5. Madinah Period of Hazrat Muhammad



5.1. FIRST ACTIVITIES IN
MADINAH AND MASJID NABAWI



The tribes of Aws and Khazraj forgot about the fight between them and the enmity that brought about misfortunes thanks to Islamic brotherhood. They were all called "Ansar" (Helpers) because they helped Islam. The believers who abandoned their countries, the places they were born, were called "Muhajirs" (Emigrants).

Immediately after the Messenger of Allah arrived in Madinah, the construction of a mosque started and Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) himself worked in the construction. The land that the mosque (Masjid Nabawi) was built on belonged to two brothers. Those brothers granted the land but Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) ordered his companions to pay for the land because those two brothers were orphans.

The most important thing after the construction of the mosque was the setting up of a brotherhood between Ansar and Muhajirs. A muhajir without a house was made brothers with a person from Ansar of Madinah; and the person from Ansar shared his house and properties with his muhajir brother.


Enemies of Muslims



There were three groups of enemies against Prophet.

First Group: They were Quraishis who lived in Makkah and did not believe in him. They were the greatest enemies of Muslims from the beginning. Our Prophet tried to guide them through nice words while he was in Makkah. However, since their enmity and aggression went on after hijrah, Muslims had to use weapons against them.

Second Group: They were impartial people. They were waiting to see what would happen in the end. Some of them, like Bani Huzaa, liked Muslims. Others, like the tribe of Bani Bakr, did not want Muslims to progress.

Third Group: They were Jewish tribes that made peace and signed contracts with Muslims. Bani Qurayza, Bani Nadir and Bani Qaynuqa were in that group. They had made a contract with Hazrat Prophet in the first year of hijrah. They had promised not to attack Muslims. In return, they would carry out their religious ceremonies freely and their properties and lives would be protected. However, they did not keep their promise. They worked against Muslims.

Apart from the three groups mentioned above, there was another group, the Group of Munafiqs. They were Muslims seemingly but they worked against Islam secretly and caused disturbance. "Abdullah ibni Ubayy ibni Salul" from the tribe of Khazraj and Haris ibni Suhayl" from the tribe of Aws were from that group.


Permission for our Prophet to make jihad



As it is known, our Prophet is mercy for all of the worlds. He wanted to make humanity live in a brotherly order and edify them. He tried to enlighten people who were in the darkness of ignorance with the lights of hidayah (guidance). Therefore, he gave his tribe very nice advice. He treated them with lenience and sweetness for thirteen years. Unfortunately, most of them did not appreciate that happy life. They did not give up attacking Muslims. Eventually, they made Muslims leave their hometown. However, that was not sufficient for them. They provoked other tribes against Muslims. They did not refrain from insulting the honor Muslims by using some poets.

It was the first year of hijrah. Allah permitted Muslims to make jihad. Allah permitted Muslims to use force against those who wanted to eliminate Islam. Upon that permission, a lot of battles were fought, troops were sent to fight enemies. They were carried out in order to protect the existence of Islam. The battles that our Prophet himself took part in were called ghazwa. A small group of soldiers that set out for a battle under the commandment of a sahaba was called a Sariyya. A Sariyya means a distinguished military unit consisting of between five and four hundred soldiers.(1)


5.2- BATTLE OF BADR



Before Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) got permission from Allah to fight his enemies, Quraish had been in the battlefield. The Messenger of Allah, who had never used a weapon before, who always felt sorrow for the humanity that was dragged to misfortunes, who cried when his children or friends died, had to act in accordance with the circumstances.

The allies of Makkan people started to attack the places around Madinah, to destroy the fruit trees of Muslims and to take away the herds of Muslims. An armed and fully equipped army, under the commandment of Abu Jahl set out in order to eliminate Muslims and to protect a convoy that brought weapons and equipment. Muslims were informed about the act of polytheists. About 300 Muslims went to the valley of Badr, which was the destination of Abu Jahl and aimed to invade a vantage point that would overlook the army of the polytheists. When Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) saw the army of unbelievers proceeded towards the valley, he raised his hands towards the sky and made a very emotional prayer. "O Lord!" he said, "We expect to be victorious. O Lord! If this small congregation is destroyed, there will remain nobody on earth to pray you."

