An expression which is used for the ten notable people from the Companions who were given the glad tidings of Paradise by the Prophet (pbuh) while they were alive. There is no proof on this subject in the Holy Qur’an but this subject is definite by the sound hadiths of the Messenger of and is a natural event according to the general principles of Islam. The expressions “Ashara al-Mubashshara” and “al-Mubashshirun bi’l-Jannah” were used relating to the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. The famous ten companions are these: Hz. Abu Bakr (d.634), Hz. Umar (d.643), Hz. Uthman (d.655), Hz. Ali(d.660), Hz. Abdurrahman b. Awf (d.652); Hz. Abu Ubayda b. al-Jarrah(d.639), Hz. Talha b. Ubaydullah (d.656), Hz. Zubayr b. Awwam (d.656), Hz. Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas (d.674), Hz. Sa’d b. Zayd (d.671). These mighty companions have unique charactersitics. For example: These personalities who were the first people to become Muslims in Mecca contributed greatly to The Holy Prophet and the cause of Islam. All of these companions attended the Battle of Badr, which was the first great jihad. They pledged allegiance to the Holy Prophet under the tree and promised to protect him and Islam forever on the day of Hudaybiya. They did not avoid fighting for Allah in the name of Islam against their close relatives. Some of the hadith-scholars have started their works with the hadiths that these ten companions reported. Also, some books that are only about “Ashara al-Mubashshara” were written. The virtues of them and that they were given the glad tidings of Paradise by the Messenger of Allah are written in sound hadith books. (Tirmidhi, Manaqib,25; Ahmad b. Hanbal, I, 193)
Most Read in the Category of Companions
If a man kills a Believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (for ever): and the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him. (Nisa 93)
If a person, whether he is a believer or an unbeliever, kills a believer intentionally, due to his belief, his punishment is going to Hell. He will be punished there for a long time, maybe forever because Allah has got very furious with him, has damned him and has prepared a great torture for him, not regarding him worthy of mercy.
The reason of the wars among the Companions is to find the truth. Both parties fought for the truth. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a hadith, "The state of these two men is amazing in the presence of Allah: One of them kills the other but both of them go to Paradise. (Sunan Nasai; p. 411)"
Due to a question of ijtihad, a believer kills another believer but both of them go to Paradise since both of them are people of the truth. For instance, there were civil wars during the periods of Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Muawiyah and a Muslim killed another Muslim. Both of them went to Paradise because they fought for the sake of religion and based on an ijtihad.
How should Muslims see the disagreements that took place among the Companions?
The attribute of "ismah" (innocence), that is, "protection from sins through divine assistance” belongs to the prophets only. Only prophets are infallible. Since the Companions do not have this attribute, it cannot be said that the Companions never made mistakes. However, a Muslim does not exit Islam when he makes a mistake; likewise, a Companion does not lose the honor of being a Companion when he makes a mistake.
All of the mujtahids of four madhhabs evaluated the disagreements and conflicts among the Honorable Companions as follows: All of the Companions are mujtahids. They have the right before everybody else to make ijtihad regarding the issues that are not stated clearly in the Quran and hadiths. It is a definite rule in the methodology of fiqh that if someone has the right to make ijtihad, he does not have to act in accordance with the ijtihad of another mujtahid. The conflicts, arguments and battles that took place among them arose from the difference of ijtihad. Their own desires and wishes had nothing with their disagreements because they had been freed from the bad attributes like hatred, enmity and animosity by the religious talks of the Prophet. Their souls were purified from such mean qualities; and they became pure and lofty.
Yes, each one of the Companions was a mujtahid in establishing the religion of Islam. As it is known, if a mujtahid is right in his ijtihad, he gains two rewards; if he is wrong in his ijtihad, he gains one reward. The ijtihads of those distinguished companions, who sacrificed their property and lives for Islam and who had no other goal but to exalt and spread Islam, aimed to exalt Islam. Their love and determination for Islam was so great that they did not refrain from expressing the view that was contrary to that of the Prophet during the Battle of Uhud. They stated their view clearly by saying, "We think that the success of Islam depends on this view." When most of the Companions had the opposite view, the Prophet (pbuh) had to do what they wanted. The events that took place later justified the Prophet. Not even a single verse was sent down by God Almighty to warn the Companions although the Quran was still being sent down then. Allah did not warn them with any verses; on the contrary, He ordered His Prophet to continue asking their views as he did previously. The Messenger of Allah did not blame them; he still loved them and showed compassion to them; he continued asking their ideas as he was ordered by Allah. Even only this incident is enough to show clearly that the Companions were appreciated by Allah and His Messenger and that they had the right to make ijtihad.
Now let us think justly. How can we dare to judge them because of the disagreements among them although neither Allah nor the Messenger of Allah warned them because they made a different ijtihad from that of the Prophet? It is necessary for a person who has the slightest degree of conscience, foresight and understanding not to try to commit a sin like that.
If we dare to transgress our limits and try to judge those distinguished people, who sacrificed their blood for the establishment of Islam, and justify some of them while criticizing others, we will not besmirch those stars of guidance but pave the way for ruining ourselves.
Besides, the people that we judge are the most distinguished ones of the Companions. Some of them were given the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise while they were alive. Those people, whom we talk about, were praised by the Quran and the Prophet.
We should never forget about it and we should be very cautious about the disagreements among the Companions; we should avoid transgressing our limits.
If the disagreement among the Companions had not been legitimate and reasonable, a command to prevent them would have been sent down. As a matter of fact, when the Companions spoke loudly in the presence of the Prophet (pbuh) the following verse was sent down to warn them:
"O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not." (al-Hujurat, 2)
The believers are asked to avoid having bad thoughts about others:
"Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?" (al-Hujurat, 12)
In the verse, God Almighty informs us that to backbite a believer is as ugly as to eat the flesh of a dead person and that it does not fit a believer. You can think about the degree of the risk of the issue when the believer that is backbitten is a Companion, and one of the most distinguished ones.
In a hadith, the Messenger of Allah said, "Backbiting eats up good deeds just as fire eats up wood”, warning us severely about the issue.
It behooves us to listen to those truths and act accordingly both for the safety of our life in the hereafter and for the sake of the future of Islam. A believer is prohibited from thinking bad things about another believer; the risk of thinking bad things about the Companions, who were the associates and army mates of the Prophet and who were the means of guidance for believers, and the most distinguished ones of the Companions, will be understood clearly.
The safest way for the clever and reasonable people is to avoid sounding off regarding the issue. It will be easily understood when someone thinks about it a little that we were not sent to the world to analyze the problems among the Companions and to judge them as right and wrong. It cannot be the aim of our creation to have an idea about the issue. We were created to be a proper slave of Allah not to talk about that issue. That is, our religion calls us to fulfill our duties not to analyze the disagreements among the Companions.
The Companions, from the Caliphs to the ordinary ones, received the same sustenance and shared the same excitement. They worked very hard, day and night, secretly and openly, for the development and spread of Islam. They made jihad and sacrificed their blood and lives. They opposed their tribes for the sake of the Quran and the Prophet; they sacrificed their wives, children and property. They preferred the Prophet to their own selves, wives, children and parents. They shed their blood for the foundation of Islam.
They contributed to the worldly and otherworldly bliss of the Muslims from their age to the Day of Judgment. It is a debt of justice and conscience for us to feel grateful to them, to pray and to praise them.
Islamic scholars expressed different views regarding the definition of "sahabi (companion)". Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani dealt with the issue in his book called "al-Isaba"; he explained the sound views regarding the issue at length. We will give a summary of his study here.
Ibn Hajar says, "The best definition of sahabi I found is as follows:
"A sahabi is a person who believed in the Prophet (pbuh), who came together with the Prophet and who died as a Muslim."
According to the generalization "who came together with the Prophet " mentioned in the definition, a person who sat in the same place as him for a short or long time, who reported or did not report a hadith from him, who joined or did not join a war with him, who saw him only once even if he did not sit in the same place as him or a person who did not see him because he was blind or due to some other reasons is called a sahabi.
According to the phrase "who believed in the Prophet" mentioned in the definition, a person who met the Prophet (pbuh) when he was an unbeliever and who became a Muslim afterwards but did not see the Prophet (pbuh) again is not regarded as a "sahabi".
According to the phrase "died as a Muslim" mentioned in the definition, a person who met the Prophet (pbuh), believed in him, then became an unbeliever again and died as an unbeliever is not regarded as a "sahabi". There were some people like that though they were very few. On the other hand, a person who met the Prophet (pbuh), believed in him, then became an unbeliever again and became a believer again is regarded as a "sahabi" whether he met the Prophet again or not.
It is based on the soundest view preferred by hadith scholars like the teacher of Bukhari, Ahmad bin Hanbal and the scholars who followed them. On the other hand, there are some different views preferred by very few scholars. (al-Isaba, 1/7-8)
After these explanations, different definitions and evaluations regarding the issue are as follows:
First, we will list the definitions of sahabi in summary; then, we will mention the most preferred and accepted view.
1) Sahabi: A person who spent some time with the Prophet (pbuh), reported hadiths from him and knew about him.(1) Scholars of Usul (Principles of Religion) and some other scholars hold this view. (2)
2) Sahabi: A person who spent one or two years with the Prophet (pbuh) and joined one or two battles with him. This definition is usually reported from Said b. al-Musayyab.(3) However, according to this definition, many people who are known as sahabis will be excluded. Besides, it is stated that this narration is weak.(4)
3) Sahabi: A person who spent a long time with the Prophet (pbuh) and reported hadiths from him.(5)
4) Sahabi: A person who saw the Prophet (pbuh) as a Muslim and a sane person who has reached the age of puberty. (6)
5) Sahabi: A person who lived in the same period as the Prophet (pbuh) as a Muslim even if he did not see the Prophet (pbuh).(7)
6) Sahabi: A Muslim who had private (exclusive) talks with the Prophet (pbuh). This condition was put forward by Mawardi.(8)
7) Sahabi: "A person who believed in the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), met him and died as a Muslim." This is the definition about which Ibn Hajar said,"the truest knowledge that I was able to get".(9)
Bukhari did not put forward the condition of dying as a Muslim; he said, "A Muslim who talked to the Prophet (pbuh) and saw him is a Sahabi."(10) Ayni says the doubts that can come to the mind can be eliminated by adding the phrase "and died as a Muslim" to this definition.(11)
By using the phrase “who met him”, the definition of sahabi made by Ibn Hajar includes those who spent a long time or a short time with the Prophet (pbuh), those who reported or did not report hadiths from him, those who joined or did not join a battle with him and those who saw him or did not see him due to some reasons like blindness.(12)
It is understood from the phrase "who believed in the Prophet (pbuh)" in the definition that a person who saw the Prophet (pbuh) when he was an unbeliever and became a Muslim after that is not regarded as a sahabi if he did not see the Prophet after becoming a Muslim again (13) like the envoy of the kaiser.(14)
A person who saw the Prophet (pbuh) just after he died and before he was buried is not regarded as a sahabi like Abu Zuayb Khuwaylid b. Khalid al-Huzali.(15)
In the definition Ibn Hajar made, the condition of "believing in the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)" indicates that the People of the Book (Christians and Jews) are not regarded as sahabi if they saw the Prophet Muhammad since they believed in other prophets. As a matter of fact, the case of the People of the Book who saw him before his prophethood is the same. Ibn Hajar says it is a case of probability and gives the example of the priest Bahira.(16)
There are some scholars who say that the jinn and angels who saw the Prophet (pbuh) and believed in him are regarded as sahabi.(17)
A person who met the Prophet (pbuh) as a Muslim, then became an unbeliever - God forbid - again and died as an unbeliever is not regarded as a sahabi. However, if he becomes a Muslim again, he is regarded as a sahabi even if he died before seeing the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) like Qurra b. Maysara and Asas b. Qays.(18)
There are some scholars who put forward meeting the Prophet (pbuh) at the age of discretion (tamyiz) as a condition of being a sahabi but reaching the age of puberty is not a condition. There are some disagreements regarding the issue. However, that Hasan and Husayn, the grandsons of the Prophet (pbuh), and many other children are regarded as sahabis serves as evidence that the age of discretion is enough to be regarded as a sahabi. It is disputable whether the children that the Prophet (pbuh) prayed for, put dates, etc in their mouths or gave names are regarded as sahabis or not.(19)
When a saint meets the spirit of the Prophet (pbuh) or when a person sees the Prophet (pbuh) in his dream, that person does not become a sahabi. It is necessary to see him while he was alive in this world.(20)
1. Tadribu'r-Rawi, II/211; Umdatu'l-Qari, XVI/169; al-Isaba. I/8.
2. Those who hold this view base their view on the lexical meaning of the verb sahabi. In that case, many people are not regarded as sahabis. However, hadith scholars say, "A person who saw the Prophet (pbuh) even for a moment is regarded as a sahabi if he died as a Muslim." see (Umdatu'l-Qari, XVI/169; al-Isaba, I/8).
