Quran is always fresh and young

Quran is always fresh and young. (1) 


The Universe is flowing towards the end prepared for it by Allah, going through some changes and developments. This change and development improves every newborn being, matures them, and kills or fades them. It stales every fresh thing, and makes anything that is adequate today inadequate tomorrow. After all, time grinds everything like a mill and makes them insignificant. And this mill does not operate by itself; there is someone who makes it operate. For this reason, having noticed this destroying side of time, the Prophet (pbuh) warned the ones who got angry with time saying: “Do not swear at time because Allah is the time Himself.” (2) and pointed out to the fact that it is not actually time that grinds. On the other hand, Allah the Glorious uttered the same reality by pointing out to the ignorance of those who mistake time for god and say “We shall die and we live, and nothing but time can destroy us.” (al-Jathiyah, 24). As a matter of fact, time is a servant of Allah, too, and its duty is to grind mortal beings. 



Time also covers religions, beliefs and systems of thoughts and tries to grind them as well. “Whether a system of thoughts, a belief and a system of practices rules over time or not; whether it can preserve its freshness and firmness is closely related to its dimension of time. If a thought, a belief and more specifically a religion and its teachings are still fresh and new in time, which wears everything out, if it can offer infinitely new and fresh scents to its followers, it is the red apple of all humankind; a jug of water of life, which our lips have been longing for…” (3) 



Having been the first human being to have gone through the tunnel of time, Hazrat Adam was also the first prophet. Other people were reproduced by him and his wife Eve and increased in number over the time. (al-A’raf, 189). The history of humankind which began with one human being turned into a family, a clan, a tribe, a nation and then lots of nations and has reached billions today. For this reason; prophethood, which began with Prophet Adam, advanced towards perfection gradually in accordance with divine causes and sublime aims which have gone through changes and developments as Allah the All-knowing and Omnipotent wills; and it continued to mature until the universal and final prophethood arrived… (4) Because Divine Will sent down messengers to educate people temporarily until they reached perfection, books, booklets and duties of prophets, who did not bring with them perpetual religious laws, were beaten by time and thus they were either totally forgotten or were exposed to distortion which means they lost their pure divine characteristics… From this point of view, the Quranic verse “This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you” (al-Ma’idah, 3) indicates that the process of gradual perfection ended and divine prophethood reached its zenith and the most mature point.” (5) This continued like that until the last prophet and the last book. The verse “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Apostle of God, and the Seal of the Prophets” (al-Ahzab, 40) points out to the fact that we have reached the final ring of the chain of prophets. (6) 



The religion of Islam, the aim of which is to enable humans to reach happiness by developing the good, virtues and feeling of justice in their disposition, reached perfection with Hazrat Muhammad. And the Quran is declared to be protected by Allah, the Glorious, from all kinds of additions and derogations, distortions and alterations with a certain statement “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption).” (al-Hijr, 9). With this statement, Allah promises that the Quran is never going to be corrupted in any way; because humans (human nature-human disposition) will always need it with its uncorrupted form until the end of time. 



That a religion is based on human nature and disposition means that its teachings are suitable for nature and disposition and there is harmony between humankind’s natural and dispositional needs and the principles of that religion. For this reason, the Quran offers solutions which are like tailor-made dresses for authentic situations in fields of principles, morale and law. These dresses just fit human disposition right, neither large nor small… No matter how much we check these dresses, we cannot see anything against any of human societies in them. The religion of Islam is a divine law, a set of laws which enables man – who is supposed to mature due to his disposition - to his goal via the shortest and the safest way, and this is why Islam is the final, everlasting and universal religion on the earth.” (7) 



“Universality means that a religion, a political doctrine, a system of law or a system of economy or a philosophical teaching can meet humankind’s expectations irrespective of centuries. Universality of a religion is possible when its principles of law and ethics, its worldview altogether, comply with humankind’s physiological and psychological structure totally.” (8) 



Fourteen centuries that have passed since the time the Quran honored the earth for the first time have turned lots of things that people considered to be truth into wrong and lots of things that people considered to be wrong into truth, and made opinions upside-down, swallowed many giants and states, and changed traditions, customs, clothing, moral values and knowledge. Especially fascinating scientific discoveries and developments in the last half of the twentieth century proved many previous religions, philosophies and systems of thought to be wrong. This period of fourteen centuries has also shown that the Quran is still standing there right and valid like the first day; because, for instance, although the distortion in the Torah and Bible has been proved by rapidly developing modern science in the last century, it has reinforced the truths of the Quran and proved that it is still fresh and all new.



