5. Hajj (Pilgrimage) and Sacrifice



5.1. THE WORSHIP OF HAJJ



Worship is understanding by the slave his weakness, poverty and need and taking refuge in his Creator.

Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. Hajj is, after entering ihram, to stand on Arafat, to circumambulate Kaaba and to carry out other tasks at certain months.


5.2. THE MEANING AND WISDOM OF HAJJ



Hajj is a worship carried out through both the body and money. Hajj is performed only for the sake of Allah, like the other worships, and its reward is expected from Allah. However hajj has wisdoms involving the material and spiritual life of a person.

Hajj is a worship in which prayers are answered, sins are forgiven, every act is regarded as worship, no discrimination is made between the rich and the poor, the scholars and the ignorant people, the chief and the official, and the brotherhood of Islam is lived.

Believers meet Muslims whose languages, colors, attitudes are different in the crowd that reminds the Day of Gathering and consolidate their feelings of brotherhood with them. They share the same feelings, and pray Allah together. They live the honor of being a slave of Allah in the consciousness of slavery and brotherhood together. They repent of their sins and clean their spirits. They circumambulate together, stand on Arafat and attain the consciousness of being a slave. They make use of one anothers prayers and say amen to one anothers prayers.

The historical events from Hazrat Adam, the first man and prophet, to Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) and his Sahaba enliven in front of the eyes a person who visits the holy places during hajj worship.

Hajj worship is actually a hard task for man. To attain Allahs contentment is only possible by carrying out that hard task. That is a trial. By performing hajj worship, we pay our gratitude to Allah, who created us out of nothing and who made us live through his bounties, and crown this happiness with Eid al-Fitr.

The worships like takbeer, tahleel, talbiyah, circumambulation, say (running or walking from Safa to Marwa four times and the other way three times) and standing believers are supposed to make during hajj have symbolic values and a lot of spiritual and psychological influences and wisdoms. Each individual directs himself towards Allah, in that special season when all of the slaves are invited and in that special place. Everybody presents Him his worship and needs, asks His forgiveness and attains a comprehensive slavery.


5.3. FIRST CALL TO HAJJ



Allah ordered Hazrat Ibrahim and Hazrat Ismael to build the Kaaba in about BC 2000. However, the place of the Kaaba which was demolished completely during Hazrat Noohs flood (the deluge) had not been known. Hazrat Jibril showed them the place of the Kaaba. Hazrat Ibrahim and Hazrat Ismael started to carry out the order of Allah. One of them chiseled stones and the other mixed the mortar. The place of the stone that was used as scaffolding in the building is called the Station of Ibrahim. Hazrat Ismael brought a black stone, which is reported to have been brought from Paradise from Abu Qubays Mountain. They placed that stone as a sign for the beginning of circumambulation in the wall of the Kaaba where it is now. It is stated that the Black Stone (Hajar al-Aswad) functions like a computer disc that records all of the shahadahs, greetings and kissing. The Kaaba is a structure made of four walls, empty inside.

After the building of the Kaaba finished completely, Allah said to Hazrat Ibrahim: This is my house. I showed you its place. I allowed you to construct a building there and ordered you the following: Do not associate anything with Me in worship. Clean My house for those who circumambulate it, those who perform prayers, bow or prostrate themselves. Proclaim hajj among men. Let them come on foot and mounted from distant places. Then Hazrat Jibril showed how the perform circumambulation and hajj. He said to Hazrat Ibrahim, Proclaim hajj among men Hazrat Ibrahim asked How should I proclaim? Hazrat Jibril said Proclaim, O men! Answer the call of your Lord! and repeated it three times. Hazrat Ibrahim asked: O my Lord! How can my voice reach men? Allah stated, You proclaim! It is my duty to make men hear it. Hazrat Ibrahim mounted on the scaffolding stone called the Station of Ibrahim; he put his hands on his ears and turned to four directions shouting: O men! Allah has made me build a house for Him and He orders you to perform hajj of it. O men! It was prescribed for you to perform hajj of the Kaaba. O slaves of Allah! Obey Allah! Answer the call of your Lord! Everything that heard that call said, Labbayk Allahumma labbayk! (O my Lord, Here I am at Your service, Here I am). Hazrat Ismael taught it to the people of Hijaz. (Hajj, 26).