The angels in the sky had come down to help Muslims. Muslims, who witnessed the power of Allah in every stage of life, saw the angels that ran in the waves of wind to help them and that brought them the victory of Allah. In fact, Makkans were driven back suffering great losses. Several leaders of them were killed. Abu Jahl was one of those that were killed.

Seventy people from the enemy were killed, and about seventy people were taken prisoners. Fourteen Muslims were martyred. Some of the prisoners that were taken were released in return for money and some freely, without any money. Some of them were freed on condition that they would teach ten children of Ansar to write. Our Prophet did not give consent to killing the prisoners.


5.3- BATTLE OF SAWIQ



As soon as Quraishi prisoners of war returned their homeland, Abu Sufyan set out with two hundred horsemen and promised not to return unless they took revenge from Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions. When Abu Sufyan arrived at a place a few kilometers away from Madinah, he attacked the Muslims who had made no preparations and they plundered the date trees of Muslims. Then, Muslims made preparations and answered back Makkan polytheists; they turned and ran away. Since they threw away their bags full of roasted flour in order to decrease their load, that battle was called Sawiq Battle
Meanwhile, an interesting event took place. One day, Hazrat Prophet was sleeping under a tree a bit further away from his headquarters. He suddenly woke up upon a noise. He saw an Arab polytheist with a sword in his hand. He said;

-"O Muhammad, who will save you from me now?" Hazrat Prophet said, without any hesitation;

- "Allah". On hearing that answer, the heart of the wild bedouin filled with fear and chill. He shivered and his sword fell down. This time, Hazrat Prophet grabbed the sword and asked him:

-"Who will save you from me now?" The poor bedouin said;

- "I swear by Allah nobody can save me". Hazrat Prophet said:

- "Then, learn to be merciful from me." The heart of the bedouin polytheist became tender. Later, that person became one of the closest companions of Hazrat Prophet.


5.4- BATTLE OF UHUD



That battle took place in the third year of hijrah. Makkan polytheists started to prepare in order to take revenge for the defeat of Badr. In a short time, they collected 3000 armed and fully equipped warriors. 700 of them had armors and their aim was to take revenge for the defeat of Badr. In addition, they received support from the tribes around Makkah.

The army, under the commandment of Abu Sufyan, established headquarters in the Northeast of Madinah. Meanwhile, they started to destroy the vineyards and orchards of Madinah people.

Meanwhile, our Prophet had a dream. He saw in his dream that a cow was slaughtered, a hole was opened in his sword called Zulfiqar, he put on a sound armor and he put his hand in the collar of that armor. He interpreted that dream as: "The slaughtered cow denotes that some of my companions will be martyred; the whole in my sword denotes that someone from my family will be martyred; and the sound armor denotes Madinah." He added, "Therefore, we should not leave Madinah. If the enemy attacks, we will defend."

Since Madinah was like a castle with the buildings and walls surrounding it, that strategy would be appropriate. However, some young people who were not present in the Battle of Badr wanted to fight the enemy and take part in the jihad. Hazrat Hamza, the lion of Allah, did not want to be remain closed in Madinah. Therefore, our Prophet decided to go out of Madinah and put on two armors, one over the other. He also took his sword.

Those who put forward ideas that were contrary to the Prophets regretted doing so and said:

- "O Messenger of Allah! We are subject to you. We will do whatever you order." However, Hazrat Prophet said:

- "It is not appropriate for a prophet to return without fighting after putting on his armor and being equipped with weapons. Then, he went out of the city with a force of one thousand people.

300 munafiqs (hypocrites) from the Jews lead by Abdullah bin Ubayy returned. Thus, the number of people under the commandment of Hazrat Prophet decreased to 700. There were only two cavalrymen in the army.

However, that mujahid group proceeded despite everything. They arrived at the foot of Mount Uhud. They spent the night there. In the morning, after the prayer, they put on their weapons and went down to the plain. Hazrat Prophet invaded the region under Mount Uhud. He placed a group of archers (about 50) in the mouth of a river in a high place behind the soldiers and told them not to leave that place, to shoot the cavalrymen of the enemy and protect the back side of the Muslims.