3. Tadribu'r-Rawi, II/211; al-Kifaya; 50-51; Umdatu'l-Qari; XVI/169; al- Baisu'l- Khasis, 152.
4. Umdatu'l-Qari, XVI/169.
5. Tadribu'r-Rawi, II/212; Umdatu'l-Qari, XVI/169.
6. Umdatul-Qari, XVI/169.; al-Isaba, I/8; Tadribu'r-Rawi, II/212.
7. Umdatul-Qari, XVI/169; Tadribu'r-Rawi, II/212.
8. Tadribu'r-Rawi, II/213.
9. al-Isaba, I, 7; Umdatul-Qari, XVI, 169; al-Kifaya 151; Tadribu'r-Rawi II, 210.
10. Bukhari, Sahih, Fadail-i Ashabu'n-Nabi, 1, IV, 188.
11. Umdatul-Qari, XVI, 169.
12. al-Isaba, I, 7; Tadribu'r-Rawi, II, 210; Umdatul-Qari, XVI, 169.
13. al-Isaba ibid
14. Tadribu'r-Rawi, II, 209.
15. Tadribu'r-Rawi, ibid; al-Isaba, I, 8.
16. al-Isaba, I, 7.
17. al-Isaba, ibid.
18. Abu Hanifa and Imam Shafii hold the view that exiting Islam eradicates the honor of being a sahabi and that it is necessary to see the Prophet (pbuh) again in order to regain that honor. See Tadribu'r-Rawi, II, 209; al-Isaba, I, 8.
19. Tadribu'r-Rawi, II, 209; al-Isaba. I, 7-9.
20. Fathu'l-Bari, XIV, 136; Tadribu'r-Rawi, II, 210.
Suffa was the place where the Companions were educated during the time of the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet himself took care of the Companions who studied there. The people met the needs of food and drinks of the Companions there.
Suffa means yard, canopy, etc. The poor and single Companions lived in the yard and canopy of Masjid an-Nabawi; that is why they were called “Ashab as-Suffa (People of the Yard). Before the suffa in the mosque, the single muhajirs without families stayed in different places. The fact that they stayed in different places caused difficulties in meeting their needs. Therefore, they were brought together in Masjid an-Nabawi when their number increased. The yard of the mosque was allocated to them for their accommodation. The yard was covered by palm leaves to provide shade. Thus, the aim was to protect them from rain, the sun and cold to a certain extent.
Suffa was in the south of Masjid an-Nabawi until the qiblah was changed. When the qiblah was changed, it was moved to the north. The people of Suffa were also called "Adyafu'l- Islam= Guests of Islam” or "Adyafu'l- Muslimin = Guests of Muslims" since they were regarded as temporary guests.
Members of Ashab as-Suffa:
- They were primarily single muhajirs without any families. For, married muhajirs were settled in the houses of married Ansar.
- Some single people who had houses in Madinah also stayed in Suffa in order to see the Prophet (pbuh) more often and learn more things from him. Abdullah b. Umar was one of them.
- Some people from various Arab tribes became Muslims and migrated to Madinah; some of them stayed there and returned to their tribes after learning Islam.
- The delegates and envoys coming from distant places were entertained there.
- That is, Suffa was used as a kind of guesthouse.
- There was also a part of Suffa allocated for women. This part was called “Suffatu'n- Nisa = Suffa of Women”.
The Conditions of Leaving Suffa:
- Leaving due to death.
- End of temporary staying in Madinah (for instance, those who came to Madinah from different Arab tribes; and the delegates that came to Madinah).
- Those who got married left Suffa. Hz. Prophet helped the single Muslims staying there to get married.
The Abolition of Suffa:
It is not definitely known whether Suffa continued to exist there after the death of the Prophet (pbuh). It is probable that the need for Suffa ended when the Muslims got rich as a result of the conquests during the period of Hz. Umar and when the people of Suffa were put on salary. In addition, when Masjid an-Nabawi was expanded during the period of Hz. Umar and Hz. Uthman, the place where Suffa was located became part of the mosque.
-Bukhari, Riqaq, 17; Musnad, III515; Kattani, Taratib, I/448, 474, 476; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Hudud, 12; Nasai Sunan, Qat’u’s- Sariq, 4.
- Hamidullah, İslam Peygamberi, II/80.
(For detailed information, see Editör Vecdi AKYÜZ, Bütün Yönleriyle Asr-ı Saadet’te İslam, I-VI, Beyan Yayınları, İstanbul 1994. IV, 385- 391)
It is stated in the Quran that all of the Companions are people of Paradise.
It is stated in the Quran and hadiths that all of the Companions are people of Paradise. One of those verses is as follows:
"But to all [those who spent (freely) and fought, before the Victory, (with those who did so later)] has Allah promised a goodly (reward)." (al-Hadid, 57/10)
Another verse indicating that they are all people of Paradise is as follows:
"…Unto all (in faith) hath Allah promised good" (an-Nisa, 4/95)
God Almighty states the following in verse 18 of the chapter of al-Fath:
"Allah's Good Pleasure was on the Believers when they swore Fealty to thee under the Tree."
They were the Companions of the Prophet; and "Allah gave them tranquility (that is power to their hearts) and He knows their love, loyalty and sincerity toward you and gives them the glad tiding that He will reward them with a conquest and victory in near future." This verse indicates the allegiance paid under the tree of sidrah mentioned in the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah.
It is seen that Allah is pleased with each Companion and that their hearts are pure and sincere; that tranquility was sent down into their hearts and that they are informed that they will be rewarded with a conquest in near future is evidence that their ranks and glory are high.
Since Allah's knowledge is pre-eternal and post-eternal, He knows what will happen and how. Therefore, since He is pleased with the Companions, it means He will be pleased with them in the future too.
Accordingly, it can be said that, all Companions are people of Paradise. However, in some hadiths, the names of certain Companions are mentioned and it is stated that they are people of Paradise.
The Companions did not have the attribute of ismah (innocence) like prophets. Islamic scholars agree on the justice of the Companions. That is, they do not attribute lies to the Prophet; they do not work against the religion. However, since they are human beings, they can commit sins in everyday life.
It is completely wrong to understand the phrase "the justice of the Companions" as "innocence/infallibility". This expression does not indicate their innocence but their reliability about conveying the religion to the following generations orally and by actions in the ideal way.
The Companions are not free and away from sins. Nobody among Ahl as-Sunnah attribute infallibility to them.
Abu Dharr al-Ghifari himself wanted to go to Rabadha and Hz. Uthman approved it.
Abu Dharr was a poor and ascetic person who liked living alone. He did not value the world. Therefore, the Prophet gave him the name "Masihul-Islam".
As a matter of fact, after the death of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Abu Dharr broke off his ties with the world and started to live in seclusion. The vineyards and orchards of Madinah were nothing but ruins for him. When Hz. Abu Bakr died, Abu Dharr retired completely. He could not put up with the pains in his heart. He left Madinah and settled in Damascus.
During the period of Hz. Uthman, the conquests increased and the traditions of the people in the conquered areas started to affect Islam. Consequently, the administrators started to lead a worldly life, abandoning plainness. They started to build palaces and mansions and employed servants. The plainness of the periods of the Messenger of Allah, Hz. Abu Bakr and Hz. Umar started to be forgotten.
One of those who did not forget the plainness of those periods was Abu Dharr. He insisted on leading a plain life. He warned those who chose to led a luxurious life; he told them that this state would bring them nothing but evil and that they would be called to account for them one day. He often read the following verse as evidence:
"...And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah: announce unto them a most grievous penalty." (at-Tawba, 9/34)
He always criticized the lifestyles of Hz. Muawiyah and his administrators. Therefore, people complained to Hz. Uthman about Abu Dharr saying that he caused mischief. Hz. Uthman called Abu Dharr to Madinah. After Abu Dharr came to Madinah, he sent a message to Hz. Uthman saying, "I do not need any worldly possessions." Abu Dharr’s arrival in Madinah affected and surprised people a lot. However, Abu Dharr did not stay in Madinah very long; he went to Rabadha near Makkah and settled there. Hz. Uthman approved this act of Abu Dharr’s. He gave him a few sheep and a camel and told him to use them as his sustenance.
- If a person does not accept the caliphate of the first three caliphs, he does not exit the religion of Islam but he becomes a person of bid'ah.
- The consensus or the practice of the Companions regarding an issue can be used as evidence regarding that issue.
- All Companions are mujtahids. If they are wrong in their ijtihads, they gain one thawab; if they are right, they gain two thawabs.
Besides, it is not possible to regard the consensus of the Companions regarding a very important issue like the caliphate as a mistake.
1) The State of the Four Caliphs among Other Companions
After stating that the most virtuous people among the ummah are the Companions, at-Taftazani explains that Hz. Abu Bakr received the nickname of as-Siddiq (the veracious) because of approving the prophethood and Ascension of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) without any hesitation. (1) This explanation is short and not very clear but we see one of the reasons why Hz. Abu Bakr is the most virtuous one among the Companions. It is his high quality in belief and surrendering, his unshakable loyalty to Allah and His Messenger. In addition, there are other reasons that make him the most virtuous one among the Companions and ummah. Issues like his being one of the first believers, doing a lot of favors, his share in the belief of the people coming after him, supporting the Messenger of Allah with his wealth and life at the most dangerous times, his understanding of Islam and worshipping elevate him to the highest rank among the ummah and Companions.
After that,at-Taftazani states that Hz. Umar was given the nickname al-Faruq (the one who distinguishes between right and wrong) because he distinguished between right and wrong in his decrees and cases.(2) It is indicated here that he surrenders himself to the truth, that is, to Islam, that he regards the truth as superior to anything and that this characteristic of his is outstanding. When he became a Muslim, he challenged Quraysh and hence the whole world without fearing and by risking death.(3) It is understood how he supports the truth and how strongly he believes with this characteristic of his. It becomes apparent that one of the reasons for his superiority is this.(4)
Then, he mentions that Hz. Uthman married Ruqayya, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah first, that he married Umm Kulthum, another daughter of the Messenger of Allah when Ruqayya died, that he was called Dhun-nurayn (the owner of two luminous lights) because of it and that the Prophet said to him, "If I had another daughter, I would marry her off to you."(5) We understand from it that the Prophet liked Hz. Uthman very much and that he was pleased with him. He does not like anyone acting on his own soul and pleasures. The friends of the Prophet (pbuh) are believers and pious people. Yes, if he likes Hz. Uthman, loves him and states that he is pleased with him with his statement, we also need to follow the Messenger of Allah and like and love Hz. Uthman; we need to have positive ideas about him and we must not criticize him. Since the Prophet liked him and married his daughters off to him, it means he proved that he was a believer and a pious person. For, believers do not marry their daughters off to an unbeliever. It means he was a believer. He was a pious person (muttaqi) with the definition of the Prophet. Even the angels felt modest in his presence.(6)
After that, at-Taftazani states that Hz. Ali al-Murtada is one of the slaves of Allah who worshipped Him and that he made this apparent through his sincerity.(7) The reason why Nasafi and other Ahl as-Sunnah kalam scholars mention Hz. Ali as al-Murtada is to show that Allah and His Messenger were pleased with him. (8) That is, Allah and His Messenger love Hz. Ali very much. He liked both of them, too. He gained their consent. This state of Hz. Ali's is mentioned in hadiths.(9) Taftazani points out that Hz. Ali's worshipping, sincerity and ascetism were outstanding. A person whom Allah and His Messenger love, and are pleased with and who is the son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah is definitely a believer and a pious person; he deserves to be praised and loved. Besides, Allah states in a verse that he is the friend of the Messenger of Allah.(10)
According to at-Taftazani, salaf (the Companions, most of them and tabiun) listed the order of the superiority of the four caliphs based on the order of their caliphate. Taftazani states the following decree: "It is apparent that they would not have done so if they had not had any evidence about it."(11)
2) Implications from Some Hadiths about the Order of Superiority of the Four Caliphs:
In fact, if hadiths are viewed with this issue in mind, it will be seen that there implications of the degrees and order of the caliphs in them:
Muhammad b. Hanafiyya's father asked Hz. Ali, "Who is the best man after the Messenger of Allah?" Hz. Ali answered it as Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar and Hz. Uthman.(12) If the hadith about the people who were given the glad tiding of Paradise is viewed, it will be seen that first Hz. Abu Bakr then Hz. Umar and then Hz. Uthman arrived at Aris Well.(13) This might be an implication of their order of virtue. Once, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar and Hz. Uthman were on Mount Uhud and it started to shake; the Prophet (pbuh) said, "O Uhud! Stop! There is a prophet, a siddiq and two martyrs on you."(14)
Bukhari mentions the names of the Companions in this hadiths in the order of "Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman"; similarly, the Messenger of Allah mentioned Hz. Abu Bakr (Siddiq) first, and Hz. Umar and Hz. Uthman after him. Is it not an implication of his superiority that he mentioned Hz. Abu Bakr first? Besides, he stated through this hadith that Hz. Umar and Hz. Uthman would be martyred.