We see the most beautiful expression of this in Maurice Bucaille, who although originally was Christian converted to Islam as a result of his researches. He says: “These scientific considerations, which are very specific to the Qur'an, greatly surprised me at first. Up until then, I had not thought it possible for one to find so many statements in a text compiled more than thirteen centuries ago referring to extremely diverse subjects and all of them totally in keeping with modern scientific knowledge. In the beginning, I had no faith whatsoever in Islam. I began this examination of the texts with a completely open mind and a total objectivity. If there was any influence acting upon me, it was gained from what I had been taught in my youth; people did not speak of Muslims, but of 'Muhammadans', to make it quite clear that what was meant was a religion founded by a man and which could not therefore have any kind of value in terms of God.” (9)



“While I was looking for the degree of compatibility between the Qur'anic text and the data of modern science, I first examined the Qur'anic Revelation…. It was only when I examined the text very closely in Arabic that I kept a list of them at the end of which I had to acknowledge the evidence in front of me: the Qur'an did not contain a single statement that was assailable from a modern scientific point of view. I repeated the same test for the Old Testament and the Gospels, always preserving the same objective outlook. In the former I did not even have to go beyond the first book, Genesis, to find statements totally out of keeping with the cast-iron facts of modern science.” (10) 



“My approach was to pay special attention to the description of numerous natural phenomena given in the Qur'an; the highly accurate nature of certain details referring to them in the Book, which was only apparent in the original, struck me by the fact that they were in keeping with present-day ideas, although a man living at the time of Muhammad could not have suspected this at all… Whereas monumental errors are to be found in the Bible, I could not find a single error in the Qur'an. I had to stop and ask myself: if a man was the author of the Qur'an, how could he have written facts in the Seventh century A.D. that today are shown to be in keeping with modern scientific knowledge? (11)  How could a man, from being illiterate, become the most important author, in terms of literary merit, in the whole of Arabic literature? How could he then pronounce truths of a scientific nature that no other human being could possibly have developed at the time, and all this without once making the slightest error in his pronouncements on the subject? (12) 



Maurice Bucaille’s research has shown that the Quran is also a basic miracle of history of science beginning from the emergence of Islam until the Day of Judgment. (13) Time has been incapable of canceling anything in it or proving it wrong. (14) Bucaille, who converted to Islam at the end of this research, is not the only Westerner who appreciates the Quran. Many Westerners who are non-Muslim also admit the power of the Quran and its freshness in our century. Ismail Hamdi Danisment, who presents Westerners’ admiration of the Quran by quoting from their own works, comes to the following conclusions on behalf of them:



 “The only universal religion which appeals to the whole humankind all over the world is the religion of Islam, conveyed by the Quran.” 



“The Quran is also the source of inspiration for all disciplines and philosophical movements.” 



“Only the Quran declared a principle of certain equality between all people, with no exception to any race, color and nationality.” 



“For this reason, the source of a social and global revolution that includes all humankind on the earth is the Quran.” 



“This is also why Islam is preserving its all power and might whereas influence of other religions over people is gradually decreasing and weakening.” 



“The most important source of ideals for the humankind is the Quran, too.” 



“The Quran’s level of perfection has not been reached throughout all history and it will not be reached at all times, either.” (15) All of these are some of the results of the equitable westerners’ confessions. 



As the Quran is a book that is going to be adequate until the end of time, it is necessary for it to endure changes and time; and the Lord of the Realms sent it down with this feature. It is an inevitable result that this book, the divinity of which has been proved in this way in a sense, will always stay fresh, young, new and bright forever, as it is protected from human intervention. And moreover, as this book is the last holy book, it needs to be defendable and to be able to be found reasonable by at least sincere people, until the Day of Judgment. And this depends on its freshness. Otherwise, it cannot be the base of any new civilizations because a book the worldview of which has turned out to be unsupportable (16) is no more new, but old and done… 



