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