In another hadith reported by Hz. Ali, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,
"I, Abu Bakr and Umar were together. I, Abu Bakr and Umar worked together. I, Abu Bakr and Umar walked together."(15)
This shows that Hz. Abu Bakr comes first followed by Hz. Umar among the ummah and Companions in terms of superiority.
In a hadith included in Bukhari, the following narration from Abdullah b. Umar exists: He said,
"We did not regard anybody as equal to Abu Bakr, then Umar and then Uthman. After that, we did not compare any Companions of the Messenger of Allah in terms of superiority."(16)
When this hadith is taken into consideration, a few aspects come to mind:
Firstly, as a scholar among the Companions,Abdullah b. Abbas (death H. 68) mentions something that is accepted by almost everybody and known by everybody. It is the fact that no Companion is regarded equal to the four caliphs, primarily Hz. Abu Bakr.(17) The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) definitely knew that his Companions thought like that. If he had not known so, he would have corrected their views.
Secondly, when Abdullah b. Abbas (ra) reports the hadith, he mentions Hz. Abu Bakr first and the other caliphs included in the ten Companions who were given the glad tiding of Paradise. It is understood from this that Hz. Abu Bakr is the first one in terms of virtue and that Abdullah b. Abbas also holds this view.
Thirdly, according to this hadith, the four caliphs are superior to all of the other Companions; the order of superiority among them is in accordance with this order.
Fourthly, the Companions of the salaf regarded the caliphs mentioned here superior to all Companions but they did not discuss about the superiority of the other Companions among themselves. This issue occurred afterwards.(18)
The order of the caliphate of the four caliphs, their activities in their caliphate and the incidents happening in their caliphate can be regarded as implications of their virtues.
After discussing the issue, at-Taftazani states the following and accepts the order of their caliphate as it was:
"Salaf (the Companions and Tabiun) hesitated about regarding Hz. Uthman superior to Hz. Ali but they regarded the superiority of Hz. Abu Bakr and Hz. Umar over the others, love of the two sons-in-law of the Prophet (pbuh) (Hz Uthman and Hz. Ali) and acting justly as signs of Ahl as-Sunnah."(19)
Then, he explains how each of them became caliphs. According to him, there is consensus about the caliphate of the four caliphs."The wars (Jamal and Siffin) that occurred during the caliphate of Hz. Ali was not due to disagreement about his caliphate but mistakes of ijtihad."(20)
As it is seen, Taftazani views the wars during the period of Hz. Ali as wars that occurred due to mistakes of ijtihad just like the other Ahl as-Sunnah scholars. He does not criticize or condemn the Companions. On the contrary, he elevates them. Taftazani does not accuse them of being sinners or aberration. He mentions the correctness of Hz. Ali's ijtihad and the mistake of Muawiya's ijtihad. Mujtahids gain thawabs even when they make mistakes; therefore, Muawiya is not accused of aberration and being a sinner here; he is mentioned as a mujtahid in a good way. For, a mujtahid who makes a mistake cannot be accused of aberration and being a sinner (fasiq).(21)
Badiuzzaman Said Nursi states that some verses imply the four caliphs to replace the position of the Messenger of Allah after his death in the order of caliphate and that they inform about them with their most famous characteristics:
The beginning of the last verse of the chapter of al-Fath foretells explicitly the lofty qualities and virtues that made the Companions the most elevated of humankind after the prophets; and allusively it indicates the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, who would succeed to the Prophet’s (pbuh) position after his death through the institution of the Caliphate, and foretells the fine attributes which were what most distinguished each of them and marked them out. It is as follows:
“And those who are with him” alludes to Abu Bakr the Veracious, who was distinguished by being among the Prophet’s ((pbuh) special followers and party to his conversation, and again being included among his special followers by being the first to die.
While “are strong against the unbelievers” points to Hz. Umar, who in the future would cause the countries of the globe to tremble at his conquests, and with his justice would descend on tyrants like a thunderbolt.
And “compassionate among each other” gives news of Hz. Uthman, who in the future when the most serious dissension was being fomented, would sacrifice his own life and spirit out of his perfect compassion so that the blood of Muslims should not be spilt; he preferred to be martyred wrongfully while reading the Qur’an.
And “You will see them bow and prostrate themselves in prayer, seeking grace from Allah and His good pleasure” tells that with his complete worthiness to undertake the Caliphate and government, and his heroism, and his choosing perfect asceticism, worship, poverty, and frugality, and whose bowing and prostrating in prayer was corroborated by everyone, Hz. Ali was not responsible for his position in the future and the wars and strife in which he was involved, and that his intention and wish were for divine favor.
"This is their similitude in the Towrah.” It cites these qualities of the Companions that are mentioned in the Torah, which for an unlettered person like the Prophet (pbuh) belonged to the World of the Unseen.
"... And their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick and it stands on its own stem (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at him...”(al-Fath, 48/29)
The Companions will seem weak and small number at first but within a short time they will grow like seeds and acquire such strength and loftiness that they will cause the unbelievers to swallow their hatred and choke.
The verses predict the following: due to their weakness and small number, the Companions accepted the Treaty of Hudaybiya, but within a short time they will grow and acquire such strength and loftiness that, planted by the Hand of Power in the field of the face of the earth, they will multiply in most elevated, powerful, fruitful, and plentiful fashion. This is true in comparison with the shoots of mankind at that time, since these latter are short, weak, defective, and scant due to neglect and heedlessness. The Companions will grow strong causing illustrious governments to rage at them in envy, jealousy, and anger.
The prediction also makes the following further slight hint: it indicates through the word “forgiveness” that, although while praising the Companions’ excellent qualities they have been promised the greatest rewards, in the future they will commit serious errors due to strife. For, forgiveness indicates the existence of faults. At that time, it will be forgiveness, the greatest bounty, that the Companions will want. (22)
Implication for the Four Caliphs
The following verse also indicates the four caliphs to come after the Messenger of Allah just like the last verse of the chapter of al-Fath:
"All who obey Allah and the Messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of Allah― of the Prophets (who teach) the sincere (lovers of Truth), the witnesses (who testify), and the Righteous (who do good): ah! How a beautiful fellowship!"(an-Nisa, 4/69)
It is as follows:
The verse above describes the people of the Straight Path and the groups of the Prophets, the caravan of the veracious, the community of the martyrs, the class of the Righteous, and those who follow them. These are the members of mankind who truly receive the divine bounties. Furthermore, having indicated explicitly the most perfect of those five groups in the world of Islam, it indicates their leaders and chiefs by mentioning their well-known attributes. In addition, with a flash of miraculousness giving news of the Unseen, it specifies one aspect those chiefs’ positions in the future.
Yes, “of the Prophets” looks explicitly to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), and the phrase “the veracious” looks to Abu Bakr, the veracious. It also indicates that he would be second after the Prophet (pbuh) and first to succeed him, and be known by the special title of veracious and be seen at the head of all honest and upright people.
Then “the Martyrs” refers to Hz. Umar, Hz. Uthman, andHz. Ali (May Allah be pleased with all of them) together. It intimates that the three of them would succeed to the Caliphate after the veracious one, and that the three of them would be martyred and the merits of martyrdom added to their other virtues.
“The Righteous” alludes to distinguished persons like the Companions of Suffa, Badr and Ridwan.
While with its explicit meaning, “And how goodly a company are these!” encourages others to follow them, and with its implicit meaning, by showing the generation that succeeded them to be honoured and illustrious, it alludes to Hz. Hasan, who as the fifth Caliph affirmed the hadith
“After me the Caliphate will last thirty years”(23) – in order to show its great value despite its brief duration. (24)
The word "goodly" in the verse “And how goodly a company are these!” is expressed with the Arabic word "hasuna". In Arabic, both Hasan and Hasuna are written with the same letters.
As it is seen, there are a lot of signs about the unknown in the verses the Quran clearly or indirectly. They indicate the order of the caliphate of the four caliphs.
(1) Hashiyatul-Kastali p. 177-178.
(2) ibid, p. 178.
(3) Tarikhul-Islam, p. 172 ff.
(4) The Messenger of Allah stating the religiousness of Hz. Umar due to a dream Sahihul-Bukhari, IV, 201.
(5) Hashiyatul-Kastali p. 178.
(6) For hadiths about him, see Sahihul-Bukhari IV, 196 (the chapter about those who were given the glad tiding of Paradise), IV, 202 ff.
(7) Hashiyatul-Kastali p. 178.
(8) Sharhu'l-Aqaid p. 322.
(9) Sahihul-Bukhari IV, 207 (This state is explained in the hadith about the Battle of Khaybar. Besides, while setting off for the Expedition of Tabuk, the Messenger of Allah states that his position near him is like the position of Hz. Harun (Aaron) near Hz. Musa (Moses).
(10) see al-Maida 5/55; at-Tabari, Muhibbuddin Ahmad b. Abdullah Zakhairul-Uqba,
Cairo, 1357, p. 102 ff.
(11) Hashiyatul-Kastali ala Sharhil-Aqaid p. 178.
(12) Sahihul-Bukhari IV, 195 (Fadail-Bab, 5).
(13) Sahihul-Bukhari IV, 196.
(14) Sahihul-Bukhari IV, 197; 204.
(15) Sahihul-Bukhari IV, 197.
(16) Sahihul-Bukhari IV, 203.
(17) For the word adala, see al-Mu'jamul-Wasit p. 588; al-Mufradat p. 325.
(18) For the issue of the four caliphs being more virtuous than the whole ummah, see al-Haytami, Ahmad b. Hajar, as-Sawaiqul-Muhriqa, p.
210, 213; Subulus-Salam IV, 127 (the chapter of witnessing); Hashiyatul-Kastali p.
(19) Hashiyatul-Kastali ala Sharhil-Aqaid p. 179.
(20) Hashiyatul-Kastali ala Sharhil-Aqaid p s. 180.
(21) see Sharhul-Aqaid p. 325, Hashiyatul-Kastali ala Sharhil-Aqaid p. 180-181.
(22) see Nursi, Lem'alar, p. 29-32.
(23) Tirmidhi, Fitan, 48.
(24) see Nursi, Lem’alar, p. 33-34.
Jabir bin Abdullah's father accepted Islam by taking part in the Second Aqaba Pledge. Jabir was about 18-19 years old then. He wanted to join the battles of Badr and Uhud but his father prevented him. Jabir's father, Abdullah, was martyred at the Battle of Uhud. Jabir said the following about it:
"My father was martyred at the Battle of Uhud. My sister gave me a camel and said, 'Go and carry your father’s dead body with this camel; bury him in the cemetery of Sons of Salama.' I went to the battlefield with a few people. When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was informed about my arrival, he summoned me. The Messenger of Allah was at Uhud then. He said,
'I swear by Allah in whose hand is my soul that Abdullah will be buried with his brothers (martyrs of Uhud).'
Thereupon, my father was buried with his friends at Uhud."
Hz. Jabir reported 1540 hadiths from the Messenger of Allah. Some people from the Companions and Tabiun went to Jabir Ibn Abdullah in order to learn hadiths from him. Jabir b. Abdullah taught people hadiths in a circle in Masjid an-Nabawi.
Jabir ibn Abdullah made a journey to Damascus that lasted a month in order to learn a hadith that he did not hear from the Messenger of Allah in person from its source, Abdullah ibn Unays.