One of the ageless aspects of the Quran that endures time is its miraculousness in terms of language and literature. Its call for challenge to all humans and the jinn to produce a like of it has not been answered yet. As a matter of fact, this challenge was for proving their incapability. The statement “Wa lan taf’alu” which is translated as “…and of a surety ye cannot” (al-Baqarah, 24) would remain as a seal of incapability for centuries. This succinctness of it let the Quran’s voice make its harmony heard by even those who have closed their ears, and this eloquence and fluency penetrate into their souls… Even the letters of the Quran are ordered in such a way that the sound of each letter feels like a musical note to the ear. This musical effect softens hard hearts and excites souls with attraction. For this reason, whoever hears the Quran cannot leave it anymore. One can never have enough of its sweet harmony… Even someone who does not understand Arabic admires it when he listens to the Quran recitation; his consciousness trembles and the depths of his heart wavers…” (17) 



Let alone the other properties of the Quran, this harmony and music in its recitation (18) has enchanted billions of people – both those who understand its meaning and those who do not – for centuries; and there is not any other bouquet of harmony which influences people, who have got so different tastes of music and traditions, in the same way, which never ages and does not lose anything from its influence. A young girl of four can memorize the Quran from beginning to the end, as a reflection of the same miracle, and the Quran that she recites with her beautiful voice can influence President Nelson Mandela, who is not even Muslim. (19) Regis Blachere states in his work titled “Introduction to Quran (Introduction au Coran)” that what a great excitement those who listen to the Quran recitation feel. Then he says “With what else can this feeling of excitement, this ecstasy be explained other than the quality of the Quran’s language?” Again, the same author, in his work titled “Quran” says, “Loud recitation of this word of Allah that was revealed deeply impresses listeners in a miraculous way.” (20) Because of this enchanting harmony coming from Quran’s expression, phonetics and lingual beauty (21), it feels as though it is being revealed just right now and right before our eyes and our ears are hearing it for the first time. (22)



One of the Islamic scholars who tell about this power of the Quran and its freshness in details is Badiuzzaman Said Nursi. When he lists the miraculous aspects of the Quran, in his works, he counts its freshness in, too, (23) and considers this very important. Especially, the main theme of the twenty-fifth part of the book The Words, which is also known as “The Miraculousness of the Quran”, is the miracles of the Quran. At the very beginning of this part, Badiuzzaman starts by describing the Quran as “THE QUR’AN is the pre-eternal translator of the mighty Book of the Universe; the post-eternal interpreter of the various tongues reciting the verses of creation; the commentator of the book of the Worlds of the Seen and the Unseen; … ; it is the instructor of the world of humanity; the light and water of Islam, the macroanthropos; the true wisdom of mankind; and the true guide and leader urging humanity to prosperity and happiness; it is a both a book of law, and a book of prayer, and a book of wisdom, and a book of worship, and a book of command and summons, and a book of invocation, and a book of thought, and a unique, comprehensive sacred book comprising many books to which recourse may be had for all the needs of all mankind; it is a revealed scripture resembling a sacred library which offers treatises suitable for all the various ways and different paths of the all the saints and the veracious ones and the wise and the learned, which is appropriate for the illuminations of each way and enlightens it, and is suitable for the course of each path and depicts it.” (24) These statements indicate that the Quran is an ageless book, also pointing out to its perpetuity. 



He also states that the Quran is still as fresh and new as it was the first day, as a like of it has not been written yet and its challenge has not been answered yet, by saying “This is the eloquence of the Qur’an, which is at the degree of miraculousness. Its eloquence is a wonderful eloquence born of the beauty of its word-order, the perfection of its conciseness, the marvels of its style, its singularity and pleasantness, the excellence of its expression, its superiority and clarity, the power and truth of its meanings, and from the purity and fluency of its language, which for one thousand three hundred years (now for one thousand four hundred years) has challenged the most brilliant men of letters of mankind, their most celebrated orators, and the most profoundly learned of them, and invited them to dispute it. It has provoked them intensely. And although it has invited them to dispute it, those geniuses, whose heads touch the skies in their pride and conceit, have been unable to so much as open their mouths to do so, and have bowed their heads utterly humiliated.” (25) “And no one has been able to imitate it. Its style has always preserved the freshness, youth, and singularity it possessed when it was first revealed and continues to preserve it.” (26) “This shows that miracles are divine stamps and seals on the Quran.” (27)



