LOOKING AT PLANT KINGDOM FROM THE WINDOW OF CREATION

Prof.Dr. Hasan AKAN
Harran University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Head of Biology Department, Şanlıurfa.
[email protected]

There is a good harmony between man and nature. All living things complement each other in harmony and form a full environmental balance. Plants are virtually the key to life and source of inspiration in this ecological balance.

Each plant has a meaning value in terms of mystical and spiritual views. These meaning values, which add beauty and esthetics to human soul, also include magnificent beauties for those who seek divine love.

We should thank Allah, who put the whole universe including plants under our order and appointed us as their commander of the universe, and we should not fall behind the trees, flowers and herbs that glorify and praise Allah with hundreds of thousands of tongues every moment.

Our realm of heart becomes more beautiful with greenery; sometimes a beautiful scene can affect our hearts for a week. The colors, scents and ornaments of flowers attract attention in terms of their harmony with human nature. There is a virtually coding between humans and flowers. A mutual interaction between man and plants is perceived. Flowers have spiritual meanings that involve the eyes, the nose and the ears.

In our belief, it is evaluated by priceless rewards to try to solve the language of beings by means of deep research and understanding their wisdom and aims. It is even said that “An hour of meditation is better than a year of supererogatory  worshipping”.

Will they not look or see, will they not take lessons? Verse of the Quran

Plants have been an integral part of human life since the first human being. When we say plants, oxygen comes to mind first. All of the oxygen required for life is provided by plants. Production of oxygen by plants is a giant miracle that transcends chemistry and biology.

Plants were sometimes used as a source of food, sometimes for shelter and security purposes, sometimes as a weapon in wars and sometimes in perfumery and cosmetics.

The existence of plants is indispensable for the survival of life on earth. We need plants in every field of life. Both the cradle in which we are put when we are born and the coffin in which we are put when we die for are made of wood.

Plants are a wonder of art with their appearance and roles in the ecosystem. The colors, scents and ornaments of flowers are divine grants and gifts.

We should not underestimate plants. No human can do what plants do. If we named things based on what they do, it would be more appropriate to call each green leaf “a factory of oxygen and food”. Dr. Calvin was awarded the Nobel Prize for explaining one of the many skills of a leaf. Even the most intelligent people could understand very little about the purpose of the creation of green grass. Nevertheless, no scientist has been able to do what a grass does. What man needs to do the related to divine art is to accept that he is weak. Therefore, it is necessary to read the secrets and spiritual messages in plants from the viewpoint of the soul.

Meditation means the seeing by the soul’s eye and understanding the wisdom behind the creation of the creatures. As a matter of fact, our holy book, the Quran, invites us to meditate. In a sense, meditation is the basis for understanding and comprehending the existence. In the Quran, Allah asks man repeatedly, "Will they not look or see, will they not take lessons?" [1] she asks. He calls people to think/meditate through different examples. For this reason, it is the method of Hz. Ibrahim (Abraham) to investigate evidences and to try to strengthen belief. He looked at the moon and the sun and said that those who set could not be deities.

The flowers that add beauty to our world, the forests that add peace to life, the fruits and vegetables that decorate our table are worth contemplating and meditating.

Botanists have not been able to solve the secrets of plants fully yet. Botany has dozens of sub-branches: Plant Morphology, Plant Physiology, Plant Systematics, Pharmaceutical Botany, Paleobotany, Ethnobotany, Geobotany, Plant Sociology, Plant Ecology, Plant Genetics, etc. In all these sub-sciences, the positivist view presents a dry botanical knowledge. However, the flowers that add beauty to our world, the forests that add peace to life, the fruits and vegetables that decorate our table should also be meaningful in our world of thought. A spiritual value should also be considered beyond the physical value of everything.

The Importance of Trees and Greenery in the Quran

The Quran, our holy book, attracts attention to the ecological balance between man and the universe and states that man is connected with the universe. The following is stated in the Holy Quran; “There are signs in every plant for a thinking person and society.” (ash-Shuara / 7-9) The trees are granted a high degree in the Quran since Allah swears by them:By the Fig and the Olive” (at-Tin 95/1) Verses about trees are seen in many places throughout the Quran from the first to the last chapters. [2] These reminders are often made in the Holy Quran and the image of “tree” is kept alive in people’s minds.

The Importance of Trees and Greenery in Hadiths

The Prophet (pbuh) gives glad tidings to the people who plant trees in hadiths:

If Doomsday strikes and if one of you has a sapling in his hand, let him plant it.”. [3]

Planting trees is an ongoing charity (sadaqah jariyah).