He narrates this incident as follows:
"I heard a hadith whose narrator was a Companion. I took a camel and went to Damascus after a journey that lasted a month. I saw Abdullah ibn Unays there. I said to his servant, 'Tell him that Jabir is at the door.' Abdullah appeared. When we met at the door of his house, he said 'Jabir Ibn Abdullah!' and hugged me. I said, 'Yes. I came to you when I heard that you heard from the Messenger of Allah a hadith that I did not know.' Thereupon, he narrated me the hadith that he heard from the Messenger of Allah:
'Allah will resurrect people naked and uncircumcised on the Day of Judgment.'"
Once, Jabir went to Egypt in order to learn one hadith from Uqba Ibn Amira and returned to Madinah after learning it.
Jabir ibn Abdullah talked to the Messenger of Allah a lot and he lived a long time after the death of the Messenger of Allah. Therefore, he narrated a lot of hadiths.
Jabir ibn Abdullah knew the Sunnah very well. He is regarded among the hafizes of the Sunnah. He learned hadiths not only from the Prophet (pbuh) but also from Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar, Hz. Ali, Abu Ubayda, Talha, Muadh Ibn Jabal, Ammar Ibn Yasir, Khalid Ibn Walid, Abu Said, Abdullah Ibn Unays, Umm Sharik and Umm Malik.
Hz. Jabir is one of the people who systematized hadith learning and teaching. He taught hadiths regularly in the hadith circle that he established in Masjid an-Nabawi in Madinah. This circle of his became an assembly that was advised and people came from different places in order to learn from him. Abu Zubayr said Ata sent him to Jabir and learned hadiths for them. Then, he said, "Jabir ibn Abdullah was a reliable person and knew a lot of hadiths." Thus, he pointed out that his narrations were sound and his knowledge was vast.
Jabir Ibn Abdullah, who narrated a lot of hadiths from the Prophet, learned several useful sciences from the Messenger of Allah. He had a booklet including his narrations about hajj worshipping. Rabi’ Ibn Sad said he saw Jabir writing hadiths on some flat materials next to Ibn Thabit. Abu Zubayr, Abu Sufyan and ash-Sha’bi listened to hadiths from Jabir and learned from him. The hadiths they heard from Jabir was from this booklet. Mujahid narrated hadiths from Jabir's booklet.
Jabir ibn Abdullah also dictated hadiths. The narration of Abdullah ibn Muhammed ibn Uqayl regarding the issue is as follows:
"I and Abu Jafar went to Jabir Ibn and wrote hadiths from him on the small tablets we had. According to the statement of Abu Hatim, Sulayman ibn Qays al Yashkuri sat in front of Jabir, learnt from him and wrote a booklet from him."
(Dr. Nevzat Aşık, Sahabe ve Hadis Rivayetleri)
Hz. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (571-634) is the first male, free person to believe after Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) started to proclaim the religion of Islam; he is also the first one of the four caliphs and the ten people who were given the glad tiding of Paradise. He is the great Companion who is known with the nicknames Jamiul Quran (Compiler of the Quran), as-Siddiq (the Honest/Veracious), al-Atiq (the Freed One).
He is mentioned in the Quran as "...they two were in the cave..." (at-Tawba, 9/40) since he was together with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) during the Migration. His real name was Abdulkaaba; it is reported that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) gave him the name Abdullah after Islam. He was called with the nickname "atiq" meaning freed from torture and "siddiq" because he was honest, loyal, reliable and chaste. He became famous for the name Abu Bakr meaning "the father of a young camel".
Abu Bakr is from the tribe called Sons of Taym; his lineage unites with the Messenger of Allah with his ancestor Murra b. Ka'b. His mother's name is Ummul-Khayr Salma, and his father's name is Abu Quhafa Uthman. His full family name is Abdullah b. Uthman b. Amir b. Amir... b. Murra ...at-Taymi. All of his family members became Muslims except his son Abdurrahman, who remained as a polytheist up to the Battle of Badr. His father Abu Quhafa saw Abu Bakr's caliphate and death. It is stated that Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) is one or three years younger than the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).
Hz. Abu Bakr, who was a respectable and honest person that did not worship idols, who did not have any idols in his house and whowas a "hanif" merchant, did not leave the Prophet (pbuh) until he died. He spent all of his wealth and earnings for Islam; he led a plain life.
Hz. Abu Bakr was born in Makkah two years and a few months after the Incident of the Elephant in 571; he was known for his nice characteristics and chastity. Although drinking alcohol was a very common custom in the Era of Jahiliyya, he did not drink any alcohol. He was one of the notables of Makkah at that time and he was famous for the sciences of genealogy and news. He bought and sold fabrics and clothes; his capital was forty thousand dirhams, most of which he spent for Islam.
Abu Bakr (r.a.), who believed in the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), started to convey the message of Islam. Most of the first Muslims like Uthman b. Affan, Zubayr b. Awwam, Abdurrahman b. Awf, Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas and Talha b. Ubaydullah, who made great efforts to elevate Islam, became Muslims as a result of the call of Abu Bakr.
Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) did not leave the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) throughout his life; they established a great friendship when they were children. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) preferred his view related to many issues. The Prophet (pbuh), who consulted his Companions about general and private important issues, consulted Abu Bakr related to some private issues. (Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddima, 206). Arabs called him "the vizier of the Prophet".
The Sons of Taym tribe had an important place in Makkah. They were engaged in commerce and were known for their social contacts and broad cultural qualities. Hz. Abu Bakr's father was from the notables of Makkah. Hz. Abu Bakr was a person who was known by his high ethics and who was loved even in Era of Jahiliyyah; he was in charge of conducting the payments of blood-money and bail called "ashnaq" in Makkah. He had a great friendship with Muhammad (pbuh). They often met and talked about the unity of Allah, the situation of Makkah's polytheists and trade. They were both against the Jahiliyyah culture; they did not write poetry and they did not like poetry, they would rather meditate.
His adopting Islam
When Hz. Abu Bakr met Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), who was returning from Mount Hira, the Messenger of Allah told him that he was "the Messenger of Allah" and told him about the verses that started with
"Read in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created" (al-Alaq, 96/1),
he immediately said to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), "I believe in the oneness of Allah and that you are His Messenger." He is the first person after Hz. Khadijah to believe in the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). During the first days of conveying the message of Islam, everybody whom the Prophet (pbuh) talked hesitated first but Hz. Abu Bakr accepted Islam without any doubt and hesitation. Hz. Prophet even said, "If the belief of all people were put on one scale of a balance and Abu Bakr's belief on the other, his belief would outweigh." Abu Bakr, the believer, devoted himself to Islam and was always among the first to do good deeds and charity.
In the period of Makkah, Hz. Abu Bakr tried to bring the people of strong tribes to Islam; on the other hand, he protected the weak people and the slaves who were exposed to the tributes of the polytheists; he used his fortune to buy and free the slaves that were tortured. Bilal, Habbab, Lubayna, Abu Fuqayha, Amir, Dhinnira, Nahdiya, Umm Ubays were among them. He himself was attacked by the polytheists in Masjid al-Haram. After Abu Bakr believed, he continued to convey the message of Islam secretly. His mother, his wife, Umm Ruman and his daughter Asma believed but his sons, Abdullah, Abdurrahman and his father Abu Quhafa had not believed yet. He is the person who invited the first Muslims like Uthman b. Affan, Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, Abdurrahman b. Awf, Zubayr b. Awwam, and Talha b. Ubaydullah to Islam.
After the persecution of the polytheists and the pressures on the Muslims increased, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) told Abu Bakr to migrate to Abyssinia and Abu Bakr set out. However, when he encountered Ibn Dughunna, one of members of a prominent tribe of Makkah in Bark al-Ghimad, Ibn Dughunna told him that he took him under his protection and the two returned to Makkah together. However, Ibn Dughunna, who conditionally patronized Abu Bakr, said that Abu Bakr did not act in accordance with his conditions because he worshipped openly and continued to spread his belief; he asked Abu Bakr to worship secretly. Abu Bakr said that he did not need his protection and that he had not promised him anything. He said, "I am returning you my protection. Allah's protection is enough for me." Thus, Abu Bakr stayed in Makkah for thirteen years. According to the narration of Hz. Aisha, when the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) received the order to migrate, went to Abu Bakr and told him that they would migrate together, Abu Bakr started to weep for joy. (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, II, 485)
When the polytheists heard the incidents of Isra and Miraj and when Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said he went from Makkah to Jerusalem and then to Sidratul-Muntaha in just one night, they told Hz. Abu Bakr about it. He said, "If Muhammad (pbuh) says so, it is true." After this statement of Hz. Abu Bakr's, he was given the nickname "Siddiq", meaning a person who never tells lies, who is honest and who has no doubt in his belief. As the Quran puts it, we can say "What a nice friend!" (an-Nisa, 4/69) Thus, those two friends, "Siddiq" and "Amin", migrated together moving toward the cave in Mount Thawr.
Hz. Abu Bakr entered the cave first and checked it; then, the Prophet (pbuh) entered it. Abu Bakr's daughter, Asma, had prepared some food for them to eat on the way. When they left Makkah, the polytheists began to look for them by sending their men around. The polytheists of the Quraysh tribe searched Asma's house under the leadership of Abu Jahl, insulting and beating her.
Hz. Abu Bakr took all his money with him when he set off for the Migration. However, his daughter Asma did not tell the unbelievers where he was and where he was going. The Makkan polytheists who followed their traces reached the Cave of Thawr. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, as it is stated in the Qur'an:
"Have no Fear, for Allah is with us." (at-Tawba, 9/40)
As a matter of fact, Allah gave him confidence and supported him with the soldiers whom they could not see; Allah is powerful and wise. The unbelievers could not find them despite their search for three days. After staying in the cave for three days, the Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr headed for Makkah and arrived in Quba.
Abu Bakr narrates the day they stayed in the cave as follows: "I was in the cave with the Messenger of Allah. I looked up and saw the feet of the Qurayshi spies. Thereupon, I said, 'O Messenger of Allah! If some of them bent down and looked, they would definitely see us.' He said, 'O Abu Bakr! Keep silent! Is it appropriate to worry when two friends are together with Allah?'
After staying in Quba for three days, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and Hz. Abu Bakr arrived in Madinah. Hz. Abu Bakr got fever in Madinah. When his fever got worse and he stayed in bed, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) prayed for him as follows:
"O Allah! Make Madinah beloved for us just as You did Makkah beloved and keep fever away from us."
After the prayer, Hz. Abu Bakr and the other Companions who were ill got well. Meanwhile, Hz. Aisha and Hz. Muhammad got married. Masjid an-Nabawi was built. Some of the expenses were met by Hz. Abu Bakr. When brotherhood was established in Madinah, Haritha b. Zayd became Abu Bakr's brother.
Hz. Abu Bakr took part in the construction of Masjid an-Nabawi in Madinah. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) sent teams called sariyya outside Madinah in order to spread Islam and collect information about the enemies. Hz. Abu Bakr sometimes took part in them. He took part in the battles that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) himself fought (Badr, Uhud and Khandaq). He also took part in the expeditions of Muraysi, Qurayza, Khaybar, Makkah, Hunayn and Taif.
The battles that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) himself commanded are called ghazwah. Hz. Abu Bakr took part in more than thirty ghazwahs apart from the battles mentioned above. The enemies surrendered without fighting in the ghazwahs of Waddan, Buwat, Badr al-Ula and Ushayra. In all of those ghazwahs, Hz. Abu Bakr was next to the Prophet (pbuh) like his "vizier".
In the Battle of Badr, Abu Bakr fought against his son, Abdurrahman, when he was on the side of the polytheists. Not only him but also many companions fought against their sons, brothers, fathers and uncles at Badr. The Battle of Badr shows that Muslims kept Islam superior to everything and they killed the polytheists who were their closest relatives without distinguishing them from other people or without thinking of kinship or being the members of the same tribe. While Hamza, one of the uncles of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was in the Islamic army, Abbas, another uncle of the Prophet (pbuh), was among the enemy ranks. While his nephew Ubayda was on his side, his other nephews, Abu Sufyan and Nawfal, were with the polytheists. Even Abu al-As, the wife of his daughter Zaynab, fought against the Prophet (pbuh) with the polytheists.
There was a great famine in Madinah in the 9th year of the Migration. The Byzantine Emperor, meanwhile, prepared a large army in Damascus to invade the Hejaz region. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) faced difficulties due to famine while preparing the Islamic army against this army. Abu Bakr (ra) used all of his wealth to prepare this army. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who took part in the Farewell Hajj in the tenth year of the Migration, became ill in the eleventh year.
