The Battle of Uhud
THE BATTLE OF UHUD
(3rd Year of the Migration, 7 Shawwal / AD 625)
The Qurayshi polytheists did not want to forget about the agony of the defeat in Badr, in fact, they could not forget it. They lost most of the notables of the Quraysh there. Their honor was harmed by the blow they received from a handful of Muslims. Their prestige in the eyes of the neighboring tribes were harmed, too.
Besides, the fact that the trade ways leading to Damascus via the coast were controlled by the Messenger of God affected their trade badly and weakened their military and economic strength. After that, the Qurayshi polytheists started to send their caravans to Damascus through Iraq but the Prophet was informed about it after a while; he sent a sariyyah, which caught their trade caravan and seized their goods, there.
Naturally, this situation increased the grudge and enmity of the Qurayshi polytheists against Muslims and aroused their feelings of revenge. They were looking forward to taking revenge at the earliest opportunity. Their few small attacks after the Battle of Badr increased their grudge instead of soothing it because they were defeated as a result of those attacks.
The Offer of the Qurayshi Notables
The big trade caravan that had been sent to Damascus under the command of Abu Sufyan beforehand had barely escaped from the Muslim forces under the command of the Messenger of God; they had reached Makkah with difficulty. The break out of the Battle of Badr immediately after it had delayed the distribution of the goods in the caravan. The goods were stored in “Daru’n-Nadwa.
Meanwhile, some people especially those who lost their close relatives in the Battle of Badr among whom were Jubayr b. Mut’im, Safwan b. Umayya, Ikrima b. Abu Jahl, who were among notables of the Quraysh, made this offer to Abu Sufyan:
“Muhammad destroyed us by killing our great people. It is time we took revenge from him. Let us give the capital of the goods in the caravan to their owners and use the profit to make preparations for the war.”
The offer was accepted unanimously.
The goods were sold and changed to gold. It was totally one hundred thousand gold coins. Fifty thousand gold coins were given to the shareholders as their capital. They started to make preparations for the war with the profit.
Makkan polytheists, who were intimidated by the Battle of Badr, decided to prepare a big army. They did not suffice with the local volunteer soldiers and even with the soldiers of their constant allies, the tribe of Ahabish. They wanted the other tribes in the Arabian Peninsula to support them. They appointed a special delegate and allocated a special fund to persuade those tribes. Their aim was to hire mercenaries from other tribes.
While they were making preparations for the war speedily, the propaganda committee, which consisted of many famous people, poets and orators, and which they appointed, were travelling all over Arabia informing the tribes that they expected to be allies with about the nature and aim of their movement and trying to convince them; they did their best to arouse and provoke people against the Prophet. If we consider that people at that time fought one another and shed blood due to a single word of a poet or a single speech of an orator, it will be understood how effective those poets and orators were in encouraging people to join them.
The Army of the Polytheists is Ready
The army of the polytheists managed to have an army of three thousand people together with the soldiers that joined them from the tribes around and the mercenaries. There were seven hundred armored soldiers, two hundred cavalrymen and three thousand camels.
Some women joined the army in order to give the soldiers moral support, to encourage them to fight and to maintain their excitement. They were going to sing, play the tambourine and give the soldiers moral support!
The commander of the army was Abu Sufyan Sahr b. Harb. The women were under the command of Hind, who was Abu Sufyan’s wife and who had lost her father in the Battle of Badr. This woman, whose heart was full of grudge, made all of the women swear that they were going to take the revenge of their close relatives killed in the Battle of Badr.
There were three standards of the Qurayshi army. One of them was being carried by Sufyan b. Uwayf, one of them by Talha b. Abi Talha and the third one by a person from the tribe of Ahabish.
Thus, the Qurayshis finished their preparation and set off from Makkah; their expedition was going to take twenty days.
News that Reached Madinah
Some news reached the Prophet in Madinah. The man who was assigned to give the Prophet the news handed the letter to the Prophet with excitement. It was written in the letter that the Qurayshi polytheists finished their preparations and that set out for Madinah.
The signature under the letter belonged to Hazrat Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet. He continued to live in Madinah upon the order of the Prophet in order to help the believers there and to inform the Prophet about what was happening in Makkah. When he told the Prophet that he wanted to migrate to Madinah, the Messenger of God said, “You make jihad better there. It is better for us if you stay in Makkah.”
The Prophet kept the content of the letter a secret at first. Only a few people were aware of it. However, as the saying goes, “Ill news travels fast”, it was soon heard that the Qurayshis were coming toward Madinah.
The Messenger of God sent some Companions toward Makkah so that they would observe and find out the state of the Qurayshi army. The mujahids saw the Qurayshi army on the way; after finding out about their state, the returned to Makkah to tell him about the state of the Qurayshi army.
The news that the mujahids brought was in compliance with what Abbas had written in his letter.
The Qurayshi Army is in Uhud
The Qurayshi army that left Makkah and moved very fast settled near the Aynayn Hill near Mount Uhud on a Wednesday at the beginning of the month of Shawwal.
The Dream of the Prophet
Meanwhile, the Messenger of God narrated a dream that he had seen to his Companions: “I saw myself in strong armor. I saw a hole open in the blade of my sword, Dhulfiqar. I saw a slaughtered cow and then a ram.”
The Companions asked, “How do you interpret this dream O Messenger of God?”
The Messenger of God answered:
“Wearing strong arm denotes Madinah, staying in Madinah. The hole in the blade of my sword indicates that I will not be harmed. The slaughtered cow indicates that some of my Companions will be martyred. The ram brought after it indicates a military unit; God will kill them inshaallah!”
According to another narration, the Prophet narrated his dream and interpreted it as follows: “I hit the ground with my sword; its blade got broken. It denotes that some believers will be martyred on the day of Uhud. I hit the ground with my sword again; it returned to its previous state. It indicates that a conquest will come from God and that the believers will collect themselves.”
This dream, which the Prophet saw on a Friday night, will affect the consultation he will make with his Companions.
Consultation with the Companions
The Messenger of God called the notables of Ansar and Muhajirs and consulted them regarding the issue.
The view of the Prophet was to defend Madinah from the inside due to the inspiration given by the dream. However, he also wanted to consult the Muslims and find out about their views.
Most of the notables of the Companions agreed with the view of the Prophet. Abdullah b. Ubayy, the leader of the munafiqs, who had never been invited to any meetings before, was invited to that meeting. He also had the view of staying in Madinah.
However, the heroic young Companions who had not joined the Battle of Badr, had heard about the high ranks the martyrs of Badr reached; therefore, they felt very sorry that they had not joined that battle. Thus, they wanted to confront the enemy outside Madinah and they expressed their wish insistently by saying,
“O Messenger of God! They were not allowed to walk against Madinah even in the period of Jahiliyya. How can we allow them to walk against us during the period of Islam? O Messenger of God! We asked this day from God. Take us out of Madinah. We want to fight the enemy hand to hand!”
Some of them said,
“O Messenger of God! If we do not confront them outside, the enemy will attribute it to our cowardice and weakness and they will get spoiled!”
The notables of the Companions like Hazrat Hamza, Sa’d b. Ubada, Nu’man b. Malik, who were brave and valiant, agreed with the wishes of those young Companions. Hazrat Hamza, the hero said, “O Messenger of God! I swear by God, who sent down the book to you, I will not eat until I fight the Qurayshi polytheists outside Madinah with this sword!”, expressing his wish and view to go out and to attack the enemy.
The Speech of Hazrat Haysama
Hazrat Haysama had drawn lots with his son Sa’d in order to join the Battle of Badr. Hazrat Sa’d had won the lots. Sa’d had reached the rank of martyrdom, which he had desired, in the Battle of Badr. Haysama, the father of the martyr Sa’d spoke as follows:
“O Messenger of God! The Qurayshis collected soldiers from Arabs in the desert and from the Ahabish tribe, their allies. They rode their camels and horses and came to our land. They will surround us in our houses and castles and then leave. They will talk against us. It will increase their courage. If we see them but do not confront them and do not expel them from our land, the Arabs around us will set their eyes on us!
It is hoped that God will make us defeat the Qurayshis. If the second one happens – which is martyrdom –, I was deprived of it in Badr. I had desired it so much. My son, who heard that I desired to fight in Badr, drew lots with me. He won the lots. He reached the rank of martyrdom in the end. However, I had desired to become a martyr so much. I saw my son in a very nice state last night. He was walking around the fruits and rivers of Paradise. He said to me, ‘ Join me in the friendship of Paradise! I found the truth that my Lord promised me.’ By God, O Messenger of God, when I opened my eyes in the morning, I started to long for being a friend of my son in Paradise. I got very old. I want to meet my Lord. O Messenger of God! Pray God so that He will give me martyrdom and make me a friend of my son in Paradise!”
The Messenger of God fulfilled the wish of Haysama. He prayed for him.
Malik b. Sinan, the father of Abu Said al-Khudri said, “O Messenger of God! One of the two things will be with us. Either God will make us victorious against them – which is what we want – or He will grant us martyrdom. O Messenger of God! No matter which one we receive, it will be good for us, I think.”