The Prophet (pbuh) gives glad tidings to the people who plant trees in hadiths:

“If a Muslim plants a tree or a plant, everything that is eaten from it is a sadaqah (charity) for him, everything that the beasts or the birds eat from it is a sadaqah for him, everything that a person takes from it is a sadaqah for him”. [4]

Watch the Nature in Green (Mawlana)

According to Mawlana, “We should listen to the sound and music in the plants”. Mawlana says, “A stone will not bloom even if it lives for one thousand springs”.We need to hear this sound if ourfeelings are not frozen and petrified. Mawlana explains the manner of watching plants as follows in a poem:

Go to the countryside; watch the vineyards and the nature dressed in green. It looks as if there is a florist’s in every corner; watch the art of Allah. The roses smile and say to the nightingales: "Keep silent and watch in silence."”

We are invited to take pleasure from meditation by listening to the  dhikr of the plants accompanied by the music of the universe. It is the greatest spiritual wealth to listen to the voice of the glorification and dhikr of Allah by the beings in the universe. The tune of the dhikr of plants and trees is likened to the “strings of music”. It is even said that “the membrane in the ear hears the spiritual sounds coming from the universe when it is illuminated by the light of belief”. [5] The universe is virtually likened to a divine music circle.

Go to the countryside; watch the vineyards and the nature dressed in green. It looks as if there is a florist’s in every corner; watch the art of Allah. The roses smile and say to the nightingales: "Keep silent and watch in silence." Mawlana

The Importance of Plants in Risale-i Nur

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, who wrote Risale-i Nur Quranic Tafsir, gave great importance to trees and greenery. He calls the plant kingdom “Nabatat”. He presents plants as the miraculous works of mercy and wisdom written on the earth and displayed on the page of spring.

The atoms and subatomic particles that make up the leaves and flowers of a plant are always mobile. Since their movement is a kind of speech, the tree becomes a dhikr circle when the movement of branches, leaves and flowers with the wind is considered.

According to Nursi, plants glorify and praise Allah in their own language, and plants and trees adorn their beautiful fruits and present them to humans. He expresses it as follows:

The well-proportioned and balanced assemblages of the beings are all testifying tongues. And their perfect lives are all glorifying tongues”. [6]

Thus, the forms of the beings are their tongues in a sense and the plant kingdom tells us with their adorned and comforting forms that they are the works of the Creator.

They testify the existence of their Creator with well-proportioned structures that are in compliance with benefit and wisdom.

They glorify and praise their Creator with the perfect continuation of their lives.

Nursi considers the movement in beings as their silent speech in a way and states the following:

The activity of divine power in the universe and the constant flood of beings are so meaningful that through them the All-Wise Maker causes all the realms of beings in the universe to speak. It is as if the beings of the earth and the skies and their motion and actions are the words of their speech; their motion is their speech. That is, the motion and decline arising from activity is speech glorifying God. The activity in the universe is the universe’s silent speech and that of the varieties of its beings; their being made to speak”. [7]

The movement of atoms in solid matter is little. It is more in liquid matter and much more in the air. That is, the atoms forming the substances are mobile. The electrons around the atom are made rotate around themselves and make 50,000 revolutions per second in a certain orbit around the atom.

The neutrons in the nucleus of the atom are also made rotate in a certain orbit. In addition, subatomic particles, namely, quarks, muons, pions, neutrinos are also mobile.

On the other hand, the atoms and subatomic particles that make up the leaves and flowers of a plant are always mobile. Since their movement is a kind of speech, the tree becomes a dhikr circle when the movement of branches, leaves and flowers with the wind is considered.

Badiuzzaman said Nursi expresses what the plants want to say with their movements as follows:

If you want to observe these elevated truths from close, go andask the spring; you will hear many Names like: “O Gentle One! O Most Merciful One! O Most Compassionate One! O Most Generous One! O Gracious One! O Benevolent One! O Giver of Forms! O Giver of Light! O Bestower! O Adorner!”.[8]

Plants are Sustenance and They Come from the Sustainer

Human beings use more than forty thousand plants and animals as nutrients. Thanks to the nutrients, our cells are renewed and our tissues are repaired.