At the end of the battle, the enemy was defeated and started to run away. The soldiers under the commandment of Abdullah thought the enemy was defeated completely and wanted to follow the enemy and to collect booty. They did not obey their commander and left their place. When the enemy saw it, they attacked the left side of the Muslim army from that stream. Suddenly Muslim army was defeated. Meanwhile a lot of sahaba including Hazrat Hamza were martyred.

Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar were seriously injured. However, all of the attempts of the polytheists concentrated on Hazrat Prophet (PBUH). Hazrat Prophet had been separated from the main block of the army and became the primary target of the attackers.

Sahaba started to become martyrs one by one. Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) was injured. Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) saw that an affection flowing from the belief of Muslims surrounded him while blood was flowing from his wounds. Therefore, Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) congratulated the hands that forgot about their own wounds and tried to stop the bleeding in his forehead. The mujahids who fought hopelessly in the center under the commandment of Hazrat Ali managed to reach a point on the mountain and escaped the attack of the enemy.

Since Quraishis were very tired, they could neither attack Madinah nor follow the mujahids on top of Mount Uhud. Polytheists left Madinah after they destroyed the bodies of the Muslims who were martyred. Abu Sufyans wife Hind and other Quraishi women broke the heart of Hazrat Hamza into pieces and bit it; they also made earrings and bracelets from the ears and noses of the other martyrs, presenting the ugliest way of barbarity. Doubtlessly, the barbarity that Quraishis carried out on the martyrs of Muslims distressed Muslims extremely. However, the tender heart of Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) surpassed the ache in his heart and said, "Put up with the evils they committed. Patience is the best way." The tradition of destroying the bodies of the death people that dated back to former times was absolutely banned by Islam from then on.

Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) appointed a group of mujahids to follow the army of the polytheists after he returned to Madinah. His aim was to inform them that Muslims, who did not win the battle, were not psychologically defeated. When Abu Sufyan understood that they were being followed, he killed two people from Madinah that he met on the way and ran quickly towards Makkah. Abu Sufyan informed Allahs Messenger that he would return to Madinah soon in order to kill Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions. The answer of the Messenger of Allah to that news was: "For us Allah suffices. He is the best guardian."
The moral and spiritual effects of the Battle of Uhud on the enemy groups caused the bedouins around to attack the lands of Madinah. However, thanks to the measures taken by Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) most of those attacks were repulsed.


5.5- BATTLE OF KHANDAQ



Battle of Khandaq took place in the fifth year of hijrah. Quraishis, along with some other tribes, formed an army of more than ten thousand people and proceeded to Madinah.

Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) held a consultation with sahabas. Upon the advice of Salman Farisi, they dug a ditch around the city of Madinah in the direction that the enemy would come and assumed a position of defense. Our Prophet (PBUH) worked together with his friends to dig the ditch.

They finished digging the ditch in two weeks. Then, the enemy started to appear. However, they were astonished to see the ditch in front of them. They had never seen that kind of defense in Arabia before. Those who wanted to cross the ditch were prevented by arrows and stones. An enemy soldier, Amr Ibn Abdi Wud, who managed to cross the ditch and who was regarded to be equal to a division of soldiers, started to challenge Muslims. He asked somebody to challenge him and fight him. (Hazrat Ali May Allah grant him honor) challenged him and killed him.

The siege lasted for fifteen days. It was very cold. The enemy started to be frustrated. One night, during a storm, their tents were overturned. The next day, they went away. Muslims took the food and the camels that they left and got rid of the dearth of food. During the Battle of Khandaq, five Muslims were martyred, and four enemy soldiers were killed.