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who became ill in the eleventh year of the Migration, passed away on Monday, the 13th of the month of Rabiul-Awwal (June 8, 632). The Muslims who heard his death became very sorry and they did not know what to do a first. However, he was also an ephemeral human being. Hz. Umar said the Prophet (pbuh) went to meet his Lord like Hz. Musa (Moses) and added that he would cut off the hands of anyone who said, "he died". When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) felt well, Hz. Abu Bakr took permission from him and went to see his daughter. As soon as he heard that the Messenger of Allah had died, he returned and kissed the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) on his forehead. He said,
"O Messenger of Allah! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! You are as beautiful as you were alive. The institution of prophethood ended with your death. Your fame and honor is so great that you are free from crying over it. O Muhammad! Do not forget us near your Lord! Remember us!"
Then, he went out and silenced Hz. Umar. He said,
"O people! Allah is one; there is no god but Him. Muhammad is His slave and messenger. Allah is the clear truth. Whoever worshipped Muhammad should know that Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, should know that Allah is alive and eternal. I want to remind you the following order of Allah: Muhammad is no more than an Messenger: many were the Messengers that passed away before Him. If he died or was slain, will ye then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve him) with gratitude.' (Aal-i Imran, 3/144). "He who holds fast the book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah finds the truth; he who separates them goes astray. Do not let Satan deceive you with the death of the Prophet and make you deviate from your religion! Do not allow Satan to approach you!" (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, IV/335; Tabari, Tarikh, III/197,198).
With this talk, Hz. Abu Bakr calmed down the people there and started to prepare the body of the Prophet for burial. Meanwhile, Ansar gathered in the shed of Banu Sa'idah; they wanted to choose Sa'd b Ubada, the leader of the tribe of Khazraj, the caliph. Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar, Abu Ubayda and a group of Muhajirs went to Banu Sa'idah at once. After talking to Ansar and negotiating about the caliphate, Hz. Abu Bakr stood between Umar and Abu Ubayda and asked people to pay allegiance to one of them. He did not put himself forward as the caliph. After Hz. Abu Bakr's speech, Hz. Umar rushed forward and paid allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr. He said,
"O Abu Bakr! You led the prayer to the Muslims upon the order of the Messenger of Allah. You are his caliph and we pay allegiance to you. We pay allegiance to you, who are more beloved to the Messenger of Allah than all of us."
Upon this, sudden act of Hz. Umar, all of the people there paid allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr. After this initial allegiance, Hz. Abu Bakr delivered a sermon to the people in Masjid an-Nabawi the next day and people paid allegiance to him formally. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was buried on Tuesday. When a disagreement occurred about where to bury him, Hz. Abu Bakr showed his prudence and reminded the people the following hadith:
"Every prophet is buried in the place where he dies."
The janazah prayer of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was performed in groups without an imam. It is reported that Hz. Ali came together with Banu Hashim and his supporters in the house of Hz. Fatima and that he did not pay allegiance at first. According to some narrations, when Hz. Ali heard that the big allegiance took place, he put on his clothes hurriedly and rushed in order to pay allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr. (Tabari, Tarikh, III/207) The news that he did not pay allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr for months is probably contrary to the truth. For, the fact that he knew the superiority of Abu Bakr, the speeches he made and the course of history are contrary to the other narrations.
Disagreements and differences of opinions sometimes occurred among the closest Companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) - even between Abu Bakr and Umar - , but they acted together as it is seen during the time of the first two caliphs. Differences of traits and characteristics played an important role in most of the incidents that seemed to be disagreements. For instance, Abu Bakr acted mildly but Umar was a hardliner. However, they always acted together. Hz. Ali and Zubayr b. Awwam were among those who made decisions about the wars of Riddah under the leadership of Hz. Abu Bakr and they performed prayers behind Hz. Abu Bakr. (Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya, V/249) Hz. Ali (ra) said he would fulfill ill if the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had a will. (Tabari, ibid, IV, 236) However, when Ibn Abbas wanted to ask the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) about caliphate when he got ill, Hz. Ali stopped him. That is, nobody opposed the caliphate of Hz. Abu Bakr. Besides, what wass natural, reasonable and practical was his caliphate. The Prophet did not have a written will but he spoke about the virtues of Hz. Abu Bakr in the mosque, summoned him when he was on his death-bed and appointed him as the imam on behalf of him.
When Hz. Fatima went to Hz. Abu Bakr to receive her share from the inheritance of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), he said, "I will not hesitate to do anything that the Messenger of Allah did." Thus, he regarded the superiority of the religion more important than Fatima being the daughter of the Prophet (pbuh). He did whatever he heard and saw the Prophet (pbuh) do when he was with him. (Tabari, III, 220) Afterwards, when Hz. Ali was the caliph, Ali did not give Fatima anything from the inheritance of the Prophet (pbuh) though he had supported Fatima when she asked for inheritance from Abu Bakr; this is the evidence how the Companions obeyed and followed the sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). (Ibn Taymiyya, Minhajus-Sunnah, III, 230). Hz. Abu Bakr stated the following in the speech in the mosque after he was chosen as "the Caliph of the Messenger of Allah":
"O people! I was elected as your governor and Caliph though I am not the best of you. If I do good deeds, help me; if I do bad deeds, show me the right way. Obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Messenger; if I do not obey Allah and His Messenger, do not obey me..." (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, IV, 340-341; Tabari, Tarikh, III, 203)
Struggling against Apostates and Conquests in Iraq and Syria
After being the caliph of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Hz. Abu Bakr declared war against the movements of apostates, fake prophets, and those who said "We will perform prayers but we will not pay zakah" that occurred in various regions of Arabia except Makkah and Madinah after the death of the Messenger of Allah. As a result of these wars against the fake prophets like Aswadul-Ansi, Musaylamatul-Kadhdhab, Sajah, Tulayha, these harmful elements were eliminated, rebellions were suppressed, zakah started to be collected again, to be put in the Treasury and to be distributed again. Hz. Abu Bakr sent the army of Usama, which had been prepared but waited because of the death of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), to Jordan; he also suppressed the mutinies of Bahrayn, Umman, Yemen and Muhra. The Muslims struggled against the interior rebels while confronting the armies of two big empires: Persia and Byzantium. Hira, Ajnadin and Anbar were included among Islamic land; Iraq was conquered and the important cities of Syria were conquered. Hz. Abu Bakr died while the Battle of Yarmuk was going on. He gave his army the following advice:
"Do not touch women, children and old people; do not cut the trees that yield fruit; do not destroy a built-up place; do not transgress and do not fear."
Indeed, the Islamic army did not persecute anyone in the places that were conquered and received the appreciation of their enemies by their justice; the nations that entered under the protection of Islam by paying jizyah lived in peace and security.
The Compilation of the Quran; Formation of Mushaf
Hz. Abu Bakr did not find the proposal of Hz. Umar about compiling the Quran appropriate first but when many scribes of revelation and hafizes of the Quran were martyred in the battles of Riddah, he acknowledged that Umar was right and had the Quranic verses brought together. During the time of the Messenger of Allah, the revelation that was sent down step by step had been written on gazelle skins, white stones, broad branches of dates, etc; and most of the Companions were hafizes. However, the written verses were scattered and when the number of hafizes decreased, people started to be worried about the preservation of the Quran. Hz. Abu Bakr (ra) established a committee under the presidency of Zayd b. Thabit and ordered everyone to bring the verses of the Quran they had. Moreover, the verses were verified by witnesses and confirmed by hafizes. Thus, all the verses were gathered and "Mushaf" was formed. This Mushaf was transferred to Hz. Umar from Abu Bakr and then to Umar's daughter. It was reproduced during the caliphate of Uthman and distributed to all the provinces of the Islamic land.
Although Hz. Abu Bakr's caliphate lasted very short (two years and three months), the Islamic state developed greatly. When Hz. Abu Bakr had to remain in bed after the illness he got in Madinah at the beginning of the month of Jumadal-Akhir in the 13th year of the Migration, he asked Hz. Umar to lead the prayer. He talked to the Companions and said that he regarded Hz. Umar appropriate for the caliphate. He answered some criticism that Umar was harsh and made Hz. Uthman write the contract of the caliphate. Hz. Abu Bakr died at the age of sixty-three just like the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), whom he loved very much. He was buried next to the Messenger of Allah at shoulder-length as he had willed. Thus, the togetherness of these two great friends continued in the grave.
His Personality and Administration
Hz. Abu Bakr, who had a wide culture as merchant, was the first one among the Companions in terms of honesty and piety. His outstanding characteristics were tender-mindedness, thinking a lot and speaking a little, and humbleness. According to the narration of Hz. Aisha, he was a person who was "tearful, sorrowful, and had a soft sound". In the Era of Jahiliyyah, the polytheists trusted in him and recognized him as an arbitrator related to diyah and debtor-creditor relationships. The example of infinite devotion displayed by Hz. Abu Bakr (ra), who was the most loyal friend of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), in the incident of Miraj earned him the title "as-Siddiq". He said, "If he (Hz. Muhammad) (pbuh) says so, it is true." There is nobody superior to him in terms of generosity. He spent all his wealth for Islam; before he died, he wrote in his will that all of the salaries he received from the Treasury as the caliph should be returned to the Treasury; he wanted his land to be sold for it. After that, only one camel and one slave were left as his inheritance. Abu Bakr had six children from his four wives; he married his daughter Aisha off to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) after the Migration. (Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd, VI, 130 ff; Ibnul-Athir, II, 115 ff)
During the Migration, a snake bit his foot in the cave and he felt a severe pain but he did not cry or say anything so as not to awaken the Prophet (pbuh) who was sleeping on his knee; when the Prophet (pbuh) woke up and saw him weeping, he asked what had happened. Hz. Abu Bakr said, "O Messenger of Allah! May my mother and father be sacrificed for you!" This is only one example of his devotion to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).
It is narrated that Hz. Abu Bakr had a white face; he was weak; he had a roundish nose; he was a calm man who dyed his beard with henna and woad. (Ibnu'l Athir, al-Kamil fit-Tarikh, II, 419-420)
The best person among the ummah after the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is Abu Bakr (ra). He was the vizier of the Prophet (pbuh) and the closest one to him in fatwas.
"If I had a close friend among people, it would be Abu Bakr." (Bukhari, Salat, 80: Muslim, Masajid, 38: Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, II)
"I have responded to the favors of everybody except Abu Bakr."
The hadiths of the Prophet above and his following statement in his last sermon praising Hz. Abu Bakr "Allah allowed one of His slaves free to choose between the world and the things near Him; and the slave chose what was near Him'' and that the Prophet had all the doors leading to the mosque closed except the door of Hz. Abu Bakr show the importance the Prophet gave to him.
No view of Hz. Abu Bakr's contrary to the verses of the Quran and hadiths reached us because there was nothing like that. Abu Bakr (ra) knew the abrogating sunnah very well and he knew the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) better than anybody else did. Therefore, no rebellion against his caliphate occurred in the Islamic land and no mischief was seen. (Bukhari, Fadailul-Ashabin-Nabiyy, 3) Disagreements or deadlocks and bid'ahs did not occur in his caliphate. The Prophet's statement, "Have no Fear, for Allah is with us" seems to be apparent on Hz. Abu Bakr in terms of both meaning and words. (Ibn Taymiyya, Kulliyat Translation, İstanbul 1988, IV, 329)
It is mentioned in the resources that he acted very meticulously while making decisions by saying, "I am subject to the Messenger of Allah. I cannot impose any rules." (Tabari, IV, 1845; Ibn Sa'd, III, 183) When he was to decide about an issue, he would first look at the Quran; if he could not find it there, he would search it in the Sunnah; if he could not find it there, he would consult the Companions and make ijtihad. In the issue of the division of war booty between Muhajirs and Ansar, Hz. Umar held the view that Muhajirs should be given more shares but he divided the booty equally. For that reason, there was no restlessness during his caliphate. The Messenger of Allah and Hz. Abu Bakr regarded three talaqs uttered in one place as one talaq but it was later regarded as three talaqs - like some changes that were made due to public good. That is, Abu Bakr (ra) wanted to apply all of the practices of the Messenger of Allah but he acted in accordance with the views of Companions who said the decrees could change with the change of time and sometimes due to public good - like giving land to muallafa al-qulub.
Hz. Abu Bakr, who proclaimed Islam in Masjid al-Haram when the number of the Muslims was only thirty-eight and was beaten by the polytheists, was called "the Caliph of the Messenger of Allah" during his caliphate but the caliphs after him were called "Amirul-Mu'minin".