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi points out that trees carry the food of animals on their heads:

Now look, a strange caravan has appeared, coming from the Unseen. [9] The mounts in it resemble trees, plants, and mountains. Each bears a tray of provisions on its head. And look, they are bringing the provisions for the various animals awaiting them on this side.”. [10]

Plants are a Source of Cure for Humans

The universe is a pharmacy. The pharmaceutical authorities of the world have started to give up tablets, and have begun to searchwhich plant species is good for which disease. Every plant is definitely a cure for a disease. What matters is to be able to discover it like Doctor Luqman, the pioneer of doctors. The universe is a great pharmacy. There are many plants mentioned in the Prophetic Medicine. All synthetic drugs are chemical substances. Therefore, they all have side effects. The biggest side effects are seen in the kidney and liver. Our beloved Prophet (pbuh) stated the following said 14 centuries ago:

This black grain (cumin) includes cure for everything except death.”

From Plant Seeds to Genetic Codes

A seed first breaks down; then,it begins to develop by the Divine permission; it comes out of the ground, grows and becomes a sapling. Then, it becomes a tree, ramifies, blooms, and finally the flowers are transformed into fruits, whichform the sustenance of humans and animals.

God Almighty keeps all the features of the tree, everything that has happened to it in the genetic structure in the form of codes.

In fruits, there is a genetic structure encoded into seeds that is more delicious than the fruit itself and sweeter than sugar. God Almighty keeps all the features of the tree, everything that has happened to it in the genetic structure in the form of codes. In the second spring, these codes are opened and everything that has happened to that treeis shown as the manifestations of Asma al-Husna (the Most Beautiful Names of Allah).

Nursi expresses that God Almighty, who records everything that has happened to the tree with his name al-Hafiz (the All-Preserving One), records what happens to man similarly as follows:

The One Who preserves a fig tree’s seed while it is changing into a fig, and does not allow it to rot in the ground so that it can grow into a fig tree—that All-Preserving and Protecting One Who protects all other plants and animals—will not neglect the deeds of humanity, His vicegerent on Earth”.[11]

The Wonderful Designs the Perfect Timing in Plants  

The adornment of trees with leaves in the spring season and their decoration with flowers tell people something with the special mouths of the leaves and the special language of the flowers.

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi expresses it as follows:

Come, now look carefully at a tree! See its delicate mouth within the orderly emergence of the leaves in spring, and the blossoms opening in a measured manner, and the fruits swelling with wisdom and mercy and dancing at the blowing of the breeze in the hands of the branches like innocent children.” Badiuzzaman

Come, now look carefully at a tree! See its delicate mouth within the orderly emergence of the leaves in spring, and the blossoms opening in a measured manner, and the fruits swelling with wisdom and mercy and dancing at the blowing of the breeze in the hands of the branches like innocent children. See the just balance within the wise order expressed through the tongue of the leaves becoming green at a generous hand, through that of the flowers smiling with the joy of a favor received, and through the words of the fruits laughing through a manifestation of mercy. See the careful arts and embroideries within the balance demonstrating justice; and the mercy within the skillful embroideries and adornment; and the various sweet tastes and delightful scents, which indicate mercy and bestowal; and the seeds, each of which is a miracle of power within the agreeable tastes: all these point in most clear fashion to the necessary existence and unity of an All-Wise, Generous, Compassionate, Beneficent, Bountiful Maker, a Bestower of Beauty and Favors, to the beauty of His mercy and perfection of His dominicality.”.[12]

He expresses as follows that leaves finer than broadcloth and flowers whiter than linen are woven in the loom of the spring with the opening of the seeds:

“...For example, a poppy seed like an atom, the kernel of an apricot stone, and a tiny melon seed, produce from the treasury of mercy woven leaves finer than broadcloth, flowers whiter than linen, and fruits sweeter than sugar and more delicate and delicious than sweets and conserves, and they offer them to us.”. [13]

It means, a Sustainer decorates the plants and trees with beautiful fruits and presents them to people.

As anyone can understand with a little attention, it is Allah who sends all fruits and boons intentionally and deliberately at the appropriate time, in the season and in times of need. All the beauty in the universe comes from Allah. All beings are divine mirrors. The universe changes and is renewed any all the time. All of the beauties that appear in this universe come from such a beautiful being that this constantly changing and renewed universe depicts and describes the beauty of that beautiful one with all of its beings and their languages that serve as mirrors.

The Designation of Trees and Animals According to Humans

It is stated as follows that trees are prepared, clothed and decorated in accordance with the needs of human beings:

Plants and animals are designed and created according to human needs.