5.6- THE CHARTER HAZRAT PROPHET GAVE TO CHRISTIANS



Meanwhile, Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) sent a charter to the monks in Saint Catherines Monastery near Mount Sinai and to all Christians. That charter is the highest and noblest document of tolerance of religious content recorded in the history of the world. That tremendous document that the history of Islam recorded with confidence expresses a tolerant and liberal approach. It can be explained as follows:

Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) provided Christians with the interests and protection that their co-religionist rulers could not provide and proclaimed that any Muslim that violated the items of that chart would be regarded to have broken his promise to Allah and violated the true religion. Hazrat Prophet undertook the protection of Christians, the defense of the settlements that their churches and priests were present and the protection of Christians from all kinds of losses in the land of Islam; in addition, he charged Muslims with the application of those principles. According to that chart, no tax contrary to justice would be loaded on Christians; no priest would be driven out of the church he served; no Christian would be compelled to change his religion; no monk would be driven out of his monastery and no pilgrim would be prevented from going on his way. Furthermore, no church would be pulled down in order to make a mosque or houses.


5.7- TREATY OF HUDAYBIYA



Six years had passed after Hazrat Prophet (PBUH), who gave a new spirit to Makkan muhajirs and aroused the feelings of love, unity and fraternity among them, and his companions left their homeland for the sake of their religion. People from all over Arabia came there in order to listen to that great prophet and they consulted with him about all of their issues. Although muhajirs made new friends in Madinah, they all longed for Makkah, the place where they were born. They had been separated from their hometown and found a place to shelter. However, the fact that they had been expelled from the Kaaba and had been deprived of making the worship of hajj for six years distressed them greatly. Allahs Messenger (PBUH) longed for Makkah, the place where he was born, and especially the Kaaba with the same desires and wishes.

Hajj season approached. Hazrat Prophet expressed that he intended to make hajj. The sahabas accepted it gladly. The started to make preparations at once; Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) set out with 700 unarmed people from Ansar and Muhajirs. However, the enmity of Quraishis towards Muslims was still active. Therefore, Quraishi troops were deployed in a place a few kilometers away from Makkah in order to block Muslims way and then they wanted to block all of the ways to Makkah. All of the Makkans came to an agreement not to let Muslims in; and they treated the envoy that was sent to them to get permission to enter Makkah badly.

Then, a group of Makkans came to the place where Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) had stopped and told him that any Muslim that proceeded to Makkah could be killed. Those impertinent polytheists were so insolent as to throw arrows and stones at Hazrat Prophet (PBUH).

When Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) realized that the polytheists could not be persuaded, he tended to sign a treaty with polytheists in order to end the state of war between Muslims and Quraishis by accepting all of the items that Makkans put forward. Eventually, after a lot of distress, the treaty was signed and the enmity was suspended for ten years. The treaty included very hard items for Muslims. According to those hard items, those who joined the group of Hazrat Prophet from Quraishis without getting permission would be returned to Quraishis but those who joined Quraishis from Muslims would not be returned. The tribes that wanted to make allies with Quraishis or Muslims were free to return criminals. According to the treaty, Muslims would return to Madinah without making hajj that year but could visit Makkah for hajj the next year and could stay for only three days. During those three days, they could have their swords with them but only in their sheaths. That treaty is known as the Treaty of Hudaybiya since it was signed in the place called Hudaybiya.


5.8-LETTERS CALLING TO ISLAM



When Hazrat Prophet returned to Madinah, he sent envoys to the neighboring rulers to call their people to Islam, based on the revelation he received, informing that Islam would be accepted by the whole mankind. Especially two of those envoys were very important. One of them had been sent to the Kaiser of Byzantium, Heracles and the other to the Khusraw of Iran, Parviz. However, we will mention the reactions that three rulers showed against those letters calling to Islam here:


1- Reaction of Iran



The Shah of Iran (in his own words the Shah of the Shahs) regarded it as insolence that a Makkan muhajir addressed him as if he was equal to him, a great Khusrawh. As the letter that had been presented to Khusraw infuriated him, he tore the letter of the Messenger of Allah into pieces throwing them on the ground and he ordered the envoy away by insulting him. When the news of the insolence to the envoy of Hazrat Prophet reached Madinah, Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) said calmly: The country of Khusraw will be torn to pieces like that."


2- Reaction of Byzantium



Byzantium king, Heracles, met the envoy of Hazrat Prophet more respectfully and gave a decent answer. However, Heracles wanted to know the person who wrote the letter before he proceeded to Syria. Therefore, he sent for some Arab merchants who were in Gazza. Abu Sufyan, who was the most merciless enemy of Islam, was among them. The answers given to the questions of Heracles helped Heracles to understand Islam truly.