Nu’man b. Malik, who was also a heroic Companion, said, “O Messenger of God! I witness that I am one of the Companions represented by the slaughtered cow you saw in your dream. Do not deprive us of Paradise. I swear by God, except whom there is no God, I should go to Paradise.”
The Messenger of God said, “How?”
Hazrat Numan said, “I witness that there is no god but Allah and that you are the Messenger of God; I love God and His messenger. When I encounter the enemy, I never run away.”
The Prophet said, “You are right and you have told the truth.”
When the Messenger of God found out that the majority wanted to confront the enemy outside Madinah, he decided to leave the city and fight the enemy in the open terrain. He addressed his Companions as follows:
“If you show patience and perseverance, God Almighty will send you His help. What we need to do is to be determined and to exert effort!”
After the Final Decision
It was Friday.
After leading the Friday prayer, the Messenger of God mentioned the virtue of jihad and how to prepare for jihad and said, “To hesitate to join jihad and to delay is weakness. If you show patience and perseverance, the help of God will come. Show patience and perseverance! If you show patience and perseverance, the help of God will be with you.”
After leading the afternoon prayer, the Messenger of God went to his house together with Hazrat Abu Bakr and Umar. Those two Companions would help prepare the Prophet.
While the Messenger of God was busy with putting on his armor, Sa’d b. Muadh and Usayd b. Khudayr warned the Muslims who were waiting outside by saying, “You insisted although the Prophet did not want to go out of Madinah. In fact, he receives orders from the sky. Let him do whatever he wants and obey him!”
Those words softened the people who wanted to confront the enemy outside Madinah to a certain extent; some of them even regretted it. When they saw the Messenger of God wearing an armor and holding his sword, they said, “O Messenger of God! We do not want the thing that you do not like. If you want to stay in Madinah, let us stay here. We cannot move in contrary to your views!”
The Messenger of God replied:
“It does not fit a prophet to take off his armor without fighting the enemy and before God makes a judgment between him and his enemy.”
After that, he said,
“Do what I have told you to do quickly. Go by mentioning the name of God. As long as you show patience and perseverance, God will help you.”
The number of the Muslims getting ready for the confrontation was about one thousand.It was about one-third of the Qurayshi army... There were only one hundred armored people.
There were three standards in the army. Mus’ab b. Umayr carried the standard of the Muhajirs; Usayd b. Khudayr carried the standard of the Aws tribe and Hubab b. Mundhir the standard of Khazraj tribe.
The Islamic army was ready to move.
The Prophet mounted his horse, put his bow on his shoulder and held his spear. He left Abdullah b. Umm Maktum in Madinah to represent him. Two armored Companions, Sa’d b. Muadh and Sa’d b. Ubada were in front of him; the mujahids were on his right and left.
The Companion that Desired Paradise
It was when the Islamic army was about to set off for Uhud.
Amr b. Jamuh, who was lame, had a great desire to join the expedition. He had four sons, who always joined the Prophet in expeditions. He called his sons and said, “Take me to the expedition!”
His sons said, “The Messenger of God allowed you not to join the expedition. God regards you as excused.”
Amr, who had the love of God and the Messenger of God in his heart, did not heed what they said and shouted at his sons, ”Shame on you! You prevented me from reaching Paradise in the Expedition of Badr. Do you want to prevent me again from the Expedition of Uhud? I cannot stay at home when everybody goes to Paradise!” Then, he went to the presence of the Prophet and said, “O Messenger of God! My sons want to prevent me from the expedition through various excuses. I swear by God that I want to join the expedition and wander in Paradise limping!” Then, he asked, “O Messenger of God! Do you not find it appropriate for me to fight in the way of God, to be martyred and to wander in Paradise with my lame legs?”
The Mount Uhud
The Messenger of God said, “Yes, I find it appropriate but God regards you as excused. You do not have to make jihad!” Then, he said to the sons of Amr, “You do not have to prevent him from joining the expedition. Let him do what he wants. God may grant him martyrdom.”
Thereupon, Amr b. Jamuh armed immediately and turned to the Kaaba, praying, “O God! Grant me martyrdom!”
Rejecting the Help of the Jews
The Islamic army arrived at Thaniyya Hill. At that point, the Prophet looked behind and saw a crowded military unit consisting of archers. He asked, “Who are they?”
The mujahids said, “A group of six hundred people from the allies of Abdullah b. Ubay”.
The Messenger of God asked, “Have they adopted Islam?”
When they said, “No! O Messenger of God!”, he said, “Go and tell them to return. We do not need their help!”
The Prophet Inspects the Army
When the Islamic army arrived at Shaykhayn Hills, the Messenger of God stopped and inspected his army. Meanwhile, he sent back about fifteen children, who were too young.
However, some of them did not want to leave the ranks of mujahids and wanted to fight against polytheists although they were very young. One of them was Rafi’ b. Khadij. He wanted to seem taller by standing on his toes. A Companion said, “O Messenger of God! Rafi is a good archer” and Rafi did not want to leave the army. Thereupon, the Prophet allowed him to stay in the army.
When Samura b. Jundub, another young Companion, saw that his friend, Rafi, was accepted to the army, he said to his father, “Dad! The Messenger of God allowed Rafi but refused me. However, I can beat him in wrestling!”
His father, Muray b. Sinan, talked to the Messenger of God about it. The Prophet wanted them to wrestle. When he saw that Samura beat Rafi in wrestling, he allowed Samura to join the army, too. Those young Companions, who were only about fifteen years old, wanted to be among the ranks of the mujahids against polytheists enthusiastically.
The Night Spent in Shaykhayn
When the inspection of the Prophet ended, the sun was about to set. Soon, Bilal al-Habashi called the evening adhan. The Messenger of God led the evening prayer. They performed the night prayer in the same way. The Prophet was going to spend the night there. He appointed a patrol group of fifty people to protect the army and to check around.
A Companion Keeps Watch at Night for the Prophet
After leading the night prayer, the Messenger of God said, “Who will keep watch tonight for us?
A voice was heard among the Mujahids, “I will, O Messenger of God!”
The Prophet asked, “Who are you?”
The same voice answered, “I am Zakwan b. Abdi Qays.”
The Messenger of God ordered, “Sit; do not keep watch!”
After a while, the Prophet asked again, “Who will keep watch tonight for us?”
A voice was heard among the Mujahids, “I will, O Messenger of God!”
The Prophet asked, “Who are you?”
The same voice answered, “I am Abu Sab.”
The Messenger of God said to him, “Sit; do not keep watch!”
After a while, the Prophet asked for the third time, “Who will keep watch tonight for us?”
A voice was heard among the Mujahids, “I will, O Messenger of God!”
The Prophet asked, “Who are you?”
The same voice answered, “I am Ibn Qays.”
The Messenger of God ordered, “Sit; do not keep watch!”
After a while, the Messenger of God said to them, “Stand up! Three of you!”
Only one person stood up. He was Zakwan b. Abdi Qays.
The Messenger of God asked him, “Where are your other friends?” He said, “O Messenger of God! It was I who answered your question three times!”
Thereupon, the Messenger of God said to him, “Go and keep watch for us. May God protect you!”
Zakwan put on his armor, took his shield and kept watch all night near the Prophet.
That Companion had introduced himself by using his own name first, his son’s name after that and his father’s name in the end.
Islamic Army in Uhud
Toward the morning, the Prophet and his army left Shaykhan and headed toward Uhud. At that point, both armies could notice each other.
The enemy seemed over there. Among the ranks of the mujahids, the sound of the adhan of the morning prayer went up to the sky in waves. The Muslims prayed behind the Messenger of God in ranks without taking off their arms before the eyes of the enemy.
Meanwhile, the Prophet put on armor on his armor and a helmet on his cap as a precaution.
Munafiqs Leave the Army
In the end, the two armies faced each other. Both armies were busy with the war order.
Meanwhile, Abdullah b. Ubay b. Salul, who came up to that place hesitantly and in fear, came forward and said, “Muhammad listened to the young people who had no right to express their views but he did not listen to me. O people! I cannot understand it. Why should we die here?”Then, he returned with about three hundreds soldiers from his own tribes and munafiqs (hypocrites).
When munafiqs left, the number of the Islamic army was reduced to seven hundred; which was about one-fourth of the Qurayshi army.
Abdullah b. Ubay not only left the Islamic army with a group of munafiqs, he also tried to affect other Muslims. When Sons of Salima of the Khazraj tribe and Sons of Haritha of the Aws tribe saw that Abdullah b. Ubay was returning, they wanted to return, too. However, God’s help arrived and freed them from hesitation.
The following is stated in the Quran regarding the issue:
“Remember two of your parties meditated cowardice; but God was their Protector, and in God should the Faithful (ever) put their trust.”