After Hazrat Ibrahim, the polytheists made some changes on the form of performance and time of hajj. Our Prophet showed people how to perform hajj in practice, corrected the mistakes and said, Learn the rituals of hajj from me, perform hajj as I do. (Muslim, Hajj, 310)


5.4. OUR QIBLAH, THE KAABA



Some of the verses about the Kaaba in the Quran are as follows:

Certainly We have seen you (O Messenger) often turning your face to heaven (in expectation of a Revelation. Do not worry, for) We will surely turn you towards a direction that will please and satisfy you. (Now the time has come, so) turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. (And you, O believers,) turn your faces towards it wherever you are. Surely those who were given the Book (before, no matter if the hypocrites or the foolish among them deny or object to it) do know (the coming of this Prophet and this change of qiblah) to be true (commandments) from their Lord. God is not aware and unmindful of whatever they do. (al-Baqara, 144)

"Behold, the first House (of Prayer) established for humankind is the one at Makkah, a blessed place and a (center or focus of) guidance for all peoples. (Aal-e-Imran, 96)

The Kaaba is in the city of Makkah in Saudi Arabia. It is the house of Allah in the world; it is a holy place that Muslims circumambulate. We turn to the Kaaba when we perform prayers. Turning to the Kaaba is also called qiblah.


5.5. HOW HAJJ BECAME FARDH AND HOW TO PERFORM IT



Hajj, one of the five pillars of Islam, became fardh in the ninth year of Hijrah (the Emigration) and this event was mentioned in the Quran as follows:


. فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّـنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِسَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ
In it, there are clear signs (demonstrating that it is a blessed sanctuary, chosen by God as the center of guidance), and the Station of Abraham. Whoever enters it is in security (against attack and fear). Pilgrimage to the House is a duty owed to God by all who can afford a way to it. And whoever refuses or is ungrateful to God (by not fulfilling this command), God is absolutely independent of all creatures. (Aal-e-Imran, 97)



Our prophet Hazrat Muhammad stated the following in a hadith:

Islam is based on five principles: to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Prophet, to perform prayers, to pay Zakat (alms), to perform Hajj, to observe fast during the month of Ramadan. (Bukhari, Eeman, 2)

To perform hajj or umrah more than once are extra worships. However the Prophet (PBUH) states the following;

Perform hajj and umrah one after the other. These two eliminate poverty and sins as bellows eliminate the rust of the iron, gold and silver. The reward of an accepted hajj is but Paradise." (Tirmizi, Hajj, 2; Nasai, Hajj, 6; Ibn Majah Manasik, 3.)


5.6. WHEN IS HAJJ PERFORMED?



The time of hajj is expressed as follows in a verse:

الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلاَ رَفَثَ وَلاَ فُسُوقَ وَلاجِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَمَا تَفْعَلُواْمِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللّهُ وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُوْلِي الأَلْبَابِ
Hajj is in the months well-known. Whoever undertakes the duty of hajj in them, there is no sensual indulgence, nor wicked conduct, nor disputing during hajj. Whatever good you do (all that you are commanded and more than that, especially to help others), God knows it. Take your provisions for hajj (and do not be a burden upon others). In truth, the best provision is righteousness and piety, so be provided with righteousness and piety to guard against My punishment, O people of discernment! (al-Baqara, 197).

What is meant by Hajj is in the months well-known is the months Shawwal and Zul-Qaadah, and the first ten days of Zul-Hijjah. The rituals of hajj can only be performed in those months. The last day is the eve of Eid al-Adha and the first day of Eid al-Adha. Therefore someone who stands at Arafat at the specified time that is, in afternoon on the eve of Eid al-Adha and who circumambulates Kaaba on the first day of Eid al-Adha is regarded to have completed the fardh of hajj.


5.7. WHO IS HAJJ FARDH FOR?



The following are necessary for hajj to be fardh for a person: To be a Muslim, to be free and to be pubescent. In addition, it is necessary to know that hajj is fardh, to have enough money for his sustenance and for the sustenance of people he is obliged to care during the period when he goes to and comes back from hajj apart from his essential needs, to have enough money and means to go to and to come back from hajj and to have enough time to perform hajj.


5.8. THE CONDITIONS FOR CORRECT HAJJ



The following conditions are necessary for hajj to be valid.