During his caliphate, financial issues were conducted by Abu Ubayda, judicial issues by Hz. Umar, secretarial issues by Zayd b. Thabit and Hz. Ali; the commanders of the army were Usama and Khalid b. Walid. Madinah became the capital city of the Islamic State and the following cities became provinces: Makkah, Taif, San'a, Hadramawt, Hawlan, Zabid, Rima, Janad, Najran, Jurash, Bahrayn. It was a central government and one-fifth of the booty was collected and kept in the Treasury.
Hz. Abu Bakr was (one of the muqillin) a Companion that narrated a few hadiths. He narrated only one hundred and forty-two hadiths fearing that he could say something wrong, or only those hadiths reached us. Some of his sermons and advice are as follows:
"The Messenger of Allah was protected by revelation. However, I have a satan that does not leave me alone.
Hurry to do good deeds because your death is behind you hurrying.
A word that is not said for Allah is not good.
A person who hesitates to tell the truth fearing that somebody will criticize him is not good.
The secret of a deed is patience. Nobody has been given a boon superior to health after belief.
Call yourself to account before you are called to account." (see Abu Nuaym, Hilya, l)
(Ahmet AĞIRAKÇA, Sait KIZILIRMAK)
1. The Messenger of Allah himself gave the glad tiding that those who took part in the Battle of Badr were people of Paradise.
2. It is stated in the Quran that the angels sent by Allah joined them during the course of the battle, which is an additional reason of virtue for them.
3. According to the statement of some saints, many friends of Allah attained the rank of sainthood by keeping reading the blessed names of the people of Badr.
4. It is narrated that many people who caught an illness was cured of their illnesses by asking cure from Allah mentioning the blessed names of the people of Badr.
5. A saint said, "Whenever I put my hand on the head of an ill person and read the names of the people of Badr with a sincere intention, that person recovered. If it was time for that person to die, at least his pains decreased."
6. Some people said, "If the names of the people of Badr are read before a prayer, this will cause that prayer to be accepted quickly."
Jafar b. Abdullah narrates:
"My father advised me to love all of the Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) and said,
O my little one! When the the names of the people of Badr are mentioned, a prayer is accepted; a person who mentions these blessed names is surrounded by divine mercy, forgiveness and consent. The wish of a person who asks something from Allah by reading those names is definitely fulfilled."
7. "Muslim mujahids are given the glad tiding by the sheikhs of Islam that it has been proved that having the names of the people of Badr on the body, reading them and memorizing them will help them to defeat the enemy, will protect them from the evil of the enemy, fire, theft, being drowned, illnesses like plague and mania, will eliminate poverty and bring richness, will enable them to pay their debts, their sins to be forgiven, will eliminate problems, enlighten their hearts, in short, will enable them to attain all of their worldly and otherworldly aims, subjective and objective interests, to eliminate the harms of people and jinn and to attain worldly degrees."
However, it is necessary to say "Radiyallahu anh (May Allah be pleased with him)" when the blessed name of each of them is said. Doubtlessly, it is necessary to say "Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (May the blessings and the peace of Allah be upon him)" when the name of the Prophet is said. For, if this is observed, it will be a means of attaining the aim more quickly.
May Allah Almighty enable us to attain their intercession! Amin!
(Ridwanullahi alayhim ajmain! (May Allah be pleased with all of them!))
01. Sayyiduna wa nabiyyuna Muhammad al-Muhajiri (Sallallahu taala alayhi wa sallam)
02. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
03. Sayyiduna Umar ibnul-Khattab al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
04. Sayyiduna Uthman ibn-i Affan al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
05. Sayyiduna Aliyy ibn-i Abi Talib al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
06. Sayyiduna Talha bin Ubaydullah al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
07. Sayyiduna Zubayr ibn-i Awwam al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
08. Sayyiduna Abdurrahman bin Awf al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
09. Sayyiduna Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
10. Sayyiduna Said ibn-i Zayd al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
11. Sayyiduna Abu Ubayda bin Jarrah al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
12. Sayyiduna Ubayy ibn-i Ka'b al-Khazraji (R.A.)
13. Sayyiduna al-Akhnas ibn-i Habib al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
14. Sayyiduna al-Arkam ibn-i Arkam al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
15. Sayyiduna As'ad ibn-i Yazid al-Khazraji (R.A.)
16. Sayyiduna Anas Mawla Rasulillah al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
17. Sayyiduna Anas ibn-i Muadh al-Khazraji (R.A.)
18. Sayyiduna Anas ibn-i Qatadat'al-Awsi (R.A.)
19. Sayyiduna Aws ibn-i Thabit al-Khazraji (R.A.)
20. Sayyiduna Aws ibn-i Hawli al-Khazraji (R.A.)
21. Sayyiduna Iyas ibn-i Aws al-Awsi (R.A.)
22. Sayyiduna Iyas ibn'il-Bukayr al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
23. Sayyiduna Bujayr ibn-i Abi Bujayr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
24. Sayyiduna Bahhath ibn-i Tha'laba al-Khazraji (R.A.)
25. Sayyiduna al-Bara bin Ma'rur al-Khazraji (R.A.)
26. Sayyiduna Basbasa bin Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
27. Sayyiduna Bishr ibn'il-Bara al-Khazraji (R.A,)
28. Sayyiduna Bashir ibn-i Said al-Khazraji (R.A.)
29. Sayyiduna Bilal ibn-i Rabah al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
30. Sayyiduna Tamim Mawla Hirash al-Khazraji (R.A.)
31. Sayyiduna Tamim Mawla Bani Ghanam bin as-Silm al-Awsi (R.A.)
32. Sayyiduna Tamim ibn-i Yuar al-Khazraji (R.A.)
33. Sayyiduna Thabit ibn-i Akram al-Awsi (R.A.)
34. Sayyiduna Thabit ibn-i Tha'laba al-Khazraji (R.A.)
35. Sayyiduna Thabit ibn-i Khalid al-Khazraji (R.A.)
36. Sayyiduna Thabit ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
37. Sayyiduna Thabit ibn-i Hazzal al-Khazraji (R.A.)
38. Sayyiduna Tha’laba bin Hatib al-Awsi (R.A.)
39. Sayyiduna Tha’laba bin Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
40. Sayyiduna Tha’laba bin Ghanama al-Khazraji (R.A.)
41. Sayyiduna Siqf ibn-i Amr al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
42. Sayyiduna Jabir ibn-i Abdullah bin Riyab al-Khazraji (R.A.)
43. Sayyiduna Jabir ibn-i Abdullah bin Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
44. Sayyiduna Jabbar ibn-i Sakhr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
45. Sayyiduna Jubr ibn-i Atik al-Awsi (R.A.)
46. Sayyiduna Jubayr ibn-i Iyas al-Awsi (R.A.)
47. Sayyiduna Hamza bin Abdil-Muttalib al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
48. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Anas al-Awsi (R.A.)
49. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Aws bin Rafi' al-Awsi (R.A.)
50. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Aws bin Muadh al-Awsi (R.A.)
51. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Hatib al-Awsi (R.A.)
52. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Abi Khazma al-Awsi (R.A.)
53. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Khazma al-Khazraji (R.A.)
54. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Simma al-Khazraji (R.A.)
55. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Arfaja al-Awsi (R.A.)
56. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Qays al-Awsi (R.A.)
57. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn-i Qays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
58. Sayyiduna al-Harith ibn'un-Nu'man ibn-i Umayya al-Awsi (R.A.)
59. Sayyiduna Haritha bin Suraqa al-Khazraji (R.A.) (SHAHID)
60. Sayyiduna Haritha bin Nu'man al-Khazraji (R.A.)
61. Sayyiduna Hatib ibn-i Abi Baltaa al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
62. Sayyiduna Hatib ibn-i Amr al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
63. Sayyiduna al-Hubab ibn-i Mundhir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
64. Sayyiduna Habib ibn-i Aswad al-Khazraji (R.A.)
65. Sayyiduna Haram ibn-i Milhan al-Khazraji (R.A.)
66. Sayyiduna Hurays ibn-i Zayd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
67. Sayyiduna al-Husayn ibn-i Harith al-Muhajiri (R.A)
68. Sayyiduna Hamza bin al-Mumayyir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
69. Sayyiduna Kharija bin Zayd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
70. Sayyiduna Khalid ibn-i al-Bukayr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
71. Sayyiduna Khalid ibn-i Qays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
72. Sayyiduna Khabbab ibn'ul-Arat al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
73. Sayyiduna Khabbab Mawla Utba al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
74. Sayyiduna Khubayb ibn-i Isaf al-Khazraji (R.A.)
75. Sayyiduna Khidash ibn-i Qatada al-Awsi (R.A.)
76. Sayyiduna Khirash ibn'is-Simma al-Khazraji (R.A.)
77. Sayyiduna Khuraym ibn-i Fatik al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
78. Sayyiduna Khallad ibn-i Rafi' al-Khazraji (R.A.)
79. Sayyiduna Khallad ibn-i Suwayd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
80. Sayyiduna Khallad ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
81. Sayyiduna Khallad ibn-i Kays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
82. Sayyiduna Khulayd ibn-i Kays al-Khazraji (R.A.»
83. Sayyiduna Khalifa bin Adiyy al-Khazraji (R.A.)
84. Sayyiduna Khunays ibn-i Hazafa al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
85. Sayyiduna Khawwat ibn-i Jubayr al-Awsi (R.A.)
86. Sayyiduna Khawli bin Abi Khawli al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
87. Sayyiduna Dhakwan ibn-i Ubayd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
88. Sayyiduna Dhu'sh-Shimalayn ibn-i Abd Amr al-Muhajiri (R.A.) (SHAHID)
89. Sayyiduna Rashid ibn-i Mualla al-Khazraji (R.A.)
90. Sayyiduna Rafi bin Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
91. Sayyiduna Rafi' bin Ghunajda al-Awsi (R.A.)
92. Sayyiduna Rafi' bin Malik al-Khazraji (R.A.)
93. Sayyiduna Rafi'ibn'ul-Muall al-Khazraji (R.A.) (SHAHID)
94. Sayyiduna Rafi' bin Yazid al-Awsi (R.A.)
95. Sayyiduna Rib'iy bin Rafi' al-Awsi (R.A.)
96. Sayyiduna ar-Rabi'ibn-u Iyas al-Khazraji (R.A.)
97. Sayyiduna Rabia bin Aktham al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
98. Sayyiduna Ruhayla bin Tha’laba al-Khazraji (R.A.)
99. Sayyiduna Rifaa bin Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
100.Sayyiduna Rifaa bin Rafi' al-Khazraji (R.A.)
101.Sayyiduna Rifaa bin Abd'il Mundhir al-Awsi (R.A.)
102.Sayyiduna Rifaa bin Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
103.Sayyiduna Zubayr ibn-i Awwam (R.A.)
104.Sayyiduna Ziyad ibn'is-Sakan al-Awsi (R.A.)
105.Sayyiduna Ziyad ibn-i Labid al-Khazraji (R.A.)
106.Sayyiduna Ziyad ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
107.Sayyiduna Zayd ibn-i Aslam al-Awsi (R.A.)
108.Sayyiduna Zayd ibn-i Haritha al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
109.Sayyiduna Zayd ibn'ul-Khattab al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
110.Sayyiduna Zayd ibn'ul-Muzayyan al-Khazraji (R.A.)
111.Sayyiduna Zayd ibn'ul-Mualla al-Khazraji (R.A.)
112.Sayyiduna Zayd ibn-i Wadia al-Khazraji (R.A.)
113.Sayyiduna Salim Mawla Abi Huzayfa al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
114.Sayyiduna Salim ibn-i Umayr al-Awsi (R.A.)
115.Sayyiduna as-Saib ibn-i Uthman al-Muhajiri (R.A)
116.Sayyiduna Sabra bin Fatik al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
117.Sayyiduna Suraqa bin Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
118.Sayyiduna Suraqa bin Ka'b al-Khazraji (R.A.)
119.Sayyiduna Sa'd Mawla Hatib al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
120.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn'i Khawla al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
121.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn'i Haysama al-Awsi (R.A.) (SHAHID)
122.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn'ur-Rabi al-Khazraji (R.A.)
123.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn-i Zayd al-Awsi (R.A.)
124.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn-i Sa'd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
125.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn-i Sahi al-Khazraji (R.A.)
126.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn-i Ubada al-Khazraji (R.A.)
127.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn-u Ubayd al-Awsi (R.A.)
128.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn-i Uthman al-Khazraji (R.A.)
129.Sayyiduna Sa'd ibn-i Muadh al-Awsi (R.A.)
130.Sayyiduna Suflan ibn-i Bishr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
131.Sayyiduna Salama bin Aslam al-Awsi (R.A.)