The Verse Sent down about Munafiqs
When the munafiqs left the Islamic army in the battle field and returned to Madinah, the following verses were sent down:
“What ye suffered on the day the two armies met, was with the leave of God, in order that He might test the Believers. And the Hypocrites also. They were told: "Come, fight in the way of God, or (at least) drive (the foe from your city)." They say, "Had we known there would be a fight, we should certainly have followed you. They were that day nearer to Unbelief than to Faith, saying with their lips what was not in their hearts. But God hath full knowledge of all they conceal!”
Mukhayriq Joins the Islamic Army
Mukhayriq was a great Jewish scholar. He had a great wealth in Madinah.
He knew the Messenger of God through his properties in holy books. However, he did not reveal those properties because he was afraid of his nation and because he could not free himself from the effects of his religion. He continued to act like this until the Battle of Uhud.
It was when the Messenger of God set out for the Battle of Uhud with the mujahids.
Mukhayriq, who did not reveal what he knew up to that time, said, “O People of Jews! I swear by God, you know that it is your duty and right to accept that Muhammad is a prophet and that you have to help him!”
The Jews said, “It is Saturday! We will not do anything.”
Thereupon, Mukhayriq took his sword and some money with him. He said to one his relatives, “If I am killed today, all of my possessions will belong to Muhammad! He can do whatever he wants with my property.” Then, he joined the Islamic army. He fought against polytheists until he was martyred.
Thereupon, the Messenger of God said, “Mukhayriq is a good person of the Jewish nation.”
The property of Mukhayriq that was transferred to the Prophet based on the will of Mukhayriq was the seven gardens called Bisab, Safiya, Dalal, Husna, Awaf, Burqa and Mashraba.
Having received the property of Mukhayriq, the Prophet endowed all of them. His foundations in Madinah were mostly of the property of Mukhayriq.
Headquarters of the Islamic Army
It was Saturday.
The Prophet dismounted from his horse and arranged the ranks of the army, whose number was few but whose belief and courage were great, himself by walking. He arranged the right and left wing. Mount Uhud was behind the Islamic army. The army faced toward Madinah .
The Messenger of God appointed fifty fighters as archers on Aynayn Hill, which was a very important place.
He appointed Abdullah b. Jubayr as their leader. Their duty was to watch the strait between Uhud and Aynayn Hill and not to allow the enemy to surround the Islamic army from behind.
The Messenger of God gave the archers the following order: :
“Even if you see that we have defeated the enemy, do not leave your position unless I inform you or I send you someone. Even if you see that the enemy has defeated us, do not leave your position in order to help us.”
After repeating this order and instruction twice, the Prophet said to the archers, “Even if you see that birds pull our bodies to pieces, do not leave your position unless I send you someone.”
The order and instruction of the Messenger of God were so clear.
Two Armies Confront
Both armies had been deployed and were waiting.
In the Islamic army, Zubayr b. Awwam was the commander of the armored soldiers and Hazrat Hamza the unarmored soldiers.
The right and left wing commander of the polytheist army was Khalid b. Walid and the left branch commander was Ikrima, son of Abu Jahl. Safwan b. Umayya was the commander of the cavalrymen and Abdullah b. Abi Rabia was the commander of the archers.
There was a lot of noise and entertainment in the ranks of the polytheist army. Their hearts were full of the feeling of vengeance. The women were trying to encourage the polytheists by singing songs and playing the tambourine.
In the ranks of the Islamic army, prayers, supplications, takbirs and amins were heard. People asked help and victory from God. The Messenger of God addressed them and called them to jihad, to fight in the way of God, to show patience and perseverance and hard work despite everything. The mujahids whose hearts were full of belief and whose eyes sparkled with courage were waiting for the order to assault with excitement. They could not stand waiting; they wanted to be martyrs and go to the presence of God or to eliminate the polytheists.
One on One Fight
Two armies approached each other.
Meanwhile, the standard-bearer of the Qurayshi army, Talha b. Abi Talha came forward and called out confidently and arrogantly,
“Who will come to fight me?”
Hazrat Ali, nicknamed “Asadullah” (Lion of God) came forward and said, “I swear by God, in whose hand is my existence, I will not let you go unless I send you to Hell with my sword or unless I go to Paradise through your sword!” He hit his opponent severely with his sword. He split the head of his enemy into two down to his chin. When Talha fell down, Hazrat Ali returned. The mujahids asked him, “Why did you not cut off his head?”
Hazrat Ali said, “When he fell down, his private parts were opened. I turned my face away. I know very well that God will not let him live; God will kill him.”
When the standard-bearer of the Quraysh was hit, the Prophet and mujahids became very happy; they showed their happiness by calling out takbirs.
Hazrat Hamza Beats the Second Standard-bearer
When Talha fell down, Osman b. Abi Talha, his brother, took the standard of the Qurayshi polytheists. Hazrat Hamza was his opponent. Hamza hit his shoulder with his sword and cut off his arm.
This time, Abu Sa’d b. Abi Talha from Sons of Abduddar took the standard. The Messenger of God sent Hazrat Ali to fight Abu Sa’d. Hazrat Ali defeated him. Abu Sa’d died as he received the blows of “Asadullah”.
When Sa’d was killed, Musafi’ b. Talha b. Abi Talha took the standard of the Qurayshis. Asim b. Thabit killed him with the arrow he shot. Then, Harith b. Abi Talha took the standard of the Qurayshi polytheists. Asim b. Thabit killed him with an arrow, too.
After Harith, Kilab b. Talha took the standard. Zubayr b. Awwam killed him with one blow.
This time, Julas b. Talha took the standard. Talha b. Ubaydullah killed him.
Seven people, including a father, sons, brothers, and an uncle, from Sons of Abduddar were killed by the heroic mujahids while they were under the standard of the Qurayshi polytheists.
After that, Artat b. Shurahbil, from Sons of Abduddar, took the standard. He was killed by the harsh blows of Hazrat Ali. Then, Shurayh b. Qariz took the standard. He was killed by one of the Companions.
When the Qurayshi polytheists saw that their standard-bearers were killed one by one, they were frightened and terrified. Nobody dared to approach the standard. In the end, Amra, the daughter of Alqama, picked it up and gave it to the Qurayshis.There was nobody left from Sons of Abduddar to carry the standard; so, Suwab, one of their slaves, carried the standard. Quzman cut off his right hand. Then, Suwab held the standard with his left hand. Quzman cut off his left hand, too. Thereupon, Suwab tried to hold it with his arms but he could not bear it anymore and fell down on his back.
Both parties could not wait any longer. A clash started suddenly. Clangor of swords, swishing of arrows and bellowing of camels were heard everywhere. The mujahids who looked forward to fighting in the way of God started to fight heroically.
Abu Dujana Receives the Sword of the Prophet
The Messenger of God had a sword in his hand. A couplet meaning, “There is shame in cowardice and honor in courage. Man cannot get rid of his destiny through cowardice” was inscribed on it.
He asked, “Who wants to receive this sword?”
Many Companions came forward. They reached out by saying, “I do. O Messenger of God!”
Then the Messenger of God said, “Who wants to receive this sword and deserve it?”
Many people wanted it enthusiastically. Hazrat Abu Bakr, Umar, Zubayr b. Awwant to give it yet.
Meanwhile a very brave person came forward. It was Abu Dujana. He asked, “What should one do to deserve it, o Messenger of God?”
The Messenger of God said, “You should swing it against the enemy until you fall down!”
Thereupon, Abu Dujana said, “O Messenger of God! I want to receive it and to deserve it!” He took the sword from the Messenger of God.
With the sword of the Prophet in his hand and the red turban on his head, Abu Dujana started to walk toward the polytheists proudly. Thereupon, the Messenger of God said to his Companions,
“This is such a walk that God never likes except in the battle field!”
Abu Dujana rushed into the ranks of the enemy like lightning; he started to swing his sword to deserve it. He knocked many people down with his blows. He did not notice but he approached the place where the women who encouraged the polytheists to fight were standing. One of them was yelling furiously and encouraging the polytheists to fight. He approached that person. Just as he was going to swing his sword, he heard a scream. It was the scream of Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan. Abu Dujana avoided swinging his sword. Hazrat Zubayr, who saw him like that, asked him later why he had not hit her. Abu Dujana said,
“I did not want the sword of the Messenger of God to be polluted with her blood!”
On the other hand, Hazrat Hamza had two swings, one in his right hand and one in his left hand. He swung them and said, “I am the lion of God”, swinging them and attacking the polytheists bravely.
All of the Mujahids fought the enemy bravely and vehemently.
The Enemy is Defeated
The army of the polytheists could not resist the heroic fight of the mujahids any longer. They were terrified. They started to run away. The polytheist women played the tambourine and sang songs, calling the soldiers who panicked and ran away. However, the tambourines, songs and poems were of no use for the hearts that were deprived of belief, which was the source of bravery; the polytheist soldiers left all of their possessions and ran away in order to save their lives.
The first phase of the battle ended in favor of Muslims thanks to the heroic fights of the mujahids and the help of God.
First Martyr of Uhud
The Islamic Army was still superior. Meanwhile, Abdullah b. Amr b. Haram was martyred by an arrow shot by a polytheist. He became the first martyr of Uhud.