1- To be a Muslim,
2- To be sane,
3- To perform hajj during the specified period,
4- To perform hajj at the specified places, that is, Arafat and the Kaaba.


5.9. ESSENTIALS OF HAJJ AND HOW TO PERFORM IT



1-Ihram,
2- To stand at Arafat,
3- To circumambulate Kaaba,
4- To perform say (running or walking from Safa to Marwa four times and the other way three times),
5- To have ones hair cut,
6- To observe the order of the essentials.


5.9.1. Entering ihram



Entering ihram is one of the essentials of hajj and umrah. A person who is to perform hajj or umrah takes a bath (ghusl) and covers himself with a two-piece garment called izar and rida. He makes a niyyah and recites talbiyah. Thus a person enters the state of ihram and prohibitions start. A person cannot perform hajj or umrah, or pass the Miqat region without entering the state of ihram.


Prohibitions of Ihram



Some actions and behaviors are prohibited for a person in the state of ihram. Those prohibitions start with intention and talbiyah. They go on until the person exits ihram. The following acts are forbidden for a person in the state of ihram:

1. Cut ones hair, or shave, cut or shave ones mustache
2. Remove any hair from ones body, trim nails; wear perfume or scents, put on lipstick, nail polish, use scented soap,
3. Put on clothes while in the state of ihram,
4. (For men) Cover ones head, feet and face, put on gloves, socks, heeled shoes or shoes with covered heels,
5. To have sexual intercourse, to say sensual words,
6. To commit a haram,
7. To argue with others, to say bad words, to do bad deeds, to hunt on the land, to help a hunter; however it is not forbidden to slaughter domestic animals like goats and sheep.
After exiting ihram, normal course of life goes on. Ihram prohibitions end.


5.9.2. Standing at Arafat



Arafat means a place defined, confessed, repented, or turned towards Allah. Hajjis (people who perform hajj) have to stand at Arafat even if it is for a moment. This is the first fardh of hajj.

The obligation of standing at Arafat is stated as follows in the verse:
Press on in multitude from where all the (other) people press on, and implore Gods forgiveness. Surely God is All-Forgiving and All Compassionate. (al-Baqara, 199)

Waqfah means standing, or halting for supplication. The prophet (PBUH) said, Hajj is Arafat. underlining the importance of standing at Arafat.

In order to stand at Arafat, which is one of the fardhs of hajj, people go to Arafat on the 9th of Zul-hijja before noon and stand on any place of Arafat at any time beginning from noon till dawn the next morning. Waqfah can be performed at any place at Arafat except the valley of Urana. To perform the fardh of waqfah it is enough to be in any time during that period at Arafat. However to stay there for a period during the day and the night is sunnah (something the prophet did). The Prophet says the following: There are some sins; only standing at Arafat can eliminate them. (Gazzali, Ihyau Ulumid-din, v.1. p.688.)


5.9.3. Muzdalifah



It is a place between Arafat and Mina where Hazrat Adam and Hazrat Eve met after they saw each other at Arafat. Therefore it is also called jam (coming together).

After standing at Arafat people go to Muzdalifah on the same day. It is wajib to spend the night in Muzdalifah. People can stand in any place in Muzdalifah. If the time for night prayer has entered, that days evening and night prayers are performed together.


5.9.4. Mina and Stoning the Devil



The stones that are collected in Muzdalifah for stoning the devil, which is one of the wajibs of hajj, are thrown at the specified places in Mina for the small, medium and large devils.


5.9.5. (Animal) Sacrifice, cutting hair and exiting ihram



After stoning the devil, sacrificial slaughter is performed. Then, the person has his hair cut and exits ihram. After that, he circumambulates the Kaaba, which is fardh and called tawaf ziyarah. So that person becomes a hajji.

Before leaving Makkah, he circumambulates the Kaaba, which is wajib and called tawaf al-wada.


5.9.6. Performing circumambulation



When people reach the Kaaba, they stop talbiyah at the gate. They recite takbeer, tahleel and salawat. When they start circumambulation they say niyyah (intention). They stand opposite Hajar al-Aswad (the Black Stone) and greet it and say,Bismillahi Allahu Akbar; then they start circumambulation left arm Facing the Kaaba. Each circle is called a shawt. 7 shawts make a tawaf. After tawaf is completed a prayer of two rakats for tawaf is performed at the Station of Ibrahim or near it. Then people go to the hill of Safa for say.


