Migration to Madinah Starts
The allegiances and agreements made between the Muslims of Madina and our Holy Prophet (PBUH) opened a brand new arena before the Muslims. Living in their new community would allow them to talk about their beliefs openly, perform their religious duties freely, and fearlessly protect and spread their faith; the two most powerful tribes in Madina, the Aws and Kahzraj, promised to receive them with open arms, to protect them in all kinds of circumstances and not to withhold their help. It appeared as if the Sun of Islam (PBUH) would be shining with all his majesty in Madina very soon.
While the polytheists were concerned that the Muslims would move to this place of safety, our Holy Prophet (PBUH) was exerting all his efforts into making this new homeland that was rapidly embracing Islam the capital of Islam.
Mecca was in a very sensitive situation. When the polytheists heard that God’s Apostle (PBUH) had contracted an agreement with the Muslims of Madina, they further tortured the Muslims to a much greater extent.
Life in Mecca was like a punishment for the Muslims; it was as if the drinking water and the air were a burning fire.
The Muslims explained their troublesome and painful situation to our Holy Prophet (PBUH) and requested permission to immigrate. At first, our Holy Prophet (PBUH) indicated that permission had not been granted to him. However, he was granted permission in the following days and happily notified the Muslims of having received the approval:
“I was shown and it was made known to me that the place you will immigrate to is a city in between two black rocks and is filled with dates. Those who want to leave Mecca should go there and unite with their siblings from among the Muslims of Madina. God, the Exalted, has made them your siblings and Madina a home in which you will find safety and peace.” (1)
As it is seen, when the threats and oppressions of Qurayshi polytheists on Muslims reached a point that did not allow Muslims to practice and spread Islam, the Messenger of God had allowed them to migrate. (2) The following word of Hazrat Aisha expresses this state: “The believer had to migrate to God or His messenger for his religion because he had the fear of being prohibited from practicing his religion.” (3)
“Then, migration, as it is sometimes expressed wrongly, is not an escape but a search. It is the search for a suitable environment for practicing the religion, which was in a point of elimination due to the threats and dangers. The religion determined its practice and application as its aim. If the conditions of the place a person lives in do not let this aim be practiced, it is a religious obligation for him to migrate from that place. The Quran does not regard those people as excused if they do not migrate and holds them responsible. (4) They are obliged to look for a place where they can practice their religion.” (5)
After this permission, the Messenger of God thought thoroughly about the act of migration, which was “a search for a suitable place to practice and spread the religion”. When it came time to immigrate, he continuously reminded the Muslims to act with caution and prudence and advised them to leave in small groups so as to not attract the polytheists’ attention.
In accordance to our Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) advice, the Muslims proceeded on their way to Madina individually and in small groups, which sometimes included only two people.
The first companion who emigrated from Mecca to Madina was Abu Salama Ibn Abdi’l-Asad.
The polytheists realized what was going on; they made the Muslims they could catch turn back. They were doing all they could in hopes that the Muslims would abandon their faith. They were separating wives from their husbands and objecting to them immigrating with their husbands. Some of the Muslims were being imprisoned. However, they did not want to kill anyone fearing that a war could break. Nonetheless, they did their best to dissuade the Muslims from immigrating by subjecting them to all kinds of unimaginable torture and cruelty. However, the Muslims had made up their mind and were determined to move to Madina regardless of the costs. They were finally able to overcome all of the obstacles and continued with their departure.
The bright horizons were smiling at them already. They had escaped from the circle of torture and oppression and were now opening their wings towards the horizon. Besides, Madina and its inhabitants were anxiously awaiting their arrival.
MIGRATION OF HAZRAT UMAR
While the other Muslims were in the process of emigrating in secret, Hazrat Umar was girding on his sword. He took his bow, arrow, and spear and went to the Kaaba. He openly circumambulated the Kaaba seven times. He bravely called out to the ringleaders of the polytheists who were present:
“I am emigrating in the way of God so that I can protect my religion. If one wants to leave his wife as a widow, to make his mother cry, and to have his children orphaned, then come before me on this valley!” (6)
After this fearless cry, about twenty Muslims went towards Madina in broad daylight. None of the polytheists had any courage to track them down.