His son, Hazrat Jabir narrated:
“While my father was getting ready for the expedition of Uhud, he called me at night and said, ‘O my son! God knows; I may be the first martyr in Uhud tomorrow. I advise you to treat your sisters well. I owe some money. Pay my debts!’ It turned out to be as he said. He became the first martyr.”
The Event that Changed the Course of the Battle
When the enemy was divided into two and started to run away from the battlefield, the mujahids started to collect the booty that was left behind. The archers that were placed on Aynayn Hill were watching what was happening in the battlefield of Uhud.
Meanwhile, the archers wanted to leave their place and join the other mujahids. They thought the battle had finished and their duty had ended. Most of the archers wanted to leave but Abdullah b. Jubayr, their commander, reminded them the order they were given: “Did you forget about what the Messenger of God told you and the order he gave you?” However, all of the archers, except a few of them who stayed with their commander, left Aynayn Hill and joined the mujahids in the battlefield. They started to collect the booty.
Khalid b. Walid Makes Use of the Opportunity
When most of the archers left their place, the back side of the Islamic army remained defenseless. Khalid b. Walid, who was a war genius and the commander of the Qurayshi cavalrymen, was looking for such an opportunity. He had wanted to pass through that pass during the hottest time of the battle but he had been fought off by the archers.
After martyring the ten Muslims on the hill with his soldiers, Khalid bin Walid attacked the ranks of Muslims. It was a sudden, unexpected attack. Everything changed suddenly. The mujahids were quite easy because they thought the enemy was defeated and left. Some of the mujahids had even left their arms.
When the Qurayshi forces saw the situation, they returned.
Thus, the mujahids remained between two fires. They were surprised when they were attacked suddenly. They lost their strength when they were surrounded from two directions.
An unexpected attack at an unexpected time brought about an unexpected result.
The Islamic Army Disperses!
The mujahids who were attacked from the front and the back, and trapped could not pull themselves together and had to disperse. Only 10-15 Companions remained around the Prophet despite everything. That handful of mujahids struggled very hard and resisted the arrows, spears and sword blows of the polytheists; they tried to use their bodies as a shield to protect the Messenger of God. Meanwhile, one of the stones thrown by the army of the polytheists broke one of the teeth in the right lower jaw of the Prophet; another stone injured the Prophet’s forehead and lower lip. The sword stroke of an unbeliever called Abdullah Ibn Kamia injured his cheekbone. Due to the severity of the blow, his helmet was ripped and two links of the helmet pricked his face.
When Abu Ubayda b. Jarrah saw that two links of the helmet pricked the Prophet’s face, he jumped in front of him and said to Hazrat Abu Bakr, who never left the Prophet, “O Abu Bakr! For God’s sake, do not stand between the Prophet and me. Let me remove the links from his face!” He removed the links with his teeth. Meanwhile, two of the teeth of Abu Ubayda were broken.
On the other hand, Malik b. Sinan cleaned the blood on the face of the Prophet with his tongue. Thereupon, the Prophet said, “Hell torture will not touch a person whose blood is mixed with my blood.”
There was a hole dug by a polytheist in order to make Muslims fall into it. When the Islamic army started to disperse, the Messenger of God did not notice it due to the severity of the battle and fell into the hole. The hole was surrounded by the mujahids and the enemy soldiers were not allowed to approach the hole.
The Messenger of God managed to get out of the hole but his face was bleeding. He wiped his hand over the blood on his face and said, “While their Prophet calls them to their Lord, how can a nation that wounds the face of their Prophet be saved?”
It was a complaint.
God Almighty sent down the following verses upon the complaint of His beloved ProphetHis beloved:
“Not for thee, (but for God) is the decision: whether He turn in mercy to them or punish them; for they are indeed wrong-doers.
To God belongeth all that is in the heavens and on earth. He forgiveth whom He pleaseth and punisheth whom He pleaseth: but God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
“No Sword Like Dhul-Fiqar; No Hero Like Ali!”
It was when very few Muslims could resist the polytheists.
The Prophet noticed that a group of polytheists was coming toward him. He ordered Hazrat Ali, who fought heroically without leaving him, “Attack them!”
Hazrat Ali, the Lion of God, walked toward the group of polytheists bravely; he fought them off and knocked one of them down.
Meanwhile, Jibril said, “O Messenger of God! This is a favor and bravery done for you.”
The Prophet said, “He is of me and I am of him.”
Meanwhile, they heard a voice: “No sword like Dhul-Fiqar; no hero like Ali!”
Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas Hails Arrows on Polytheists
When most of the mujahids left the Messenger of God and scattered around, Hazrat Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas was alone sitting hesitantly and thinking. He said to himself, “I could get rid of neither the desire to be a martyr nor the desire to be saved.
Meanwhile a mujahid said to him, “O Sa’d! The Messenger of God wants you.”
Hazrat Sa’d went to the presence of Messenger of God immediately.
Sa’d narrated what happened after that as follows:
“The Messenger of God made me sit in front of him. I started to shoot arrows. At each shot, I said, “O God! This is your arrow. Hit your enemy with it!’ Meanwhile, the Messenger of God (pbuh) said, ‘O God! Accept Sa’d’s prayer! O God! Correct the shooting and arrows of Sa’d! Go on, Sa’d! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! Every time I shot an arrow, the Messenger of God (pbuh) repeated the same prayer.
When my quiver got empty, the Messenger of God (pbuh) gave the arrows in his quiver to me and placed the arrows in my bow one by one. He was more skilled and faster than anybody else in placing the arrows.”
Hazrat Ali said,
“The Messenger of God (pbuh) never said, ‘May my father and mother be sacrificed for you’ to anybody except Sa’d. On the day of Uhud, he said to Sa’d, “Shoot, O, Sa’d! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! Shoot, O short and strong young boy!’ I have never heard the Prophet (pbuh) say so for anybody else.”
The Heroism of Hazrat Talha b. Ubaydullah
It was the most critical and terrifying moment of the battle. The Muslims was climbing up the hills in order to save themselves from the polytheists that were attacking them from the front and back. There were only five or ten mujahids left around the Prophet. Those mujahids and the Prophet fought heroically against the polytheists. One of them was Hazrat Talha b. Ubaydullah.
When the polytheists surrounded the Messenger of God, he tried to fight them off with his sword by turning to the right and left.
Meanwhile, Malik b. Zuhayr, one of the best archers of the polytheists, shot an arrow at the Prophet. When Hazrat Talha noticed that the arrow was going to hit the Messenger of God, he reached his hand out to prevent the arrow. The fast arrow pierced his finger, making him disabled in one hand.
The Prophet said, “If you want to see a person of Paradise on earth, look at Talha b. Ubaydullah!”
One of the veins in the head and body of Hazrat Talha was cut off while he was trying to protect the Messenger of God from the sword blows and arrows of the polytheists. His body was wounded in several places. He fainted due to blood loss. Meanwhile, Hazrat Abu Bakr went over the Prophet. The Messenger of God said to him, “Take care of your cousin.”
When Hazrat Abu Bakr sprinkled some water on his face, Hazrat Talha came round. He did not heed the pain of his wounds. He did not think about himself; he was wondering about the situation of the person for whom he had sacrificed himself. He asked Hazrat Abu Bakr, “What is the Messenger of God doing?”
When Hazrat Abu Bakr said, “He is all right. He sent me to you”, that heroic Companion said, “Thank God! If the Messenger of God is alive, no misfortune is important for us!”
When Hazrat Talha, who was named as “Talhatu’l-Khayr (Good Talha)” by the Messenger of God due to his heroism and sacrifice in the way of God, he had seventy-five wounds in his body. His head had been ripped in four places; his femoral artery had been cut wholly. His hand had been disabled.
Hazrat Hamza Becomes a Martyr
When Muslims started to disperse toward the hills, when there was a mess.
Hazrat Hamza was resisting against the polytheists and praying by saying, “O God! I take refuge in you from those states of Muslims and ask forgiveness from you.”
The polytheists could not approach him. They were trying to shoot him from a distance.
There was a slave called “Wahshi” in Makkah. He was very good at throwing spears in the Ethiopian style. He rarely missed the target.
It was just before the Qurayshi army left Makkah. His master, Jubayr b. Mut’im, called his slave, Wahshi, and said to him, “Join the army. If you kill Hamza, Muhammad’s uncle, in return for my uncle, Tuayma b. Adiyy, you will be a free man.”
Abu Sufyan’s wife, Hind, whose father was killed in Badr, promised many rewards to Wahshi for it, too.
Therefore, Wahshi was watching Hazrat Hamza during the battle.
Hazrat Hamza was attacking the polytheists swinging his sword and striking them. Meanwhile, Wahshi was hiding behind a rock, looking for an opportunity.