132.Sayyiduna Sulaym ibn-ul-Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
133.Sayyiduna Salama bin Salama al-Awsi (R.A.)
134.Sayyiduna Salit ibn-i Qays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
135.Sayyiduna Sulaym ibn-ul Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
136.Sayyiduna Sulaym ibn-i Qays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
137.Sayyiduna Sulaym ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
138.Sayyiduna Sulaym ibn-i Milhan al-Khazraji (R.A.)
139.Sayyiduna Simak ibn-i Sa'd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
140.Sayyiduna Sinan ibn-i Abi Sinan al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
141.Sayyiduna Sinan ibn-i Sayfi al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
142.Sayyiduna Sahl ibn-i Hunayf al-Awsi (R.A.)
143.Sayyiduna Sahl ibn-i Rafi' al-Khazraji (R.A.)
144.Sayyiduna Sahl ibn-i Atik al-Khazraji (R.A.)
145.Sayyiduna Sahl ibn-i Qays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
146.Sayyiduna Sahl ibn-i Wahb al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
147.Sayyiduna Sahl ibn-i Rafi' al-Khazraji (R.A.)
148.Sayyiduna Sawad ibn-i Zarin al-Khazraji (R.A.)
149.Sayyiduna Sawad ibn-i Ghaziyya al-Khazraji (R.A.)
150.Sayyiduna Suwaybit ibn-i Harmala al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
151.Sayyiduna Shuja' ibn-i Abi Wahb al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
152.Sayyiduna Sharik ibn-i Anas al-Awsi (R.A.)
153.Sayyiduna Shammas ibn-i Uthman al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
154.Sayyiduna Sabiyh Mawla Ab'l-As al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
155.Sayyiduna Safwan ibn-i Wahb al-Muhajiri (R.A.) (SHAHID)
156.Sayyiduna Shuhayb ibn-i Sinan al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
157.Sayyiduna Sayfi bin Sawad al-Khazraji (R.A.)
158.Sayyiduna ad-Dahhak ibn-i Haritha al-Khazraji (R.A.)
159.Sayyiduna ad-Dahhak ibn-i Abd-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
160.Sayyiduna Damra bin Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
161.Sayyiduna at-Tufayl ibn-i Harith al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
162.Sayyiduna at-Tufayl ibn-i Malik al-Khazraji (R.A.)
163.Sayyiduna at-Tufayl ibn-i Nu'man al-Khazraji (R.A.)
164.Sayyiduna Tulayb ibn-u Umayr al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
165.Sayyiduna Asim ibn-i Sabir al-Awsi (R.A.)
166.Sayyiduna Asim ibn-i Adiyy al-Awsi (R.A.)
167.Sayyiduna Asim ibn-i Ukayr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
168.Sayyiduna Asim ibn-i Qays al-Awsi (R.A.)
169.Sayyiduna Akil ibn'ul-Bukayr al-Muhajiri (R.A.) (SHAHID)
170.Sayyiduna Amir ibn-i Umayya al-Khazraji (R.A.)
171.Sayyiduna Amir ibn-i Bukayr al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
172.Sayyiduna Amir ibn-i Rabia al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
173.Sayyiduna Amir ibn-i Sa'd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
174.Sayyiduna Amir ibn-i Salama al-Khazraji (R.A.)
175.Sayyiduna Amir ibn-i Fuhayra al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
176.Sayyiduna Amir ibn-i Mukhallad al-Khazraji (R.A.)
177.Sayyiduna Amir ibn-i Yazid al-Awsi (R.A.)
178.Sayyiduna Ayiz ibn-i Mais al-Khazraji (R.A.)
179.Sayyiduna Abbad ibn-i Bishr al-Awsi (R.A.)
18O.Sayyiduna Abbad ibn-i Qays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
181.Sayyiduna Ubada bin Samit al-Khazraji (R.A.)
182.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Tha’laba al-Khazraji (R.A.)
183.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Jubayr al-Awsi (R.A.)
184.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Jahsh al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
185.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibnu'l-Jad al-Khazraji (R.A.)
186.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn'ul-Humayyir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
187.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn'ur-Rabi al-Khazraji (R.A.)
188.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Rawaha al-Khazraji (R.A.)
189.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Zayd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
190.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Suraqa al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
191.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Salama al-Awsi (R.A.)
192.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Sahi al-Awsi (R.A.)
193.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Suhayl al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
194.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Sharik al-Awsi (R.A.)
195.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Tariq al-Awsi (R.A.)
196.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Amir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
197.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Abd-i Manaf al-Khazraji (R.A.)
198.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Urfuta al-Khazraji (R.A.)
199.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
200.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Umayr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
201.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Qays bin Halid al-Khazraji (R.A.)
202.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Qays bin Sayfi al-Khazraji (R.A.)
203.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Ka'b al-Khazraji (R.A.)
204.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Makhrama al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
205.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Mas'ud al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
206.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Maz'un al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
207.Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn-i Numan al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
208.Sayyiduna Abd-i Rabb ibn-i Jabr al-Awsi (R.A.)
209.Sayyiduna Abdurrahman ibn-i Jabr al-Awsi (R.A.)
210.Sayyiduna Abdat'al-Hashhash al-Khazraji (R.A.)
211.Sayyiduna Abd ibn-i Amir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
212.Sayyiduna Ubayd ibn'ut-Tayyihan ay-Awsi (R.A.)
213.Sayyiduna Ubayd ibn-i Zayd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
214.Sayyiduna Ubayd ibn-i Abi Ubayd al-Awsi (R.A.)
215.Sayyiduna Ubayda bin Harith al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
216.Sayyiduna Utban ibn-i Malik al-Khazraji (R.A.)
217.Sayyiduna Utba bin Rabia al-Khazraji (R.A.)
218.Sayyiduna Utba bin Abdullah al-Khazraji (R.A.)
219.Sayyiduna Utba bin Ghazwan al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
220.Sayyiduna Uthman ibn-i Maz'un al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
221.Sayyiduna al-Ajlan ibn'un Nu'man al-Khazraji (R.A.)
222.Sayyiduna Adiyy ibn-i Abi Zaghba al-Khazraji (R.A.)
223.Sayyiduna Ismat'ubn'ul-Husayn al-Khazraji (R.A.)
224.Sayyiduna Usaymat'ul-Khazraji (R.A.)
225.Sayyiduna Atiyya bin Nuwayra al-Khazraji (R.A.)
226.Sayyiduna Uqba bin Amir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
227-Sayyiduna Uqba bin Uthman al Khazraji (R.A.)
228.Sayyiduna Uqba bin Wahb al-Khazraji (R.A.)
229.Sayyiduna Uqba bin Wahb al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
230.Sayyiduna Ukkasha bin Mihsan al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
231.Sayyiduna Amman ibn-i Yasir al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
232.Sayyiduna Umara bin Hazm al-Khazraji (R.A.)
233.Sayyiduna Umara bin Ziyad al-Awsi (R.A.)
234.Sayyiduna Amr ibn-i Iyas al-Khazraji (R.A.)
235.Sayyiduna Amr ibn-i Tha’laba al-Khazraji (R.A.)
236.Sayyiduna Amr ibn'ul-Jamuh al-Khazraji (R.A.)
237.Sayyiduna Amr ibn'ul-Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
238.Sayyiduna Amr ibn'ul Harith al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
239.Sayyiduna Amr ibn-i Suraqa al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
240.Sayyiduna Amr ibn-i Abi Sarh al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
241.Sayyiduna Amr ibn-i Talq al-Khazraji (R.A.)
242.Sayyiduna Amr ibn-i Qays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
243.Sayyiduna Amr ibn-i Muadh al-Awsi (R.A.)
244.Sayyiduna Umayr ibn-i Haram al-Awsi (R.A.)
245.Sayyiduna Umayr ibn'ul Humam al-Khazraji (R.A.) (SHAHID)
246.Sayyiduna Umayr ibn'ul-Amir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
247.Sayyiduna Umayr ibn-i Awf al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
248.Sayyiduna Umayr ibn-i Ma'bad al-Awsi (R.A.)
249.Sayyiduna Umayr ibn-i Abi Waqqas al-Muhajiri (R.A.) (SHAHID)
250.Sayyiduna Awf ibn'ul-Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
251.Sayyiduna Uwaym ibn-i Saida al-Awsi (R.A.)
252.Sayyiduna Iyad ibn-i Zuhayr al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
253.Sayyiduna Ghannam ibn-i Aws al-Khazraji (R.A.)
254.Sayyiduna al-Fakih ibn-i Bishr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
255.Sayyiduna Farwa bin Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
256.Sayyiduna Qatada bin Numan al-Khazraji (R.A.)
257.Sayyiduna Qudama bin Maz'un al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
258.Sayyiduna Qutba bin Amir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
259.Sayyiduna Qays ibn-i Mihsan al-Khazraji (R.A.)
260.Sayyiduna Qays ibn-i Mihsan al-Khazraji (R.A.)
261.Sayyiduna Qays ibn-i Mukhallad al-Khazraji (R.A.)
262.Sayyiduna Ka'b ibn-i Jammaz al-Khazraji (R.A.)
263.Sayyiduna Ka'b ibn-i Zayd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
264.Sayyiduna Malik ibn-i Abi Hawli al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
265.Sayyiduna Malik ibn-i Abi Hawli al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
266.Sayyiduna Malik ibn'ud Dukhshum al-Khazraji (R.A.)
267.Sayyiduna Malik ibn-i Rifaa al-Khazraji (R.A.)
268.Sayyiduna Malik ibn-i Rifaa al-Khazraji (R.A.)
269.Sayyiduna Malik ibn-i Amr al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
270.Sayyiduna Malik ibn-i Qudama al-Awsi (R.A.)
271.Sayyiduna Malik ibn-i Mas'ud al-Khazraji (R.A.)
272.Sayyiduna Malik ibn-i Numayla al-Awsi (R.A.)
273.Sayyiduna Malik Mubashshir bin Abd'il-Mundhir al-Awsi (R.A.) (SHAHID)
274-Sayyiduna Mujazzar ibn-i Ziyad al-Khazraji (R.A.)
275.Sayyiduna Muhriz ibn-i Amin al-Khazraji (R.A.)
276.Sayyiduna Muhriz ibn-i Nasla al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
277.Sayyiduna Muhammad ibn-i Maslama al-Awsi (R.A.)
278.Sayyiduna Midlaj ibn-i Amir al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
279.Sayyiduna Marsad ibn-i Marsad al-Khazraji (R.A.)
280.Sayyiduna Mistah ibn-i Uthatha al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
281.Sayyiduna Mas'ud ibn-i Aws al-Khazraji (R.A.)
282.Sayyiduna Mas'ud ibn-i Khalda al-Khazraji (R.A.)
283.Sayyiduna Mas'ud ibn-i Rabia al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
284.Sayyiduna Mas'ud ibn-i Zayd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
285.Sayyiduna Mas'ud ibn-i Sa'd al-Khazraji (R.A.)
286.Sayyiduna Mas'ud ibn-i Sa'd al-Awsi (R.A.)
287.Sayyiduna Mus'ab ibn-i Umayr al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
288.Sayyiduna Muadh ibn-i Jabal al-Khazraji (R.A.)
289.Sayyiduna Muadh ibn-i Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
290.Sayyiduna Muadh ibn-us Simma al-Khazraji (R.A.)
291.Sayyiduna Muadh ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
292.Sayyiduna Muadh ibn-i Mais al-Khazraji (R.A.)
293.Sayyiduna Ma'bad ibn-i Abbad al-Khazraji (R.A.)
294.Sayyiduna Ma'bad ibn-i Qays al-Khazraji (R.A.)
295.Sayyiduna Muattib ibn-i Ubayd al-Awsi (R.A.)
296.Sayyiduna Muattib ibn-i Awf al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
297.Sayyiduna Muattib ibn-i Kushayr al-Awsi (R.A.)
298.Sayyiduna Ma'qil ibn-i Mundhir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
299.Sayyiduna Ma'mar ibn-i Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
300.Sayyiduna Ma'n ibn-i Adiyy al-Khazraji (R.A.)
301.Sayyiduna Ma'n ibn-i Yazid al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
302-Sayyiduna Muawwiz ibn-i Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
303.Sayyiduna Muawwiz ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
304.Sayyiduna Mikdad ibn'ul-Aswad al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
305.Sayyiduna Mulayl ibn-i Wabra al -Khazraji (R.A.)
306.Sayyiduna Mundhir ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
307.Sayyiduna Mundhir ibn-i Kudama al-Awsi (R.A.)