In the spring, all the trees are garbed in clothes as fine as silk, just like the houris in Paradise; they are encrusted with flowers and fruits, as if with jewels, and caused to offer us numerous varieties of the choicest fruits, on branches delicately outstretched like the hands of a servant. Similarly, we are given wholesome and sweet honey to eat, from the hand of the bee with its sting; we are clothed in the finest and softest of clothes by means of an insect that has no hands; and within a small seed a great treasure of mercy is preserved for us. It is self-evident that all of this is the effect of a most beauteous generosity, a most delicate sense of mercy.”. [14]

Just as people wear jewelry on their clothes to embellish themselves so too are flowers and fruits placed on the clothes of the trees.So, the trees were designed as servants to us, but not as servant in shabby clothes. The plants are dressed in beautiful dresses, and flowers and fruits are placed on the dresses of the trees.

That is, plants and animals are designed and created according to human needs.

Plants are also Evidences of Oneness

Badiuzzaman attracts attention to the look at the beings in the universe. He mentions the difference between looking and seeing. He states that it is necessary to look at the creatures and the whole universe with the significative meaning, that is, on behalf of Allah and as the art and work of Allah:

It is necessary to look at the universe with the significative meaning, that is, on behalf of Allah. It is a mistake to look at them with the nominal meaning, on behalf of causes.

Yes, everything has two aspects. One aspect looks at God and the other looks at people. The aspect that looks at people should be like a veil that will show the aspect looking at God, like veil with laces or a transparent piece of glass, showing the aspect looking at God under it. Therefore, when we look at a boon, the Bestower should come to mind; when we look at the art, the Artist should come to mind and when we look at the causes, the Real Doer should come to mind.”. [15]

It is stated as follows that the adornment of the mountains and hills with flowers is evidence for  the existence and oneness of Allah:

When we look at plants with significative meaning, it is understood that all leaves, flowers and fruits witness the existence and oneness of Allah with their shapes, structures and functions.

Also, just as, being adorned with numerous varieties of well-ordered flowers, the small hills in the plains and among the mountains each testifies to the necessary existence of an All-Wise Maker and points to His unity, and all together show the majesty of His sovereignty and the perfection of His dominicality, so the great variety of the orderly shapes of all the leaves of the grasses and trees, and all their different stages and states and well-balanced and ecstatic movements again show the necessary existence and unity and perfect dominicality of the All-Wise Maker.

Also, just as the regular development at the time of their growth of all living bodies, and each being equipped with all sorts of organs and their being directed consciously towards numerous different fruits again testify to the necessary existence of the All-Wise Maker and indicate His unity, and in their totality show on a truly vast scale His all-encompassing power, and all-embracing wisdom, and the beauty of His art, and the perfection of His dominicality”. [16]

Thus, when we look at plants with significative meaning, it is understood that all leaves, flowers and fruits witness the existence and oneness of Allah with their shapes, structures and functions.

There are also Evidences Related to Resurrection in Trees

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi points out that the death of the seed is the beginning of a new life:

The death of the seed is the onset of the shoot’s life. Indeed, since its death is like life itself, it is created and regular the same as life is.

Similarly, as a seed sown in the ground becomes a tree in the world of the air, so a man who is laid in the earth will surely produce the shoots of an everlasting life in the Intermediate Realm. Badiuzzaman

Moreover, the death of living fruits or animals in the human stomach is the beginning of their rising to the level of human life; it may therefore be said that being thus, their death is more orderly and created than is their life.

If the death of plant life, the lowest level of life, is created, wise, and ordered in that way, the death that befalls human life, the highest level of life, must be the same. Similarly, as a seed sown in the ground becomes a tree in the world of the air, so a man who is laid in the earth will surely produce the shoots of an everlasting life in the Intermediate Realm”. [17]

One Who has disposal over the universal death and revivification in the alternation of the seasons on the earth; and a pen of power inscribes the mighty globe with the ease and orderliness of a garden or even a tree, and the splendid spring with the facility and symmetrical adornment of a flower, and the species of plants and animals as though they were three hundred thousand books displaying three hundred thousand samples of resurrection, all one within the other and intermingled and mixed up together yet without disarrangement or disorder, all resembling each other yet without confusion, error, or fault; perfectly, regularly, and meaningfully; and since despite this vast profusion that One works with boundless mercy and infinite wisdom…”

It is pointed out as follows that a power that revives in the spring all the plants that die in the autumn can easily resurrect:

“Yes, if one considers the power which every spring raises to life identically the roots of all the trees and plants and creates the three hundred thousand plant and animal samples of the resurrection of the dead, and if one visualizes the thousand year period of each of the communities of Moses and Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon them), and they are pictured in the imagination, it will be seen that the two thousand springs display a thousand samples of resurrection and a thousand evidences. [18] It is to be blind and unreasonable a thousand times over to consider bodily resurrection difficult for such a power.[19]

Paradise is Described as Garden

Allah describes Paradise in the Quran as the woods through which rivers flow.