5.9.7. What does Say mean? How is it performed?



Say means going and coming back between the hills of Safa and Marwa seven times.

It is stated in the 158th verse of Chapter al-Baqara that say is wajib.

Say starts at the hill of Safa and ends at the hill of Marwa. The intention for say is expressed as follows: O Allah! I want to perform say of hajj or umrah, accept it from me, and make it easy for me. It is going to Marwa from Safa four times and coming to Safa from Marwa three times. The seventh coming to Marwa hill ends say. After say is completed, men exit ihram by having their hair cut, and women have a piece of their hair cut.


5.10. Violation of Hajj and umrah prohibitions



Violation by mistake, forgetting, deliberately or erroneously or any other reason necessitates punishment.


Reading



Hz. Muhammad (PBUH) recited the following sermon addressing more than one hundred thousand sahabas. The fundamentals of Islam are stated in the sermon, and it guides people in their relations with one another. This sermon forms the nucleus of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

FAREWELL SERMON

" O People,
Lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again.

Just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust.

Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone. All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others, and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly.

Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Truly, the usury of the Era of Ignorance has been laid aside forever, and the first usury I begin with is that which is due to my fathers brother Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib.. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity.

Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived, and the first such right I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi`ah ibn Al-Harith [a relative of the Prophet>.

O people, beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O people, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with anyone of whom you do not approve.

"O Believers! I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the Sunnah, and if you follow these you will never go astray.

Learn that every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim and that Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim that belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly.

O people:, Allah has apportioned to every deserving heir his share of the estate, and no deserving heir may accept a special bequest, and no special bequest may exceed a third of the estate.

A childs lineage is that of the [husband who owns the> bed, and adulterers shall be stoned. Whoever claims to be the son of someone besides his father or a bondsman who claims to belong to other than his masters shall bear the curse of Allah and the angels and all men: no deflecting of it or ransom for it shall be accepted from him.

O people, your Lord is One, and your father is one: all of you are from Adam, and Adam was from the soil. An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black, nor does a black have any superiority over a white except by piety and good action.. The noblest of you in Allahs sight is the most god-fearing.

O People. Listen and obey, though a mangled Abyssinian slave is appointed your ruler, provided he executes the book of Allah among you. "A person cannot be accused of somebody elses crime. Father cannot be accused of his sons crime; and son cannot be accused of his fathers crime. "Beware! Never commit the following four deeds :

1-Do not attribute any partners to Allah.
2-Take not life, which Allah hath made haram and untouchable, except by way of justice.
3-Do not commit adultery.
4-Do not commit theft.
"I was ordered to fight people until they say La ilaha illallah (there is no god but Allah). When they say it they protect their bloods and goods. Their reckoning belongs to Allah..

"O people! "Tomorrow they will ask you about me, what will you say?"
All of the sahaba said: "We witness that you carried out the duty of being the messenger of Allah, You carried out your task faithfully, and you advised us."
Then the Prophet (PBUH) raised his index finger up and then down pointing to the people listening to him and said:

O Allah, be my witness! O Allah, be my witness! O Allah, be my witness!"

As a result the Farewell Sermon of our Prophet has become a guide for people to follow as long as the world exists..



5.11. PLACES TO SEE AND VISIT DURING HAJJ




5.11.1. Places to see in Makkah



Makkah

It is the town where Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH), who was sent as a mercy for all the worlds, who is the sun of the two worlds, was born on April 20, 571. This town entertains millions of hajjis in the lunar month of Zul-hijja every year.

1. Tanim Mosque
Tanim Mosque is on Makkah Madinah road. Those who live within the predetermined miqats (places) enter ihram for hajj and umrah there.

Tanim Mosque is also called Hazrat Aisha Mosque because Hazrat Aisha entered ihram there.

2. Jannat al-Mualla

It is the oldest cemetery in Makkah. Those who die during hajj are buried there. A lot of sahaba including Hazrat Khadija are buried there.

3. Mount Hira

Mount Hira is located in the north of Makkah. There is a cave on the top of that mountain. It is the place where Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) worshipped and supplicated Allah before he received prophethood. There he worshipped in the religion of Hazrat Ibrahim. He received the first revelation through Hazrat Jıbril there.