3- Reaction of the Amir of Gassan



One of the envoys of Hazrat Prophet was sent to the Amir of Gassan, one of the feudal lords of Heracles. The Amir of Gassan lived in Busra (today in Jordan) near Damascus. Let alone receiving a welcome as an envoy, the envoy of the Prophet was martyred by the chief of a tribe subject to Byzantium. That murder, which was regarded as an impact on the international responsibility and courtesy, became the cause of the wars that made Muslims come into conflict with all Christians.


5.9 - KHYBER



In spite of the great defeat that they received, the Jews had great hatred and animosity against Muslims and they attempted various plots in order to eradicate Islam. There was a fertile place in the northeast of Madinah, at a three day-distance to Madinah, full of strong castles and belonging to the Jews. All of those castles were called Khyber. Khyber means a strong place. Among the people of Khyber, there were families from the tribes of Bani Nadr and Bani Qurayza who took shelter there. The Jews of Khyber had great animosity against Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions. Especially after the joining of Bani Nadr and Bani Qurayza, their hatred and enmity got stronger and more merciless.

In the seventh year of hijrah, in the month of Muharram, a troop of 1400 people was sent to Khyber. The Jews wanted help from their allies but their allies did not help them fearing that Muslims could harm them if they helped. Thus, The Jews of Khyber had to fight alone. The castles of the Jews were seized by Muslims despite their intense defense. Now, the next one was al-Qamus, their strongest castle. After their intense defense, it was seized by Muslims too. Upon the seizure of the castle al-Qamus, the Jews saw that their defense was no good. Then, they applied the Messenger of Allah in order to be pardoned. Allahs Messenger (PBUH) pardoned them. Muslims left their land and estate to them on condition that they would treat Muslims well; they were also given full liberty to carry out their religion freely. However, since the people of Khyber were exempt from paying the taxes that Muslim paid, they paid half of the crops they collected from their land as tax.


5.10- BATTLE OF MUTA



In the eight year of hijrah, our Prophet sent a letter to the governor of Busra by Haris Ibn Umair. When Haris arrived at a place called Muta, near Damascus, he was killed by Shurahbil, one of the commanders of the Byzantium Kaiser. Therefore, an army of 3000 people was sent against Shurahbil. Gathering his forces, Shurahbil attacked Muslims near the village of Muta, not very far away from Balqa, Syria, where the envoy had been killed. It was heard that the Kaiser had an army consisting more than one thousand soldiers. There was an intense battle. In the end, the enemy army was defeated and had to withdraw. Hazrat Khalid took advantage of the situation and turned to Madinah with the Muslim army.

The first battle of Muslims against Romans was the Battle of Muta. In that war, three thousand Muslims defeated one hundred thousand Byzantines.


5.11- CONQUEST OF MAKKAH



In the eighth year of hijrah, Quraishis violated the Treaty of Hudaybiya by attacking some tribes that were under the protection of Muslims and the allies of Muslims.

Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) left for Makkah with 10 000 mujahids in order to put an end to the oppression, suppression and the aggression of the polytheists. Our Prophet gave the following order to his commanders: You will never fight unless you are resisted or attacked. You will not kill anybody. Muslims entered Makkah, the homeland of the Prophet, without much resistance.

The fate of the cruel and merciless enemies that overwhelmed humanity because of the tortures they inflicted on innocent people and even the dead bodies was in the hands of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). However, the moment that Muslims gained the victory, all of the troubles and tortures that were suffered up to then were forgotten and a general amnesty was declared for the people of Makkah.
Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH), who was a refugee and oppressed once, would go on his duty of prophethood with amnesty and tolerance.

The Muslim army maintained the line that the Messenger of Allah determined. No house was plundered; no woman was insulted. The Muslim army defeated the Makkan polytheists, the most terrifying enemy of Islam, calmly. All of the idols were turned upside down; now, truth arrived, and falsehood perished. All of the polytheists saw how impotent their idols were by their own eyes and closely. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) made the following speech addressing the people who gathered near the gate of the Kaaba:

There is no God but Allah. He has no partners. He kept His promise and held his slave. He devastated the enemy that came together alone. You should know that everything that was a source of pride belonging to the era of jahiliyyah (ignorance), feuds and fighting are under my feet and they were all abolished. All men were created out of Hazrat Adam, and Adam was created out of the dust of the ground. Then, he recited the following verses:


O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that you may despise each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). (al-Hujurat, 49/13).