Hazrat Hamza was attacking the enemy very fast when he slipped and fell down on his back. Wahshi, who was a very good shooter, threw his spear and hit Hamza on his side. Hamza was martyred. Wahshi did not regard it sufficient; In order to please Hind, Abu Sufyan’s wife, Wahshi cut Hamza’s body open and took out his liver; he gave the liver to Hind. Hind gave her valuable things she was wearing to Wahshi due to his achievement and chewed the liver of Hamza to take revenge.However, it was not enough to soothe her feeling of vengeance; she cut his nose, and ears to use them as bracelets and anklets.
Mus’ab b. Umayr is Martyred
Most of the mujahids had dispersed around.
Nevertheless, there were some mujahids who never left the Messenger of God. One of those mujahids was Hazrat Mus’ab b. Umayr, the standard-bearer of the Islamic army.
An unbeliever called Ibn Kamia approached the Messenger of God on horseback. He shouted, “Show me Muhammad! If he remains alive, I won’t.”
Hazrat Mus’ab, some mujahids and Nasiba (a woman) resisted Ibn Kamia. He hit Nasiba, who was trying to protect the Messenger of God, on her shoulder with his sword. Nasiba hit him bravely several times in return. However, her blows did not affect him because he had two armors on.
Ibn Kamia cut off the right hand of Hazrat Mus’ab with his sword. Hazrat Mus’ab held the standard, which symbolized the honor of Islam, with his left hand. Ibn Kamia cut off Mus’ab’s left hand, too. This time, Hazrat Mus’ab held the standard with his arms and pressed it on his chest. At that moment, his only aim was to prevent Ibn Kamia from reaching the Prophet and to prevent the standard of Islam from falling down. Ibn Kamia pierced Mus’ab’s body with his spear. Hazrat Mus’ab could no longer resist; he fell down and became a martyr. The standard fell down, too.
When Hazrat Mus’ab was martyred, the Prophet gave the standard to Hazrat Ali. When Hazrat Ali went to fight, Abur-Rum carried the standard until the battle ended.
The Rumor “Muhammad was Killed”
When Mus’ab b. Umayr put on his armor, he resembled the Messenger of God a lot. When Ibn Kamia killed Hazrat Mus’ab, he thought he killed the Prophet. He immediately went to the polytheists and said, “I killed Muhammad!”
When the polytheists heard it, they began to scream joyfully. One of them went up to the mountain and yelled, “Muhammad was killed!”
When the mujahids heard that terrifying yelling, they felt upset. A withdrawal and panic started in the Islamic army. Everybody started to leave the battlefield in different directions. During this tumult, some of them even swung their swords against their Muslim brothers without knowing what they were doing. During this tumult, Husayl b. Jabir was martyred by another Companion by mistake.
Mujahids Look for the Messenger of God
The mujahids who did not want to believe what the polytheists yelled started to look for the Messenger of God. One of them, Hazrat Ali, was swinging his sword against enemy soldiers that he met and was looking for the Prophet. The greatest and unique wish of the mujahids in the battlefield was to find the Messenger of God.
Meanwhile, a voice that soothed the hearts was heard: “O Muslims! Glad tidings! Here is the Messenger of God!
It was the voice of Ka’b b. Malik. He recognized the Messenger of God from his blessed shining eyes under his helmet in the place called Shi’b. While he was shouting to Muslims, he was pointing to the place where the Messenger of God was.
The Prophet did not want the enemy to know where he was. He hushed Ka’b, who was giving glad tidings to Muslims, with his hand.
Now, the place of the Messenger of God was known and it was understood that the news that spread was a rumor. The mujahids ran toward the place where the Messenger of God was and surrounded him. The only aim of the mujahids was to protect the body of the Messenger of God. They managed it.
The Heroism of Nasiba
Umm Umara Nasiba bint Ka’b...
She joined the Islamic army and came to Uhud with her husband and two sons; her husband and sons were going to fight the polytheists and she was going to help the wounded Muslims and bring them water.
However, when the Muslims started to disperse in the second phase of the battle, Nasiba saw that very few mujahids remained around the Messenger of God. Therefore, she immediately went to the Prophet and started to fight. She tried to protect the Messenger of God from the polytheists by using a sword and arrows. Meanwhile, she was wounded. When the Prophet looked around, she always saw Nasiba resisting the polytheists. He said,
“O Umm Umara! Not everybody can bear and resist what you bore and resisted!”
When the Prophet saw the wound in her shoulder, he said to her son, Abdullah, “Dress your mother’s wound!”
Then, she said,
“May it be blessed for your family: The rank of your mother is better than the ranks of such and such people! The rank of your father is better than the ranks of such and such people! Your rank is better than the ranks of such and such people! My God have mercy on your family!”
Meanwhile, Nasiba, who was swinging her sword bravely against the polytheists thanks to her belief, said, “O Messenger of God! Pray God so that we will be your neighbor in Paradise.”
The Messenger of God prayed: “O God! Make them my neighbors and friends in Paradise.”
Thereupon, Nasiba joyfully said, “I will not care no matter what kind of misfortunes hit me in the world; that prayer is enough for me!”Thus, she showed her love and loyalty toward the Messenger of God.
“He is a person of Hell!”
There was someone who fought bravely and attacked the enemy recklessly in the ranks of Muslims. He was also the first one who shot arrows at the enemy.
Strange enough, whenever Quzman’s name was mentioned, the Prophet said, “He is a person of Hell”. The Companions could not understand why the Prophet said so.
Quzman showed great heroism during the most severe moments of the battle. When the Islamic army started to disperse, he broke the sheath of his sword; he attacked the polytheists saying, “To die is better than to run away. O People of Aws! Fight for honor and fame like me.” After killing seven or eight polytheists, he got wounded and there was blood on his body and clothes.
The Companions had not understood the meaning of the word of the Prophet: “He is a person of Hell.” How could Quzman, who showed so much heroism and bravery in the rank of Muslims be a person of hell?
However, the Messenger of God knew about the real nature of Quzman because God had informed the Prophet about him.
The Companions congratulated Quzman, who was having great pains due to his wounds, and said, “Congratulations O Quzman! You will go to Paradise!”
In his answer, Quzman revealed the real nature of the issue: “Why do you congratulate me? My aim is not to be a martyr. I did not even think about maintaining the religion. I fought for my tribe; I fought so that the Qurayshis would not damage the date gardens of Madinah.”When his pains got worse, he did not have any hope that he would survive; so, he cut the vein in his arm with an arrow and committed suicide.
Thus, the Companions realized the truth in the words of the Messenger of God. They found out that the heroism of Quzman was not for the sake of God but for the sake of his tribe’s honor and fame, and protecting the date gardens in Madinah.
When the Messenger of God heard that Quzman committed suicide, he said, “Godu Akbar! Godu Akbar! I witness that I am the Messenger of God!” Then, he added, “Doubtlessly, God strengthens his religion through a sinner if He wishes.”
The criterion for the acceptance of deeds is sincerity; that is, the deed needs to be done for the sake and consent of God.
A word, a deed or an act of heroism that is not said or done sincerely has no value in the eye of God. The incident of Quzman is a clear example of it.
The Prayer of the Messenger of God for his Tribe
While trying to protect himself from the showers of arrows of the polytheists, the Messenger of God said the following prayer:
“O God! Forgive my tribe and show them the right path because they do not know what they are doing.”
When the polytheists understood that they would not be able to do anything else, they decided that it would be better to withdraw lest they should be defeated by the mujahids who started to gather strength; and they withdrew conceitedly.
The result was really sorrowful, exemplary and thought provoking.
Seventy mujahids had been martyred during the battle. Among them were distinguished Companions like Hazrat Hamza, and Mus’ab b. Umayr. People like Abu Dujana and Nasiba received numerous blows while trying to protect the Messenger of God and their bodies were covered with blood.
During the first phase of the battle, the mujahids were winning the battle but when most of the archers left their positions despite the command and instruction of the Messenger of God, the victory was replaced by a defeat. Uhud became red with the blood of the Muslims. Mount Uhud, about which the Prophet said, “It likes us and we like it”, was covered by a cloud of sorrow.
The Prophet Walks up to the Rocks
The Prophet was wounded and tired. He did not have the strength to walk on his own. He walked up to the rocks in Shi’b, where the Muslims had taken refuge, by leaning against Sa’d b. Muadh and Sa’d b. Ubada. He wanted to have a rest and gather strength again there. After walking for a while, he could not proceed any longer. The armor he was wearing was very heavy. Meanwhile, Talha b. Ubaydullah crouched and said, “Sit on my back, O Messenger of God! I am strong; I can carry you.” He carried the Prophet to the rocks.
The Messenger of God washed his face that was covered with blood there and had some water poured on his head.
The Prophet Kills Ubayy b. Khalaf
It was before the Battle of Badr.
While the Messenger of God was walking around the battlefield, he said, “This is where Abu Jahl is going to be killed; this is where Utba and this is where Umayya, this is where such and such person is going to be killed. I am going to kill Ubayy b. Khalaf with my own hands.”