While telling about eloquence of Quran, the eminent master, Nursi, describes another way of freshness in it as “Yes, it does not weary even if repeated thousands of times; indeed, it gives pleasure. It is not burdensome for the memory of a small and simple child; children can memorize it easily. It is not unpleasant to the ear, pained by the slightest word, of someone extremely ill; it is easy on it. It is like sherbet to the palate of one in the throes of death. The recitation of the Qur’an gives sweet pleasure to the ear and mind of such a person just like Zemzem water to his mouth and palate. The reason for its not causing boredom, and the wisdom of it, is this: it is food and sustenance for the heart, strength and wealth for the mind, water and light for the spirit, and the cure and remedy for the soul. Everyday we eat bread, yet we do not tire of it. But if we were to eat the choicest fruit every day, it would cause boredom. That means it is because the Qur’an is truth and reality and truthfulness and guidance and wonderfully eloquent that it does not cause weariness and preserves its freshness and agreeableness as though preserving a perpetual youth…” (28) 



As the Master Nursi stated, the Quran has been able to appeal to different minds and different hearts in all times. Due to this flexible style of its, everyone has been able to enjoy it and find peace with it despite their differences; and it has been able to earn humankind new things in every age. Therefore, although there have been scientific developments more than ever in our age, especially in the last fifty years, it has not harmed the Quran at all; and it has not caused any damage to its divinity and trueness. (29) Actually, the Quran was sent down in order to guide people to the right way in all times and under all circumstances and to solve people’s problems, for which it has got the power. (29) As a matter of fact; French scientist Raymond Lerouge, although he is a Christian, states that the Quran has got the power to save the humankind from today’s depressions and Hazrat Muhammad is still the man of the time. (31) 



Badiuzzaman expresses it with his concise words as follows: “Indeed, as the speech of the All-Glorious Creator of the universe, the Qur’an proceeds from the ultimate degree of His dominicality, passes over all the other degrees guiding those who rise to them, and passing through seventy thousand veils, it looks to each and illuminates it. It scatters its radiance and spreads its light to the thousands of levels of those it addresses, the understanding and intelligence of whom are all different. Although it has lived through ages and centuries whose capacities are all different, and has broadcast its meaning to this great extent, it has not lost an iota of its perfect youth and juvenility, and retaining its total freshness and delicacy, it teaches every ordinary person in a most easy, skilful, and comprehensible manner. Whatever aspect of a wonder-displaying book which thus teaches, convinces, and satisfies with the same lesson, the same words, numerous levels of people whose understanding and degrees are all different -whatever aspect of such a book is studied, a flash of miraculousness will surely appear.” (32) Its juvenility does not decrease, but seems to increase, as it is a book which combines all issues of the past and the future, of pre-eternality and post-eternality.” (33); because it is the book of Allah the Glorious, who looks at the past and the future, at the pre-eternality and post-eternality like the witness of time (34). 



“The Quran was sent down not for a specific century but for all times. It is not exclusive to a certain group of people but it covers all groups of people. It does belong not to a specific class of people but is related to all classes of people. For this reason, everyone, every group, every century can have a share from the realities of the Quran according to their own understanding and capabilities and they do so. However, people differ in their degrees, in their likes and tastes, and they do not resemble each other in terms of their tendencies, likes, tastes and dispositions… In short, the Quran, the Miraculous Statement, ordered and positioned its verses and sentences in such a way that people with different minds and capabilities can have their shares from it according to their own tastes… As it is deduced from this remark, one of the miraculous eloquences of the Quran is as follows: Its verses are in such a style that they can adapt to all centuries and all groups.” (35) As a requirement of its fluency, it speaks to its addressees from different groups of people in all centuries in the most appropriate manner. (36) Lapse of time cannot wear that style out; thus, it is always young and fresh.” (37) 



As the Master Said Nursi, pointed out, contemporary civilizations have been incapable of surpassing the Quran not only in terms of knowledge but also literature and eloquence; and have had to kneel down before its unfading and ageless power and beauty of words. The Quran, with this freshness, appeals and addresses directly to every group of people in all times, as though it was specially written for them…” (38) For this reason, it managed to stay always fresh and young; because although circumstances change from century to century, this book has preserved its brightness and have never been outdated. 