After reciting those verses of the Quran, he asked them: O people of Quraish, how do you think I will treat you?. They all said, With pardon and tolerance.... When he heard them say so, the Prophets eyes watered and said: "Today I will say you what Hazrat Yousuf told his brothers. I will not hold you responsible. May Allah forgive and mercy you. He is the most merciful of those that are merciful. You are all free.

The conquest that was unmatched in the history of the world took place like that. Men embraced Islam in groups. Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) sat on Mount Safa and took the pledge that he had taken from the people of Madinah from the people of Makkah. They promised that they would not associate partners with Allah, would not steal, would not commit adultery, would not kill their small daughters and would not rape women.(2)

That conquest had been informed by the Glorious Quran together with Hudaybiya. Thus, the promises given in the Quran were realized.


5.12- YEAR OF ENVOYS



After the conquest of Makkah, the wild heroism, feuds and polytheism clouds that blackened the horizons of the city began to clear and the era of barbarity ended. In the ninth year of hijrah, we see that delegates from many places came to Madinah to present their respect and esteem to Hazrat Prophet (PBUH).

In fact, the conquest of Makkah condemned the polytheism in Arabia. The chief of the tribes that were the greatest enemies of Islam started to come from many different places in groups of delegates to express their obedience and commitment to Hazrat Prophet (PBUH). The companions of Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) and the notables of Madinah entertained the members of those delegations in their houses and showed their hospitality. Those delegates were paid their traveling expenses and given some little presents when they returned.


5.13- BATTLE OF TABUK



In the ninth year of hijrah, it was heard that Byzantines wanted to invade Arabia. Upon that news, preparations for a great expedition were started. They started to collect volunteers all over Arabia. That year, there was a dearth of food in Najid and Hijaz. Dates had decayed and camels had died. People were not ready for a big expedition. Some people did not find the season appropriate; some said that the heat was intense hence the journey would be very hard and that the Byzantine Empire had a tremendous army. Many people applied to the Messenger (PBUH) of Allah to be exempt from being a soldier. Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) accepted the applications of the people who were not weak or poor but did not want to carry arms or did not want to leave their homelands.

However, the desire of fighting shown by notables of sahaba and other self-sacrificing believers encouraged the cowardly people and activated the efforts and patriotism of everybody. Assistance and financial aids from all over Arabia started to come to the army. A great force gathered in a short time and the Islam army proceeded towards the boundary under the commandment of Hazrat Prophet (PBUH).

The troubles the Islam army had due to the heat and thirst were very big. After a long and tiring journey, the army reached Tabuk, a place midway between Madinah and Damascus, and stopped there. Here, Muslims understood that the danger of Byzantium was an imagination and that the Emperor was busy with his internal affairs. When Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) saw that the Islamic ummah was free from the danger, he ordered the army to return. After staying in Tabuk for 20 days, the Islam army returned and reached Madinah in the month of Ramadan.


5.14- LAST TIMES OF HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH)



In the tenth year of hijrah, delegations from all over Arabia came to Madinah in order to inform Hazrat Prophet about the allegiance of their tribes to Islam. Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) gave the following orders to the men he sent to various towns:


Be lenient towards people and show compassion. Do not oppress. Encourage people to become religious, do not scare them. When you meet people from the People of the Book, they will ask you, What is the key to Paradise?. Answer them as, Believing in Allah and doing good deeds.



The prophethood of Hazrat Prophet was about to be completed. The great Prophet (PBUH), who emerged in a bedouin tribe, conveyed the commands and prohibitions of Allah to that tribe through the Quran; he liberated them from polytheism and heresy, and made them guides and teachers for civilized nations.