Hebrew: It comes from the word Eden. Eden means "garden in land of fruit".

Arabic: al-Jannah: It means garden, shade and vineyard.

You may see the manifestation of a Name’s beauty in a single flower; the spring is also a flower; Paradise is a flower yet unseen. If you can visualize the whole of spring and see Paradise with the eye of belief, you may understand the utter majesty of everlasting Beauty. Badiuzzaman

It is stated that eternal fruitful trees and flowering plants are prepared in Paradise in a way that is worthy of Paradise as follows:

“Also, these precious gifts and bounties and this extraordinary outlay and bestowal, in this temporary hostel and transitory guest-house, for this brief time and fleeting life, indicate through the hands of the trees and plants, indeed, testify, that in order not to make all creatures say, contrary to the necessary result of all His expense and bestowal which is to make Himself loved and known: “You gave us a taste, but then executed us without permitting us to eat;” and not to nullify the sovereignty of His Godhead, and not deny His infinite mercy and make it denied, and in order not to turn all his yearning friends into enemies through depriving them thus, the munificent All-Compassionate One has of a certainty prepared for His servants whom He will send to an everlasting realm, an eternal world, fruit-bearing trees, and flowering plants appropriate to Paradise out of the treasuries of His mercy, in His eternal Paradises. Those here are merely samples to show the customers”. [20]

Paradise is a Flower Yet Unseen

Nursi describes Paradise asa flower yet unseen:

You may see the manifestation of a Name’s beauty in a single flower; the spring is also a flower; Paradise is a flower yet unseen. If you can visualize the whole of spring and see Paradise with the eye of belief, you may understand the utter majesty of everlasting Beauty. If you respond to that Beauty with the beauty of belief and worship, you will be a most beautiful creature. While if you meet it with the boundless ugliness of misguidance and loathsomeness of rebellion, you will be both a most ugly creature and will in effect be loathed by all beautiful creatures”. [21]

The Company of Houris is also a Flower

Houris are also described as flowers:

Thus, Paradise is a flower. The company of houris is also a flower. The face of the earth is a flower. The spring is a flower. The heavens are a flower, while the stars are their gilded embroideries. And the sun is a flower, while the seven colours in its light are the flower’s embroidered colors. The universe is a beautiful and huge human being, in the same way that each human being is a miniature universe.[22]

Paradise Tree: Tuba Tree

It is stated that the root of this tree is above and its branches hang down. The fruits of those trees do not run out since new fruits will be created instead of the fruits that are picked in Paradise.

Like human beings and animals here, the trees and stones there (in Paradise) will understand commands and carry them out. If you tell a tree to bring you such-and-such a fruit, it will bring it. And if you tell such-and-such a stone to come, it will come. Badiuzzaman

Although plants are half alive and stones are lifeless in this world, they will attain such an advanced level of life as to obey orders in the hereafter. It is stated that the trees and stones there will have a more advanced level of life than the animals here as follows:

Substances, matters, which are inanimate and without consciousness and life in the abode of this world, there will be living and conscious. Like human beings and animals here, the trees and stones there will understand commands and carry them out. If you tell a tree to bring you such-and-such a fruit, it will bring it. And if you tell such-and-such a stone to come, it will come. Since stones and trees will take on this elevated form, it surely necessitates that, together with preserving their bodily realities, eating, drinking, and sexual relations also will take on a form higher than their worldly form, higher to the degree that Paradise is higher than this world”. [23]

Conclusion

Trees have an effect that gives people tranquility, makes them considerate, that makes hearts feel joyful and secure. Man loves flowers naturally. Plants are virtually “a feast for the eyes that watch”.

We should detect the secret behind beauty. We should sense the meaning that a flower has beyond its material existence. When we are interested only in the material aspects of plants, we condemn them to meaninglessness.