 Master Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, with his nice and eloquent expression, states: “This is the Qur’an’s youth. It preserves its freshness and youth every age as though newly revealed. In fact, the Qur’an has to have perpetual youth since as a pre-eternal address, it addresses at once all the levels of mankind in every age. And that is how it has been seen and is seen. Even, although all the centuries are different with regard to ideas and capacity, it as though looks to each particularly, and teaches it. Man’s works and laws grow old like man, they change and are changed. But the rulings and laws of the Qur’an are so firm and well-founded that they increase in strength as the centuries pass...” (39) 



The Quran seems to be capable of meeting the needs of this era, with its freshness, like those of every era. This situation is an indication of its perpetuity. Each verse that one discovers in himself or in the universe is a manifest proof of the Quran’s perpetuity and trueness. Science, laws of nature and discoveries in social sciences add more to the rightness of the Quranic view. (40) “Modern civilization, which is the product of the thought of all mankind and perhaps the jinn as well, has taken up a position opposed to the Qur’an, which individuals and communities have failed to dispute.” (41) “They managed to do nothing but just confirmed the verse ‘If the whole of mankind and the jinn were to gather together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support.’ (al-Isra, 88). Even when the principles that the Quran established for social life of the humankind and its wisdom, and the principles, philosophies developed by modern civilization and the humankind’s wisdom are taken into consideration together, the freshness of the Quran and the deceptiveness of modern civilization that is destined to age at any time will be realized as clear as daylight. (42). “Since the Qur’an’s principles and laws have come from pre-eternity, they shall go to post-eternity. They are not condemned to grow old and die like civilization’s laws. They are always young and strong.” (43) If a book can address to every era, with its principles, freshness and juvenility, if it does not fall behind the times, if it preserves its contact with all kinds of development, it is an eternal miracle. 



For this reason, according to the Master Nursi; “Things like the airplane, electricity, railways, and the telegraph have come into existence as wonders of science and technology as the result of man’s progress in science and industry. Surely, the All-Wise Qur’an, which addresses all mankind, does not neglect these. Indeed, it has not neglected them; it indicates them in two ‘Ways’. The First: In the form of the miracles of the Prophets... The Second is this: it indicates them in the form of certain historical events.” (44) The Quran has preserved its freshness in this aspect, too. It has not been flabbergasted by discoveries and inventions, and has not left its followers helpless. “The All-Wise Qur’an is wise. It affords everything a position in relation to its value. Thus, one thousand three hundred years ago, the Qur’an saw concealed in the darkness of the future, man’s hidden fruits and progress, and showed them in a form better than we see and shall see. That means the Qur’an is the Word of One Who sees at the same instant all time and all within it.” (45) This means that the expositions of the Qur’an cannot be attributed to man’s partial knowledge, and particularly to the knowledge of someone unlettered. They rest rather on a comprehensive knowledge and are the word of One Who is able to see all things together and observe in one moment all truths between pre-eternity and post-eternity. (46) Such a book that is under guaranteed protection against distortion will of course stay fresh forever. 



In summary, “Master Said Nursi includes the fact that Quran stays always fresh and preserves its freshness as though it was being re-sent in every century, and that it never ages and appeals to and addresses all times and all people from all classes as a pre-eternal sermon within the bounds of the Quranic miracles. Yes, according to Nursi, the Quran looks at different centuries which differ in their views and capabilities and meets each century’s needs. Every century takes its share from it and does not touch the shares of centuries to come. Therefore, the Quran does not age.” (47) It is almost as though the Quran grows younger as time grows older. (48) Great changes in the world have not caused damage to the precious truths and beautiful style of the Quran; they have not been able to age it and have failed to decrease its value and wash its beauties away. (49) 



Let me finish my article with a hadith which points out that the Quran is the safe haven for the problems to come out in the future and it will always stay young. The Messenger of Allah said: “It (Quran) has got the news of things that happened before you and that will happen after you; and the judgment of cases between you. It is the book that distinguishes the right from the wrong and the truth from the falsehood; it is never a game. It is such a book that Allah breaks the neck of the imperious person who leaves it; and causes those who seek the right way not in the Quran but somewhere else to go astray. It is the firm rope of Allah; it is an invocation full of wisdom; it is the most right way; it is the book because of which desires will not go astray; tongues will not have difficulties, the book with which scholars will not be tired of reading and the interesting aspects of which will never end. It is the exposition about which the jinn said “We have really heard a wonderful Recital!” (al-Jinn, 1). It is such a book that whoever declares an opinion that is in accordance with it, says the truth and whoever judges with it judges right. Whoever behaves in accordance with it earns thawabs and whoever calls it is guided to the right way.” (50) Therefore, it will always stay young and fresh. 