The cave on Uhud in which the Prophet took shelter
As the Prophet informed people in Badr, Abu Jahl, Utba and Umayya b. Khalaf were killed by mujahids in the places that had been shown by the Prophet. Only Ubayy b. Khalaf remained. He was one of the notables of the Quraysh. Whenever he met the Prophet, he said, “O Muhammad! I have a horse. I feed him with sixteen kilos of corn every day. One day I will kill you riding it.”
The Prophet answered this unruly and stupid man as follows:
“I will kill you inshaGod.”
Ubayy b. Khalaf went to Uhud in order to take the revenge of Umayya, his brother, who had been killed by the mujahids in Badr, and in order to kill the Prophet, by swearing that he would do it.
It was when the Messenger of God was walking up to Shi’b.
Ubayy was seen going toward Shi’b. He was on the horse that he fed sixteen kilos of corn every day. He was approaching the Prophet with looks of revenge in his eyes. When the Companions noticed him, they wanted to confront and kill him. However, the Messenger of God said, “Let him come.” While approaching the prophet, this unruly polytheist said, “O Muhammad! If you survive, I will not survive!”
When the Messenger of God heard what he said, he got very furious. He walked against his opponent with his spear, and with solemn and terrifying steps. Ubayy was astonished. He started to run away when he saw the terrifying walking of the Prophet. The prophet followed him and shouted, “Where are you going? You liar!”
Ubayy could not save himself by running away. The Prophet threw his spear at him. It hit the part of his body between his helmet and armor. Ubay fell off his horse mooing like a cow.
The polytheists took him away; he was wounded. No blood was coming out of his wound. He could not bear the pain. From time to time, he said to his friends, “By God! Muhammad killed me!”
His friends did not take what he said seriously; they tried to console him by saying his wound was not very important. However, Ubayy realized that he was not going to survive. He said to his friends, “In Makkah, he said to me, ‘I will kill you.’ I swear by God he will kill me only by spitting on my face.”
Ubayy b. Khalaf died by saying, “I am thirsty; I am thirsty!” Thus, another miracle of the Prophet about the future came true by the permission of God.
Those who had Vowed to Kill the Prophet were all Killed
It was when the Muslims started to disperse.
Four unduly polytheists, Abdullah b. Shihab az-Zuhri, Utba b. Abi Waqqas, Abdullah Ibn Kamia and Ubayy b. Khalaf, came together and vowed to kill the Prophet.
The Messenger of God prayed God against those polytheists: “O God! Do not let any of them live more than a year.”
Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas said:
“I swear by God none of those who wounded the Prophet lived more than a year.”
Ibn Shihab, one of those four people, was bitten by a white spotted female snake and died.
The Prophet himself killed Ubayy b. Khalaf with his own hands.
Hatib b. Abi Baitah killed Utba b. Abi Waqqas.
Ibn Kamia, who had wounded the Prophet’s face, went to see his sheep to Makkah after Uhud. He found his sheep on the highest hill of the mountain. When he wanted to stop his sheep, a ram attacked him and tore him into pieces by tossing him with its horns repeatedly. 
Abu Sufyan Calls out
The army of the polytheists was withdrawing slowly. Abu Sufyan, the commander, walked around the battlefield and approached the mujahids on the rocks. He called out, “Is Muhammad among the Muslims?” He repeated his question three times but the Prophet said to the mujahids, “Do not answer.” Then, Abu Sufyan asked, “Is Abu Bakr among you?” the Messenger of God did not allow them to answer. This time, the leader of the Qurayshis said, “Is Umar not among you?” the Prophet did not want them to answer this question, either. Thereupon, Abu Sufyan turned to his men and said, “All of them were probably killed. If they had been alive, they would have answered me.”
After his last sentence, Hazrat Umar could not put up with it anymore; he stood up and called out, “You are lying, O enemy of God! All of them are alive and here.”
Then, the following conversation took place between Abu Sufyan and Umar:
Abu Sufyan: “May the fame of Hubal be high!”
With the order of the Prophet, Hazrat Umar said, “God is the greatest and highest.”
“We have Uzza but you don’t!”
“Our Master is God. You have no master.”
“We defeated one day and we were defeated one day.”
“We got sorry one day and we laughed one day. We killed Hanzala for Hanzala and such and such a person for such and such a person.”
“We are not the same as you. Those of us who were killed are in Paradise now. Those of you who were killed are in Hell.”
This time, Abu Sufyan got to the point and said to Umar, “O Umar! Tell me for God’s sake! Did we kill Muhammad?”
“No. By God, you did not kill him. Now he is listening to what you are saying now.
Abu Sufyan, who relied on Hazrat Umar, believed that the Prophet was alive. While he was about to leave, he shouted:
“We promise to confront you and fight you in Badr next year.”
Hazrat Umar looked at the Messenger of God. He waited for the Prophet to express his view. When the Prophet said, “It is all right. InshaGod that place will me our meeting place”, Hazrat Umar answered,
“It is all right!”
The Prophet Walks among the Martyrs
When the enemy left the battlefield and set off to Makkah, the Prophet walked down the rocks with the mujahids.
He walked among the martyrs whose bodies were on the ground but whose spirits traveled in the high realms.
His heart was full of grief. If he had not had the comfort provided by belief in qadar, the scene could not have been observed. He had lost his most distinguished Companions. The Qurayshi polytheists had treated the martyrs wildly. They had torn most of them into pieces; some of them could not be recognized.
He stood among them.
He watched the deplorable scene with grief for a while and said, “I will witness on the Day of Judgment that those martyrs sacrificed their lives in the way of God.”
Then, he turned to his Companions and said,
“Wrap and bury them with their blood! Those who fight in the way of God and get wounded, will come to the Gathering Place with their wounds bleeding. The color of their blood will be blood color but the scent of their blood will be the scent of musk.”
The Prophet next to the Body of Hazrat Hamza
Hazrat Hamza, the prophet’s uncle, the heroic Companion, was among the martyrs.
His stomach had been cut open, and his liver had been removed; his nose and ears had been cut off; his dead body was in pieces. It was difficult to recognize him.
When the Messenger of God saw his blessed body, he became so sad and felt so much pain that he started to cry.
He had never been seen so sad. He stood by the body of “Sayyid ash-Shuhada [Master of the Martyrs]” who was a monument of courage.
He addressed Hamza in tears:
“O Hamza! Nobody has ever suffered and will suffer such a misfortune! There cannot be a bigger misfortune than this one for me!
“Oh Hamza! The uncle of the Messenger of God! O Hamza who did good deeds! O Hamza who protected the Messenger of God! May God show mercy on you! If it had been necessary to mourn after you, I would have given up being happy and have mourned for you!”
Mount Uhud, Uhud martyrs and Hazrat Hamza’s grave
Meanwhile, they saw someone coming from the direction of Madinah, rising clouds of dust. It was a woman. She was Safiyya, the sister of Hamza. She wanted to find out about the state of her brother. She asked everybody she met where Hamza was and what happened to him.
When the Messenger of God saw that she was approaching, he said to Zubayr b. Awwam, “Tell your mother to return; do not let her see your brother’s dead body.”
Hazrat Zubayr met his mother and said, “Mum! The Messenger of God ordered you to return.”
Hazrat Safiyya said heroically, “If I am asked to return so as not to see what happened to him, I know that his body has been cut into pieces. We can face worse situations in the way of God. We will expect the reward from God. We will show patience and put up with it.”
When Zubayr told the Prophet what she said, the Prophet let Safiyya see her brother, Hamza.
Hazrat Safiyya went to the dead body of her brother, sat by him and started to weep. The Messenger of God, who was nearby, could not put up with it and started to weep. When Hazrat Fatima joined this distressing and exemplary scene, an emotional, moving and sad atmosphere became dominant. Hazrat Safiyya, who had surrendered to the qadar of God without hesitation, recited the verse, “Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi rajiun” (To God we belong and to Him is our return), which is the expression of patience; then, she asked mercy and forgiveness from God for her brother.
Meanwhile, Hazrat Jibril arrived; he said to the Prophet, ‘the Lion of God and the Messenger of God’ was written in the sky. The Messenger of God gave this good news to Safiyya.
What Happened to Abdullah b. Jahsh
On the intense day of the battle, Abdullah b. Jahsh and Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas stood aside and prayed God Almighty. Sa’d said, “O my Lord! Make me confront a great enemy and defeat him; make me victorious!” Abdullah b. Jahsh said, “Amin” for his prayer and then said, “O my Lord! Make me confront a great enemy and be martyrized. Let my nose and ears be cut off. When you ask me on the Day of Judgment, ‘Where were your nose and ears cut off?’, I will say, ‘O my Lord! They were cut off in Your and Your Messenger’s way’.”
Abdullah b. Jahsh were among the martyrs and his nose and ears were cut off just as he had prayed. When Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas saw it, he could not hide his astonishment.
The Prophet near the Dead Body of Mus’ab b. Umayr
Mus’ab b. Umayr, the standard-bearer of the Islamic army was also among the martyrs. The Messenger of God approached his dead body and recited the following verse: “Among the Believers are men who have been true to their Covenant with God: of them some have completed their vow (to the extreme) and some (still) wait: but they have never changed (their determination) in the least.”