READING TEXT



FIRST REVELATION

Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) spent days in the cave of Hira worshipping and contemplating. He had some dreams and the dreams came true. One day while he was worshipping, the angel came to him with a tablet and said: "Recite! Since he was ignorant and could not read and write he said he could not recite. Then the angel of revelation took him and squeezed him vehemently repeated the order 'Recite.' He received the same answer. The angel squeezed him again and repeated it three times. After the third squeeze he suddenly felt that he could recite what is on the tablet in the angels hand. He recited the following verses that are the introduction to the happiness book of the mankind:

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَق خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَم الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ ُ
"Read in and with the name of your Lord, Who has created human from a clot clinging (to the wall of the womb). Read, and your Lord is the All-Munificent, Who has taught (human) by the pen" (al-Alaq 1-4)

Hazrat Jibril carried out his duty, and after the revelation the Prophet (PBUH) went down Mount Hira and reached the house of Hazrat Khadija.

The above-mentioned verses actually outlined the program of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). They declared clearly that the religion he brought was based on using the pen, reading and having knowledge.

4. Arafat

It is a region 21 km away from Makkah. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) recited the Farewell Sermon there. Waqfah, standing, which is one of the constituents of hajj is performed there.

5. Mina

It is a place between Makkah and Arafat on the way connecting them. It is the place where the Prophet (PBUH) negotiated with people from Madinah in the first and second Aqaba Oaths. Sabir Mountain lies in the north of it. The place located between Aqaba Jamra and Muhassir Valley is named as Mina. Hazrat Ibrahim takes his son to Mina to sacrifice him, then a ram is sent to Hazrat Ibrahim by Allah to sacrifice.

6. Muzdalifa

It is a place in Makkah between Arafat and Mina, and where waqfah is performed after Arafat during hajj. It is also called jam, which means gathering, coming together. Hazrat Adam met Hazrat Eve there. It is the place where stones are collected for stoning the devil.

7. Mount Thawr

It is the mountain in which the cave which the Prophet and Hazrat Abu Bakr took refuge in and hid during their hijra (migration) from



5.11.2. Places to see in Madinah




1. Visiting the Prophets Grave



The most superior and honorable place in the world is the place where our Prophet is buried in Madinah. Therefore it is mandub (recommended) to visit his grave. There are hadith about the merits of visiting our Prophets grave. One of them is as follows: Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that our Prophet said:

My shafaa (intercession) will be certain for whoever visits my grave. (Kashf-ul Khafa, 2/250)

Our Prophet said the following about performing prayers in his mosque:
A prayer performed in this mosque of mine is more virtuous than one thousand prayers performed in other mosques except Masjid Haram (Kaaba) in Makkah. (Bukhari, Hajj, 94)


2. Jannat al-Baqi



It is the cemetery where people from the family of our Prophet and his sahaba are buried. Our Prophets son Ibrahim, who died while the Prophet was alive, and a lot of people from his family are buried there.


3. Quba Mosque



People from Madinah met the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) at the village of Quba, an hour away from Madinah, during his hijra from Makkah to Madinah. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) stayed as a guest for fourteen nights in the house of Banu Amr bin Awf. Meanwhile he built Quba Mosque that was stated in the Quran as the mosque founded on piety and devoutness and performed prayers there.


5.11.3. Other Places



During the staying period in Madinah the following places can be visited;

Masjid al-Qiblatayn (Mosque of the two Qiblas),
Uhud Cemetery (where the martyrs of Uhud are buried),
Seven Mosques, located in the place where Handaq battle took place.


5.12. ANIMAL SACRIFICE




5.12.1. The nature and importance of animal sacrifice



Animal sacrifice is pointed to both by verses and hadiths. The following is stated in a verse regarding it:

لَن يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَى مِنكُمْ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىمَا هَدَاكُمْ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
(Bear in mind that) neither their flesh nor their blood reaches God, but only piety and consciousness of God reach Him from you. We have put them in your service, so that you must exalt God because He has guided you. Give glad tidings to those devoted to doing good, aware that God is seeing them. (al-Hajj, 37).