1 Prof. Dr. Lütfullah Cebeci is a lecturer at Ataturk University, Faculty of Theology.

2 Musnad, 5/299, 311 (see also Bukhari, interpretation of surah 45, 1; tawhid, 35, adab, 101; Muslim alfaz, 1-6; Abu Dawud, adab, 169).

3 Sadık Kılıç, "Risaletin zaman Boyutu ve Kur'ân'ı Derinliğine Okumak", Ebedi risalet, 2/265, Işık publications, İzmir, 1993.

4 Ahmed Hamdi Akseki, İslâm, p.333, İrfan publication, İstanbul, 1966

5 S.Kılıç, 2/271-272

6 M. Sait Ramazan al-Buti, "Hz. Muhammed'in Risaletinin Evrenselliği", Ebedi risalet, 2/314-315, Işık publications, İzmir, 1993

7 A.H.Akseki, p. 355-357

8 Mahmut Kaya, "İslâmın Evrenselliği Üzerine, "Ebedî risalet, 2/301, Işık publications, İzmir, 1993; Akseki, p.335.

9 Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, The Qur’an and the Science

10 M. Bucaille, p. 12

11 M. Bucaille, p. 181

12 M. Bucaille, p. 188

13 Mustafa Sadık ar-Rafi'i, İ'jazu'l-Qur'ân, p. 114-129, Daru'l Kitabi'l-Arabi, Beirut, 1973

14 Subhi as-Salih, Mebahith fi Ulumi'l-Qur'ân, p. 320 ff., Daru'l Ilm, Beirut, 1874.

15 İsmail Hami Darüşmend, Garp İlminin Kur'ân-ı Kerim Hayranlığı, p. 66-68, Hareket Publications, İstanbul, 1973.

16 Dücane Cündioğlu, Sözün Özü, p. 7-8 Tibyan Publications, İstanbul, 1996

17 Osman Keskioğlu, Nüzülünden Günümüze Kur'ân-ı Kerim Bilgileri, p. 198-199, T.Diyanet Vakfı publications, Ankara, 1987; M.S. ar-Rafi'i, p. 166-188.

18 M.S. ar-Rafi'i, İ'jazu'l-Qur'ân, s. 212-220, daur'l kitabi'l-Arabi, Beirut, 1973; as-Salih, p.334-340

19 Yeni Şafak Gazetesi, "İslâm ve Toplum eki, p.12, February, 1998

20 İ.H. danişmend, p. 55-56

21 Kur'ân-ı Kerim ve Kur'ân İlimlerine Giriş, p. 130-131

22 S.as-Salih, p. 342.

23 The Words, p. 404-407, Envâr Publications, İstanbul, 1996.

24 The Words, s.366-367; İşarâtü'l-İ'câz, s. 10-11, Envâr Neşriyat, İstanbul, 1996.

25 The Words, p. 368.

26 The Words, p. 374; The Signs of Miraculousness, p. 34-35

27 The Words, p. 382-384; Mehmet Kilerci, risale-i Nur'da Kur'ân Mucizesi, p. 37, İz publications, İstanbul 1997

28 The Words, p. 378

29 M. Ghazalî, Kur'ân'ı Anlamada Yöntem, p. 332, Sor publications, Ankara, 1993.

30 M. Ghazalî, p. 131.

31 İ. H. Danişmend, p. 54-55, Vie de Mahomet, 1939, Paris, reported from p. 21.

32 The Words, p. 390-395.

33 The Words, p. 396

34 The Words, p. 397

35 The Signs of Miraculousness, s. 39-40

36 The Signs of Miraculousness, p. 47; kilerci, p. 132-133

37 The Letters, p. 181, Envâr Publications, İstanbul, 1996

38 The Words, p. 411-414

39 The Words, p. 407

40 M. Gazalî, p. 330.

41 The Words, p. 407

42 The Words, p. 407-411, also see. Kilerci, p. 261-266

43 The Words, p. 407 ff.

44 The Words, p. 252-253

45 The Words, p. 267

46 The Words, p. 141

47 Kilerci p. 39

48 Kilerci, p. 318 - 319

49 Kilerci, p. 319

50 Tirmidhi, fadâailil - Qur'ân, 14 (5/172


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