They could not find anything as a shroud for Mus’ab. He had his kaftan on him. When they covered the top part of his body with it, his feet remained open; when they covered the bottom part of his body with it, his head remained open. When the Messenger of God saw it, he said, “Cover the top part of his body with his kaftan and cover his feet with izhir (dyer’s madder: a kind of plant with a nice scent).”
To make all kinds of sacrifices in the way of God, His Messenger and Islam, to face all kinds of difficulties and to be a martyr in the end, to be deprived of a shroud to be covered and to be covered by plants! A scene full of lessons to be drawn and full of honor!
Then, the Messenger of God led the janazah prayers of the martyrs. It is also narrated that the janazah prayers of Uhud martyrs were not performed then and that they were performed eight years after they were buried.
Then, the Prophet ordered the weapons and armors of the martyrs to be removed and then to be buried with their blood and bloody clothes. The Companions asked, “Who shall we bury first?” The Messenger of God said, “Bury the one that knew the Quran the most.”
Hazrat Ali is Sent to Scout out
The Messenger of God was worried that the polytheists would walk toward Madinah and kill the women and children. Therefore, he wanted to find out whether the enemy really went to Makkah or not. He called Hazrat Ali and said to him, “Go and follow the polytheists! Find out what they are doing and what they are planning to do? If they travel on their camels and take the horses in tow, it means they want to return to Makkah; if they ride the horses and herd the camels, it means they intend to go to Madinah.” Thus, he sent Hazrat Ali to scout out.
Hazrat Ali went and saw that they were riding the camels and taking the horses in tow. He returned and told the Messenger of God about it.
The Prayer of the Prophet after the Battle
After the Companions that were martyred were buried, the Messenger of God set off to Madinah together with the mujahids. When they reached the place called Harra, the Prophet stopped his army and made the following emotional supplication:
“O God! Praise be to you.
O God! There is no force that can roll what you spread and that can spread what you roll. There is nobody that can guide a person that you deviate and that can deviate a person that you guide. Nobody can give what you do not give and nobody can prevent what you give.
O God! Give and send to us your mercy, abundance, grants and generosity!
O God! I ask your bounties on the day when I am poor and your security on the day when I fear!
O God! Make us love belief! Decorate our hearts with belief! Make us hate unbelief, rebellion and oppression! Make us one of those people who know what is harmful for our religion and world; make us among those that find the right path!
O God! Make us live as Muslims and die as Muslims! Include us in the group of righteous and good people; they never lose their honor; nor do they abandon from their religion.
O God! Punish the unbelievers who deny your Prophet, turn away from your way and fight your prophet!”
The mujahids said ‘Amin’ for that moving, sorrowful and thought-provoking supplication.
God Almighty accepted that prayer of His Messenger; He destroyed the enemies of Islam in a short time!
Returning to Madinah and Being Welcomed
The Ansar women were on the streets; they were watching the army that was coming; they wanted to find out whether the Messenger of God returned safely or not and to see him. The Islamic army entered Madinah on the 7th of the month of Shawwal toward the evening. The women were crying for their husbands that were martyred. When the Messenger of God heard them, he started to cry, too.
What a Loyalty
A woman approached the Prophet, who was riding a horse. She was Kabsha b. Ubayd, who was the mother of Sa’d b. Muadh, who held the reins of the Prophet’s horse. She was sorrowful due to the pains she felt inside. Her son, Amr b. Muadh, was martyred in Uhud. She approached the Prophet more, looked at his luminous face and said, “Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of God! I see that you are safe. Since you are safe, no misfortune can affect me!”
Those sentences expressed the real belief and the endless loyalty to the Messenger of God. She did not ask about her son, who was martyred, but she felt extremely happy when she found out that the Messenger of God returned safely.
The Messenger of God consoled the heroic Muslim woman for his son that was martyred. He said, “O Sa’d’s mother (Sa’d b. Muadh)! Glad tidings to you and his household; all of their martyrs gathered in Paradise and became close friends. They will intercede for their household.” Then, he said the following prayer due to the wish of Kabsha:
“O God! Eliminate the sorrow in their hearts; make the living members of this family the best of those who live!”
There was no sacrifice, trouble or hardship that the Companions, whose hearts were in contact with the elixir of prophethood, could not face for God and His Messenger. If they lost their own children, they would show patience and perseverance. They knew very well that the cause of Islam could be elevated only through sacrifice, self-denial and hardship. They were aware of the fact that the sacrifice for the Messenger of God was the most desired sacrifice in the eye of God. Therefore, the Messenger of God stated the following for them:
“God Almighty made my Companions superior to the whole world except the prophets and apostles!”
The Prophet at Home
While the Companions that returned from Uhud were going to their houses with a painful and sorrowful mood due to the defeat, the Prophet went home. She gave his sword, Dhul-Fiqar, to his daughter, Fatima, and said, “Wash its sheath. I swear by God it fulfilled its duty thoroughly today!”
The Messenger of God was hopeful. He was not hopeless due to that defeat. He knew very well that the truth would be superior to the evil and the wrong. What he said to Fatima, his daughter, indicated this truth: “Polytheists will not defeat us like that until God grants us the conquest (of Makkah).”
The Prophet, who returned to Madinah, was still not safe from the danger of polytheists. It was possible for them to return and to carry an unexpected attack. Therefore, some Muslims kept guard all night at the door of the Prophet’s house.
The Prophet Adopts an Orphan!
Many Muslim women became widows as a result of the Uhud defeat; many mothers lost their children and many children became orphans. All of them went to the Prophet in order to relieve their pains, eliminate their sorrow and console their spirits. He tried to find solutions to their problems.
A child having a face like an angle called Bujayr went to the Prophet. His father Aqraba had been martyred in Uhud. He went to the presence of the Messenger of God crying due to the agony of being left fatherless; he exhilarated the feelings of compassion and mercy of the Prophet.
The Messenger of God found a cure for the problem of Bujayr. He said to him, “O lovely child! Why do you keep crying? Stop crying! Would you like me to become your father and Aisha your mother?”
When Bujayr, who needed compassion due to his age, heard the offer, his eyes smiled. He forgot his grief and distress; he got rid of the feeling of frustration and showed his joy by saying, “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you O Messenger of God! I would definitely like it!”
The Messenger of God caressed the head of the lovely child with his compassionate hands and asked, “What is your name?”
He said, “Bujayr”.
Thereupon, the Prophet changed his name by saying, “No. You are Bashir!”
Bashir, with the name the Prophet gave him, later said,
“On the part of my head that the hand of the Messenger of God touched, the hair remained black, but my hair on the other parts became grey. I used to lisp but after that I got rid of lisping.”
THE EXPEDITION OF HAMRA AL-ASAD
The Prophet, who had returned from Uhud to Madinah, was restless. He always considered the possibility of the Qurayshi polytheists returning and attacking Madinah.
Besides, the defeat in Uhud caused a negative atmosphere against Muslims both inside and outside. That negative atmosphere had to be eliminated. It was necessary to show that Muslim maintained their previous strength and courage.
The Prophet returned to Madinah from Uhud on Saturday. After leading the morning prayer on Sunday, he called Bilal and told him to address people by saying, “The Messenger of God orders you to follow your enemy. Those who did not fight in Uhud together with us yesterday will not come. Only those who joined the Uhud expedition will come!”
Most of the Companions had returned from Uhud wounded. However, they did not hesitate to accept the call of the Messenger of God to fight in the way of God.
Love of Jihad of Two Wounded Brothers
Abdullah and Rafi’ b. Sahl, who were two brothers from the Sons of Abd al-Ashal, had been seriously wounded. When they heard the call of the Messenger of God, they forgot about the pains of their wounds and started to think, “How can we join this expedition? Will we miss this opportunity of joining the jihad with the Messenger of God?”
When Abdullah said to Rafi’, “Let us go”, Rafi said, “By God, I have no strength to walk.”
“Come on! If you cannot walk, we will hire an animal.”
In the end, they set off. When Rafi was too weak, Abdullah carried him on his back. Thus, they joined the mujahids.
One of the people that had seriously been wounded was a Companion called Usayd b. Khudayr. He had seven serious wounds. He wanted to take care of those wounds. However, when he heard the command of the Messenger of God, he stopped taking care of his wounds and joined the mujahids.
The Messenger of God himself was wounded, too. There were two wounds of chain on his face; his forehead had been ripped. One of his molar teeth had been broken and his lip had been ripped; his right shoulder had been wounded, too. He was going on an expedition like that. He entered the mosque and performed a prayer of two rak’ahs. Then he put on his armor. Only his eyes could be seen. He led the army like that. He gave the standard to Hazrat Ali. He appointed Abdullah b. Umm Maktum as his deputy and left Madinah.
The Prophet sent a vanguard of three people before the army. One of them was tired and could not proceed. The Qurayshis noticed the other two guards; they captured and martyred them.