In a few months, a great percentage of Muslims had departed from Mecca to Madina. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH), Hazrat Abu Bakr, Hazrat Ali, the needy who could not afford a long journey, those who did not have the strength to endure a long crossing, and those imprisoned by the polytheists stayed behind.
Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) also had the intention to emigrate. However, he was awaiting God’s permission in this matter. In fact, when Hazrat Abu Bakr disclosed his wish to emigrate our Holy Prophet (PBUH) said, “Be patient. It is hoped that God will grant you a companion” (to emigrate with.)
THE PANIC OF POLYTHEISTS
The tribes of Aws and Khazraj greeted the Muslims who gradually immigrated to Madina immensely well. They sheltered them and provided homes for them. Married immigrants stayed at the homes of those who were married whereas single immigrants stayed at the home of Sa’d bin Haythama, who was another unmarried companion.
The polytheists of the Quraysh panicked when they saw that the Muslims who had immigrated were being sheltered, helped, and uniting with the other Muslims in Madina. Their worries increased altogether when they thought about our Holy Prophet (PBUH) also emigrating, coming to the forefront, waging a war against them, and having the power to cut off the trade route to Damascus.
Meeting at Daru’n-Nadwa
They immediately convened at Daru’n-Nadwa to discuss how they could take measures.
Daru’n-Nadwa was a residence that faced the Kaaba and belonged to one of our Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) forefathers, Qusay bin Kab. The leading figures of the Quraysh would always gather here to discuss matters and consult with one another.
They arranged to discuss the matter regarding our Holy Prophet (PBUH) and met at Dar’un-Nadwa one morning.
In the meantime, they saw a well-dressed, sharp-eyed elderly man standing in front of the door. They asked this man, “Who are you?” “I am an elder from Najid” answered the man, “I heard about this meeting so I came to explain my thoughts. I want to express my opinions regarding measures that I deem to be suitable and unsuitable!”
The Qurayshis welcomed him and said, “Alright, enter!” Actually, the old man was a devil that had entered into the form of a human.
The Terrible Decision They Made!
There were about 100 Qurayshis at the meeting however only Abu Lahab was accepted from among the Sons of Hashim so that the others would not be informed right away. They opened the topic by asking, “What kind of measures should we take in the matter regarding Muhammad?”
Some of them said, “Let us imprison him by tying him with a chain.” The devil that had entered into human form replied, “No. By God, your idea is not suitable. If you imprison him, then his companions will tread on you and pull him away. They will advance with his propaganda and indoctrination and prevail over you. Think of another measure.” Upon this, some of them said, “Let us drive him away from our community and country! After he separates from us, have him go wherever he wants.”
The old man spoke again, “No, by God, your thought is not in good taste. Do you not see that his message and the sweetness and beauty of his words take command in the hearts of the people? If you drive him away, he will circulate among the Arab tribes and then rule over them. Afterwards he will tread over you and order you to do what he wants. For that reason you should think of something else!” At last, Abu Jahl got the chance to speak, “By God, I thought of a measure that none of you would have been able to think of.”
They asked, “what is it?”
Abu Jahl disclosed his idea:
“We do not have any other choice but to kill him. For that reason, we will choose a strong young man from each tribe. Then we will give each of them a sharp sword. They will all strike and kill him at once. That way, we will be freed from him and no one will know who killed him. When it happens in this way, the Hashimis will not be able to risk having a battle with all the other tribes and will consent to receiving blood money whether they like it or not. We will pay off the blood money and resolve the matter.” The devil that had entered the form of the old man came forth and said, “This is the correct idea and the most suitable solution.”
The others accepted Abu Jahl’s view and dispersed. (7)
 Ibn Hisham, Sirah, c. 2, s. 111; Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, V. 1, p. 226; Bukhari, Sahih, V. 2, p. 330; Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, V. 2, p. 180.
 Doç. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Tebliğ Terbiye ve Siyasî Taktik Açılarından Hicret, p. 17.
 Bukhari, Sahih, V. 3, p. 65.
 See an-Nisa, 97.
 Doç. Dr. İbrahim Canan, ibid, p. 17-16.
 Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, V. 2, p. 183-184.
 Ibn Hisham, Sirah, V. 2, p. 124-126; Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, V. 1, p. 227; Tabari, Tarikh, V. 2, p. 242-243; Suhayli, Rawdu’l-Unf, V. 1, p. 290-291; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, V. 177-178; Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, V. 2, p. 189-190.
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