Our Prophet (PBUH) states the following in a hadith:

No one can do something better than flowing blood for Allah on the day of Eid al-Adha. The slaughtered animal will come with its horns, hairs and pieces on the Day of Judgment. It reaches a high rank near Allah before its blood falls down to the ground. So do it in a pleasant way. (Canan, İbrahim, v.5.p.289)


5.12.2. What is sacrifice?



Sacrifice is slaughtering an animal with certain qualities at a certain time with the intention of worship. Sacrifice is slaughtering definite faultless animals in order to approach Allah, on the days of Eid al-Adha. A person shows with this worship that he can sacrifice the life Allah has given him for the sake of Allah. As a compensation for his life symbolically a person slaughters one of the animals defined by Allah. This worship, which is performed once a year, needs to be felt and lived at each moment of the life, in terms of spirit, brain, feelings and attitudes. As a matter of fact, sacrifice is the symbol of continuous effort made in the way to approach Allah.


5.12.3. By whom was the first sacrifice presented to Allah?



Allah states that sacrifice is existent in all of the divine religions:
For every believing community We have laid down sacrifice as an act of worship to be performed at a certain time and place. So they must pronounce Gods Name over what We have provided for them of cattle (while offering it). And (bear in mind that) your God is the One and Only God, to Him alone submit yourselves wholly. And give glad tidings to the deeply devoted, humble servants. (al-Hajj, 34)

The act of sacrifice that came to our Prophet through Hazrat Ibrahim and that was ordered to his ummah is slaughtering certain animals at a certain time by those who are rich enough.


5.12.4. The material and spiritual aspects of sacrifice



Sacrifice is a debt of gratitude, worship for the sake of Allah that approaches the rich and the poor to each other and eliminates the feeling of enmity between them. The country benefits from the material aspect of the sacrifice. The flesh, skin and parts of the sacrificed animals are used greatly. Thus people become happy both materially and spiritually.

Sacrifice is a financial worship that has many benefits in terms of both the individual and the community. A person shows that he obeys the order of Allah by sacrificing an animal. Approaching Allah spiritually, making sacrifices for Him, symbolizing the surrender to Allah are all present in the worship of sacrifice, like the other kinds of worship. According to our exalted religion Islam, there are numerous ways for men to establish closeness with the Creator. Sacrifice, which is present in all divine religions and which means something making closeness to Allah possible, is one of those ways. Besides, it is emphasized that what will reach Allah is not the blood and flesh of the sacrificed animal but the taqwa (piety) of people who sacrifice animals. Thus attention is drawn to the importance of essence and sincerity not the form.

Sacrifice keeps the spirit of brotherhood, mutual assistance and solidarity alive. It contributes to the realization of social justice. It is possible to see its role more clearly especially in the areas where poor people who has no or little money to buy meat live. Sacrifice makes the rich gain the pleasure and habit of spending money in solidarity and sharing with others for the sake of Allah; it liberates them from the illness of stinginess. It makes the poor thank Allah through the rich and liberates them from the pessimism and enmity about the distribution of the bounties in the world and makes them feel as members of the community.

What is important in the worship of animal sacrifice is not only to flow blood, eat meat or carry out a religious tradition but to sacrifice an animal for the sake of Allah in accordance with its wisdom.


5.12.5. What is the place of animal sacrifice in Islam?



فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ Pray to your Lord, and sacrifice. (Aa-Kawthar, 2 )

وَالْبُدْنَ جَعَلْنَاهَا لَكُم مِّن شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ لَكُمْ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ فَاذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا صَوَافَّ فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ
جُنُوبُهَا فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْقَانِعَ وَالْمُعْتَرَّ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرْنَاهَا لَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

And the cattle (including especially the camels) – We have appointed their sacrifice as among the public symbols and rituals set up by God for you, in which there is much good for you. When they (the camels) are lined up in standing position for sacrifice, pronounce Gods Name over them. When they fall down on their sides and fully die ready to be eaten, eat of their meat and feed the poor such as (beg not but) live in contentment and such as beg with due humility. We have put the sacrificial animals in your service, so that you may give thanks to God. (al-Hajj, 36).

The Prophet states the following in a hadith :

If a person who is rich enough does not sacrifice an animal should not come to our mosque.

Animal sacrifice starts on the first day of Eid al-Adha after the sunrise following the Eid Prayer and goes on till sunset on the third day of Eid al-Adha.

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