The Messenger of God reached the place called Hamra al-Asad and set up his headquarters there. Then, he buried the two guards that had been martyred there. He ordered the mujahids to collect wood to make a fire at night. They made a lot of fires at night. About five hundred fires that had been made were terrifying. The army of the polytheists was not seen around. One polytheist who had fallen asleep was captured. He was Abu Azza, who had been captured by Muslims in Badr and who had promised not to satirize or insult Muslims with his poems and therefore had been freed without any ransom. However, he did not keep his promise. He went to Uhud and encouraged the polytheists against Muslims through his poems.
Abu Azza asked the Prophet to free him again. However, this time, he received a harsh and definite answer: “A believer is not bitten through the same snake hole twice. By God, I will not free you in case you say in Makkah, ‘I deceived Muhammad twice; I made fun of him’”. Upon the order of the Prophet, he was killed.
The Conversation between Mabad of Khuzaa and the Prophet
When the Messenger of God was still in Hamra al-Asad, Mabad b. Abi Mabad of the Khuzaa tribe, who lived in Tihama region, came to talk to the Messenger of God. Both The Muslims and polytheists of the Khuzaa tribe were loyal to the Prophet; they never concealed anything from him.
Mabad had not become a Muslim yet but he was loyal to the Messenger of God.
Trying to console the Prophet, he said, “O Muhammad! The misfortune in Uhud offended us, too. We wish that God will give you health and strength against them.”
After talking to the Prophet, Mabad continued his journey. He saw that the polytheists had gathered in a place called Rawha. They had organized the meeting in order to attack the Muslims. They said,
“We killed the Companions of Muhammad; we killed his most honorable and courageous men; however, we could not eliminate them all. How shall we return to Makkah like this? We should return and kill the others that survived!”
As it could be seen, things were taking place as the Prophet had thought. The polytheists were thinking about returning and attacking Madinah.
The Conversation between Mabad and Abu Sufyan
When Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Quraysh, met Abu Sufyan, he asked, “O Mabad! What is the news in the place where you are coming from?”
Mabad said, “Muhammad and his Companions collected an unprecedented amount of soldiers and started to come after you.”
Abu Sufyan was surprised: “O my God! Really?”
Mabad spoke calmly, “By God, you will see their horses before you leave here.” Abu Sufyan talked furiously, “By God we gathered in order to attack them. We will eliminate those who survived.”
Ignoring the fury of Abu Sufyan, Mabad said, “I advise you not to attempt such a dangerous thing. By God, when I saw that crowd, I could not help saying some couplets.”
The fury of Abu Sufyan was transformed to curiosity. He said, “What did you say?” Mabad started his poem:
“My animal almost fell down due to their multitude and terrifying noise!
It looked as if there was a flood of men and horses. It looked as if unarmed, short and glorious lions without spears and shields were running about.
I thought the earth would collapse due to their weight!
I left them in a hurry.
They elevated with their leader, who was not alone and who was not unaided.
When they confront you, the valley of Batha will be shaken together with its inhabitants.
I said, ‘Too bad for Abu Sufyan b. Harb!’
I am a warner for Makkans who are scorched under the sun and for any of them who thinks, telling them that the result will be terrifying.
The army I am trying to describe is the army of Ahmad; it does not consist of ordinary people.
My description and warnings are not meaningless words.”
Abu Sufyan and his friends, who liked Mabad’s poem and praised it, started to feel scared. They gave up the idea of walking against Muslims and set off to Makkah. Mabad, who did Muslims a great favor, sent someone from his tribe to tell the Prophet about the situation.
The Messenger of God stayed in Hamra al-Asad for three nights; there was no movement from the enemy; so, he returned to Madinah.
This expedition is called the expedition of Hamra al-Asad due to the name of the place. The following is stated in the verses sent down due to this expedition:
“Of those who answered the call of God and the Messenger even after being wounded, those who do right and refrain from wrong have a great reward.― Men said to them: "A great army is gathering against you, so fear them": but it (only) increased their Faith. They said: ‘For us God sufficeth, and He is the best disposer of affairs.’”
SOME WISDOMS BEHIND THE DEFEAT OF UHUD
There are some wisdoms behind the fact that Muslims were defeated in the Battle of Uhud, that some of them were wounded and some of them were martyred:
1)It was understood clearly through this misfortune that the slightest opposition to the commands of God and His Messenger could inflict great troubles on them. The Prophet had ordered the archers he placed on Aynayn Hill and not to leave that place but they left their place and acted contrary to his command, thinking that Muslims won the battle. As a result of their leaving their place, the bright victory that the Muslims had obtained was followed by a sad defeat.
2)It was taught that even the prophets could not be free from the troubles and hardships of the world because they were sent as guides to people in every aspect. The Prophet was sent as an absolute guide and imam for human beings so that they would learn the principles relating to their personal and social lives from him. If he had always received divine help and trusted on extraordinary states and miracles, he would not have been an absolute imam and the greatest guide for human beings.
Therefore, the Prophet sometimes showed miracles only in order to prove his cause and to overcome the denial of the polytheists; he acted in accordance with the laws of God that He imposed on the universe at other times. He ordered people to wear armor against the enemy and to take shelter in trenches. He was sometimes wounded as it happened in Uhud and suffered hardships. If he had always received divine help and showed miracles, the mind would have been forced to believe. It would have been contrary to the mystery of testing in the world. In that case, Abu Jahl and Abu Lahab would have also believed willy nilly and would have been in the same rank as Hazrat Abu Bakr. It would have been impossible to discriminate between real Muslims and munafiqs.
Especially, during the battles, when the divine help sometimes delayed, the munafiqs who had not believed heartily revealed themselves through their words and actions. Thus, it became possible to recognize them.
3)Among the polytheists, there were many people who would be equal to some great companions in the future like Hazrat Khalid b. Walid and, Amr b. As. It can be said that the divine wisdom let those people who would serve among the Companions in the future and who would be famous and honorable in the future have a victory so as not to harm their honor and in order to give them a kind of advance payment.
“That is to say, the Companions of the past were defeated by the Companions of the future, so that the future Companions would enter Islam, not through fear of the flashing sword, but through zeal for the flash of the truth, and lest they and their natural valor should be brought low!”
Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, Vol. 2, p. 37.
Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 3, p. 64; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 37.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 64; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 37
Sons of Mustaliq and Sons of Hawn b. Huzayma made an agreement with the polytheists that they would gather in the foot of the Mount Hubsha below Makkah and that they would act together against their enemies; therefore, those tribes were named as Ahabish due to the place where they had gathered.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 37; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 12.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 4. p. 31.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 66-67; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 37-38.
Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 27; Ibn Kathir, Sirah, Vol. 3, p. 22.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 45; Ibn Kathir, Sirah, Vol. 3, p. 24.
Ibn Qayyim, Zadu’l-Maad, Vol. 1. p. 353.
Ibn Kathir, Sirah, Vol. 3, p. 24.
Balazuri, Ansab, Vol. 1, p. 315.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 68; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 38.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 39.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 63; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 39.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 63; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 39.
Ibn Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 349; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, Vol. 2, p. 206; Bayhaqi, Sunan, Vol. 9, p. 24.
Ibn Abdi’l-Barr, al-Istiab, Vol. 3, p. 1168.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 48; Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, Vol. 2, p. 232.
Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 12-13.
Waqidi, Maghazi, p. 169-170.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 39.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 68; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 39.
Aal-i Imran, 122.
Aal-i Imran, 166-167.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 164-165.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 165.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 502-503.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 165.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 69; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 39.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 70.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 70; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 40.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 40.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 70-71; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2. p. 40.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 41.
Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 17.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 71.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 73; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 15.
Ibn Kathir, Sirah, Vol. 3, p. 87; Ibn Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba, Vol. 3, p. 232.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. p. 84; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 410.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 85; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 410.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 85.
Aal-i Imran, 128-129.
Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 17.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 141; Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 22-23, Ibn Athir, Usdu’l-Ghaba, Vol. 2, p. 290.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 217.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 85; Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 5, p. 644.
Waqidi, Maghazi, p. 199.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 218.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3. p. 76.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 76.
Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, Vol. 2, p. 275.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 42.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 77.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 46.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 84-86; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 8, p. 413-415.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 171-172; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3. p. 26.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 172; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 26.
Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 26.
Ibn Sayyid, Uyun al-Athar, Vol. 2, p. 24.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 89.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 89.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 125.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 89; Balazuri, Ansab, Vol. 1, p. 324; Ibn Sayyid, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 13.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 99-100; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 48; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 24.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 103-104; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 13-14.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 101-102; Ibn- Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 13-14; Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, Vol. 2, p. 360.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 103.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 101-102.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 103-104; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p.13-14.
Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 2, p. 26.
Abu Dawud, Sunan, Vol. 2, p. 174; Nasai, Sunan, Vol. 4, p. 83.
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 3, p. 424.
Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, p. 119.
Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 3, p. 106.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 106.
Ibn Abdi’l-Barr, al-Istiab, Vol. 1, p. 176.
Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, Vol. 1, p. 154.
Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 49.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 107.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 110-111; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 43.
Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 108-109.
Aal-i Imran, 172-173.
Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, Lem’alar, p. 26.