5.15- FAREWELL HAJJ (PILGRIMAGE)



Arab tribes came to Madinah in large groups to embrace Islam. Hazrat Prophet wanted to perform the farewell hajj feeling that his death is near. The Messenger of Allah left Madinah with a big group on the 25th of Dhul-Qadah.
When he reached Makkah, before completing hajj, he recited the following sermon to more than one hundred thousand Muslims that gathered in the foot of Mount Arafat:

O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be among you again.

O People! Just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds.

O people, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers...

O My Companions! Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Truly, the usury of the Era of Ignorance has been laid aside forever, and the first usury I begin with is that which is due to my fathers brother Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib.. Your capital, however, is yours to keep.

O My Companions! Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived, and the first such right I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi`ah ibn Al-Harith, grandson of Abdulmuttalib (my uncles son).

As for your slaves, make sure to feed them with what you eat and make sure that they wear what you wear. If they commit mistakes that you cannot forgive, leave them. They are slaves of Allah and they do not deserve cruel treatment.

O people! Learn that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim and that Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim that belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Avoid oppressing people.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly.


Towards the end of the Farewell Sermon, Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) said the following:

- O people! Tomorrow they will ask you about me, what will you say?

- We witness that you carried out the duty of being the Messenger of Allah, You carried out your task faithfully, and you advised us. Then Hazrat Prophet said the following three times:

- O Allah, be my witness! O Allah, be my witness! O Allah, be my witness!

After that sermon, our Prophet went to Mina in order to perform the obligations of hajj. In a part of the sermon he recited there, he stated the following:

Beware! Never commit the following four deeds :Do not attribute any partners to Allah. Take not life, which Allah has made haram and untouchable, except by way of justice. Do not commit adultery. Do not commit theft.

Towards the evening, before Hazrat Prophet left Mina the following verse was revealed:


This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. (al-Maeda, 5/3).



Hazrat Abu Bakr, who heard that verse, cried saying that the Messenger of Allah was informing about his death.

Then, Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) completed the obligations of hajj and returned to Madinah.


5.16- HIS LAST DAYS



Hazrat Prophet turned to the congregation and said the following after a prayer during his last days:

- O Muslims, if I have done anything wrong to anyone, I am ready to compensate it. If I owe any money to any of you, let him take it from my possessions. Upon that speech, one of the people present there stood up and said that the Prophet owed him three dirhams; he explained that he had given that amount to a poor person based on the command of the Prophet. That debt was paid and our Prophet said:

- It is better to be embarrassed here than to be embarrassed in the hereafter

On another day, Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) ascended the pulpit in the mosque and said the following:

O people! I hear that you get in a flap thinking that I will die. No prophet stayed eternally with his ummah; so why do you think I should stay with you? You should know that I will rejoin Allah. I deserve to have the honor of rejoining Him more than you. I advise you to show respect and allegiance to first muhajirs.

O Muhajirs! My advice to you is this: Do good to the Ansar! They were good to you. They granted you asylum in their homes. Although they had difficulty in making their living, they held you prior to themselves. They shared their property with you. If any one of you takes command over them, let him take care of them and forgive their faults.

O people! Whatever happens in the world depends on the predestination of Allah. When the time for something is known, it would be of no use hurrying for it. Allah does not hurry about any of His servants. If a person attempts to overpower Allahs will, He will subdue him with His wrath and ruin him. If a person tries to trick and deceive Allah, he will deceive himself and lose control of his own matters. I am clement and merciful towards you. You will rejoin me. The place you will meet me is by the pond Kawthar. He who wishes to be there with me, should not do unnecessary things nor talk idly.

O people! Sins and disobedience to Allah will change the blessings of Allah. If people obey the commandments of Allah, their commanders and governors will be merciful towards them. If they are sinful and disobedient, so will be the people who rule them.(3)


Our Prophet (PBUH), rejoined his Lord, whom he wanted so much, on Monday, June 8th, in the year of 632 while he was engaged in worshipping and praying calmly.


(1)Bilmen, Ö., N.. Büyük İslam İlmihali, p. 547.
(2)Suruç, S. Prophetimizin Hayatı. Nesil Yayınları, Istanbul, 2003, p.468-515.
(3)Paşa, C.A. Peygamber Efendimiz. Editor; Ertuğrul Düzdağ.İstanbul, 2007, p.305.

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