The following is stated in the article titled "Consciousness in Plants: Skills Deprived of Intelligence" in Nature, the international journal of science: “Plant cells communicate with one another using sometimes proteins and hormones, sometimes nucleic acid, carbohydrates and sugars, and sometimes chemical and electrical signals.” The positivist view attributes it to nature and chance completely.

There is virtually a harmony and interaction between man and plants. We should not forget the aspects of flowers that affect our eyes, nose, heart and inner world. We should also read the meanings reflected by flowers in Sufistic and spiritual sense. In fact, in Sufism, “Rose represents Hz. Muhammad(pbuh). It is narrated that the sweat of the Prophet smells like roses. Rose is related to the Prophet and Tulip is related to Allah”.

Plants are heralds of divine grace… Theones in the worldare merely samples to show the customers. He has prepared fruit-bearing trees, and flowering plants appropriate to Paradise out of the treasuries of His mercy, in His eternal Paradises.

The similes of Nursi related to plants can be summarized as follows:

  • Trees are likened to wagons of mercy coming from the Unknown.
  • Trees are the pulpit of birds; they deliver their sermon to people there.
  • Trees are likened to dervishes in tranquility in the presence of Allah.
  • Trees are Allah’s works of art.
  • The universe is also a tree; its fruit and seed is man.
  • The religion of Islam is also a tree. Its seed and fruit is Hz. Muhammad.
  • Every tree that has blossomed is a beautifully written poem, a eulogy praising Allah.
  • The tree is a Divine showcase.
  • The tree is a displayer. He presents divine fruits to humans.
  • Fruity trees are bowls. Boons are offered to people in those bowls.
  • Plants come in groups and they are presented to the Pre-Eternal Sultan on parade.
  • Every tree says Bismillah and brings the fruits of mercy.

In conclusion, the colors, scents and ornaments of flowers are remarkable with their suitability to human nature. There is virtually a harmony and programming between man and flowers. It is necessary “to love” and “to know the meaning a flower” has beyond its material existence.

We should thank Allah, who put the whole universe including plants under our order and appointed us as their commander of the universe, and we should not fall behind the trees, flowers and herbs that glorify and praise Allah with hundreds of thousands of tongues every moment.

----------------------------------------------------

[1] Yusuf, 12/105.
[2] See the following verses of the Quran about trees and greenery: Surah al Baqarah, 35; Surah al-An'am, 141; Surah al-A'raf, 19-20, 22; Surah ar-Ra'd, 4; Surah al-Ibrahim, 26; Surah an-Nahl, 10-11, 13, 67-68; Surah al-Isra, 60; Surah at-Taha, 120; Surah al-Hajj, 5, 18; Surah al-Mu'min, 19-20; Surah an-Nur, 35; Surah an-Naml, 60; Surah al-Qasas, 30; Surah Luqman, 27; Surah as-Sajdah, 27; Surah al-Saba', 16; Surah Ya Sin, 80; Surah as-Saffat, 146; Surah ad-Dukhan, 43; Surah al-Fath, 18; Surah Qaf, 10; Surah ar-Rahman, 6; Surah al-Waqi'ah, 28-29, 52, 72; Surah al-Hashr, 5; Surah Abasa, 27-32.

[3] Ahmad, III, 191, 183.
[4] Muslim, Musaqat, 7.
[5] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. İşârât’ül İ’câz. Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Yayınları-983. Second Impression, Ankara, 2014, p. 214.
[6] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları-600, Istanbul, 2nd Impression, 2016, p. 824.
[7] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Mektubat. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları-605, Ankara, 2nd impression 2016, p. 365.
[8] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. ibid, p. 400-401
[9] They are the caravans of plants and trees that carry the sustenance for all animals.
[10] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. ibid, p. 338.
[11] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Mesnevi-i Nuriye. Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Yayınları-1182, Istanbul. 2nd impression, 2015, p. 272.
[12] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. ibid, p. 831.
[13] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. ibid, p. 334.
[14] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. ibid, p. 79.
[15] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Mesnevi-i Nuriye. ibid, p. 91.
[16] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. ibid, p. 818.
[17] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Mektubat. ibid, p. 12.
[18] Every spring that passed is dead; the next spring is the resurrection of the previous spring.
[19] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Şuâlar. Envar Neşriyat, Istanbul, 1995, p. 212.
[20] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Şuâlar. ibid, p. 52.
[21] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Şuâlar. ibid, p. 78.
[22] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. ibid, p. 785.
[23] Nursi, Badiuzzaman, S. Sözler. ibid, p. 618.

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