308.Sayyiduna Mundhir ibn-i Muhammad al-Awsi (R.A.)
309.Sayyiduna Mihja' ibn'us-Salih Mawla Umar'ibn'ul-Khattab al Muhajiri (R.A.) (SHAHID)
310.Sayyiduna Nadr ibn-i Harith al-Awsi (R.A.)
311.Sayyiduna Nu'man ibn-i al-A'raj al-Khazraji (R.A.)
312.Sayyiduna Nu'man ibn-i Abi Hazma al-Awsi (R.A.)
313.Sayyiduna Nu'man ibn-i Sinan al-Khazraji (R.A.)
314.Sayyiduna Nu'man ibn-i Abd-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
315.Sayyiduna Nu'man ibn-i Amr al-Khazraji (R.A)
316.Sayyiduna Nu'man ibn-i Malik al-Khazraji (R.A.)
317.Sayyiduna Nawfal ibn-i Abdullah al-Khazraji (R.A.)
318.Sayyiduna Waqid ibn-i Abdullah al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
319.Sayyiduna Waraqa bin Iyas al-Khazraji (R.A)
320.Sayyiduna Wadia bin Amr al-Khazraji (R.A.)
321.Sayyiduna Wahb ibn-i Abi Sharh al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
322.Sayyiduna Wahb ibn-i Sa'd al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
323.Sayyiduna Hani'bin'Niyar al-Khazraji (R.A.)
324.Sayyiduna Hubayl ibn-i Wabra al-Khazraji (R.A.)
325.Sayyiduna Hilal ibn-i Mualla al-Khazraji (R.A.)
326.Sayyiduna Yazid ibn-i al-Akhnas al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
327.Sayyiduna Yazid ibn-i Ruqaysh al-Muhajiri (R.A.)
328.Sayyiduna Yazidi ibn-i Haram al-Khazraji (R.A.)
329.Sayyiduna Yazid ibn'ul-Harith al-Khazraji (R.A.)
330.Sayyiduna Yazid ibn'us-Sakan al-Awsi (R.A.)
331.Sayyiduna Yazid ibn'ul-Mundhir al-Khazraji (R.A.)
(RADIYALLAHU ANHUM AJMAIN)
When Hz. Umar was wounded, a consultation committee of six people was formed in order to appoint the person to be the caliph. The committee consisted of Hz. Ali, Uthman, Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas, Abdurrahman b. Awf, Zubayr Ibn Awwam and Talha Ibn Ubaydullah (May Allah be pleased with them). As a result of the negotiations, four of the members of the committee waived their rights; the negotiations continued on the names of Hz. Uthman and Hz. Ali.
After conducting an opinion research, Abdurrahman Ibn Awf, the leader of the committee, saw that the Muslims agreed on one of these two people as the caliph. He called Hz. Ali and asked him whether he would follow the book of Allah, the sunnah of the Prophet, and the practices of Abu Bakr and Umar and act accordingly. Hz. Ali said he would follow the book of Allah, the sunnah of the Prophet fully but that he would act based on his own ijtihad apart from them. When he asked Hz. Uthman the same question, he accepted it. Thereupon, Abdurrahman Ibn Awf declared that he appointed Hz. Uthman as the caliph. (Suyuti, ibid,171, 172; Ibn Hajar, ibid, 463; H. I. Hasan, ibid, I, 258, 261)
Hz. Abdurrahman called people to the mosque. He said he found Hz. Uthman more suitable for the caliphate and paid allegiance to him. After Hz. Abdurrahman, Hz. Ali became the second person to pay allegiance to Hz. Uthman. Then, the other Muslims paid allegiance to him. Thus, Hz. Uthman was chosen as the Caliph in 644.
The second person to pay allegiance to Hz. Uthman was Hz. Ali. After that, all of the Muslims paid allegiance to him. (Ibn Sa'd, ibid, III, 62) Hz. Uthman became the caliph in 23 H. at the end of the month of Dhul-hijjah.
When Hz. Uthman undertook the administration of the state, Islamic conquests were going on rapidly. During the time of Hz. Umar, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Iran were included in the Islamic land. The strong administration of Hz. Umar enabled the authority and system to settle firmly in the regions that were conquered.
The first six years of the caliphate of Hz. Uthman passed with conquests. In the last six years, some problems and disorders occurred. In these last six years, mischief started to arouse slowly. As Hudhayfa bin Yaman, the confidant of the Messenger of Allah put it, the door of mischief broke when Hz. Umar was martyred. Hz. Umar said when the door that did not let mischief broke, it would never be closed again.
The Important Factors of Mischief and Chaos
1. A great majority of the Companions died and the majority of the Companions who were living retreated to their homes. Their decrease meant decrease in good deeds.
2. The spread of the idea of tribalism. In the Islamic state, which covered a very wide area from Andalusia to the borders of India, there were communities in the status of dhimmi belonging to various religions and races. They revolted against the Islamic state, by which they had been defeated, in any opportunity. As for the Jews, they targeted at the basic principles of Islam in order to break up and destroy the Islamic Ummah. Some Jewish people who claimed to be Muslims were trying to add fuel to the fire by exacerbating the disorders and trying to spread the mischief everywhere. One of them was Abdullah Ibn Saba, who was a man of resistance and who caused the emergence of effective mischievous movements. Ibn Saba was a Yemeni Jew. He provoked people against Hz. Uthman by using the rightful complaints of the sincere people. On the one hand, he tried to spread the idea of "rij'atu Muhammad" (Muhammad's return); on the other hand, he said that the caliphate was the right of Hz. Ali after the Prophet and that this was determined by Allah, laying the foundations of the Shiite creed. According to his ideas, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman seized the right of Hz. Ali.
3. The expansion of the borders of the administration of the caliphate through conquests.
4. As a result of the expansion of the borders, people with various, ideas, views and beliefs started to live within the borders of the Islamic state. There were people belonging to many different nations even in Madinah.
5. Hz. Uthman was a caliph that preferred forgiving to punishing.
6. Hz. Uthman appointed his relatives to important posts. The reason why he did so was the fact that he could not rely on anybody since the conditions were fragile and sensitive. He tried to establish the authority by doing so because his relatives were loyal to him and obeyed his orders. Hz. Uthman's appointing his relatives to various posts caused some of his opponents to propagandize against him.
Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said that mischief and tribulations would occur during the caliphate of Hz. Uthman.
Murra b. Kab, a Companion, narrates:
I heard the Messenger of Allah mention tribulations and that they would occur soon. Meanwhile, somebody who wrapped himself in his clothes passed. When the Messenger of Allah saw him, he said,
"This person will be on the true path at that time."I went toward that man and saw that he was Uthman b. Affan. I turned his face toward the Prophet (pbuh) and asked, "Is he this man?" He said, "Yes!"2
There is another narration from Abdullah b. Umar. He said,
"The Messenger of Allah mentioned a big tribulation and said,
'He (Uthman) will be killed as a victim in it.'"3
Hz. Uthman being informed that he will be the caliph and that some people will want to take it from him
Once Hz. Uthman wasinformed that he would be the caliph and that some people would want to take it from him.
According to a narration from Hz. Aisha, the Prophet (pbuh) said,
"O Uthman! One day, Allah will put a shirt on you. If they force you to take it off, do not take it off for them."4
The shirt Allah would put on him was interpreted as the "caliphate". As a matter of fact, the rebels came to Makkah to take off the shirt of the caliphate from him; they wanted to unseat him. However, he did not accept the demand of the rebels due to the advice of the Messenger of Allah.
Another narration from Hz. Aisha is clearer:
"Once the Prophet (pbuh) said to Hz. Uthman three times:
'O Uthman! Allah will definitely give this duty to you one day. However, munafiqs (hypocrites) will want you to take off the shirt that Allah will put on you. Do not take it off.'"5
Numan b. Bashir said to Hz. Aisha regarding the issue,
"Did anything prevent you from informing people about it on those days?"
Hz. Aisha said, "I had forgotten it."6
She probably remembered the word of the Messenger of Allah after the mischief that occurred during the caliphate of Hz. Uthman.
The Secret Advice of Hz. Uthman to the Messenger of Allah
Besides, during his last disease, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) gave some secret advice to Hz. Uthman. Hz. Aisha, who witnessed it, mentions it related to the mischief about Hz. Uthman:
"When the Messenger of Allah was in his deathbed, he said, 'I would like some of my Companions to be here now.' We said, 'O Messenger of Allah! Shall we call Abu Bakr?' He kept silent. Then we said, 'Shall we call Umar?' He kept silent. Then we said, 'Shall we call Uthman?' He said, 'Yes!' Uthman came and remained alone with him. When the Prophet started to talk to him, Uthman's face started to change."6
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who was lying in Hz. Aisha's room, wanted to see Hz. Uthman, not Hz. Abu Bakr and Hz. Umar, who were the closest to him among his Companions. For, he wanted to say something to Uthman. Finally, he was alone with Hz. Uthman. When the Glorious Messenger started to talk to Hz. Uthman, Uthman's face started to change. This state showed that what he said was not something nice. The Messenger of Allah probably mentioned some nasty things that would take place in the future about him and the ummah.
When Hz. Uthman's house was besieged afterwards, he showed that he acted patiently upon this secret advice and told some people about it. For instance, Qays b. Hazim states the following regarding the issue:
"Abu Sahla, the freed slave of Uthman, said to me,
'Uthman b. Affan stated the following when his house had been besieged:
The Messenger of Allah gave me some secret advice. I am following his advice."7
In addition, Hz. Ali stated the following in the hadith that mentions the same issue: "I act patiently because of it."8
The news of the Prophet mentioned above and this hadith complement each other. When the house of Hz. Uthman was besieged, he showed patience and acted in accordance with the advice of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He told some his relatives about it when his house was besieged. Allah's putting a shirt on him and his preferring death by not taking off this shirt confirms this news given by the Prophet.
It is necessary to view the tribulations that took place during the caliphate of Hz. Uthman in terms of qadar and giving news about the future. That the Messenger of Allah informed this mischief is one of his miracles and shows his prophethood. For, miracles are shown as evidence for prophethood. Allah knows ghayb and sees what will happen before they happen. He informs His Messenger about it based on His wisdom and mercy. And the Prophet informs people as much as he is informed.
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,
"Mischief is in sleep. May Allah damn those who awaken it!" (Suyuti, Fathu’l-Kabir, II/280)
Thus, he advises us not to cause chaos and disorder.
Hz. Uthman allocated salaries to muezzins for the first time and built an additional surrounded open area next to Masjid an-Nabawi. He did it considering the assassination against Hz. Umar.9
Everybody became very distressed when Uthman was martyred by the oppression of the Umayyads. The majority did not think that the revolt and revolution would go so far.10
With his death, a great change took place in public opinion. However, the government was still under the control of the rebels. Hz. Uthman' dead body was buried only after three days following his death next to the Cemetery of Baqi in a surrounded place after his janazah prayer was performed by a group of Companions including Zubayr b. Awwam, Hasan b. Ali, Abu Jahm b. Hudhayfa, and according to another view Hz. Ali, Talha b. Ubaydullah. There were a few people in his funeral.11
Conclusion: It is not appropriate to attribute the mischief and tribulations that occurred during the caliphate of Hz. Uthman to his personal practices
(for detailed information, see Ass. Prof. Murat Sarıcık, Dört Halife Dönemi, Vol. II)
1. Tarikhul Khamis, II, 266
2. at-Taj, III, 328; Sunanu Ibn Majah, I, 41: no 111
3. at-Taj, III, 329
4. at-Taj, III, 329 (K. Fadail); Sharhul-Maqasid, V, 291; al-Khulafaur-Rashidun, p. 179.
5. Fa aradakal-munafiqun an takhla'a qamisaka alladhi qammasakallahu, fala takhlahu. Sunanu, Ibn Majah, I, 41, No: 112. 125
6. ibid, I, 41.
7. ibid, I, 42.
8. Sunanu, Ibn Majah, I, 42; at-Taj, III, 327
9. ibid, I, 42
10. Kısası Enbiya I, 489
11. Khulafau Rashidin, p. 183
They are not true, but slandering.
It is possible to answer the question through a few aspects.
Malik b. Nuwayra became a Muslim in the period of Madinah when he came to Madinah with a group from Tamim. He was appointed as the zakah collector of his tribe. He was a poet and warrior who was influential in his tribe and who was brave.
When Malik heard that the Prophet died, he returned the zakah goods to their owners; he exited the religion of Islam because he denied zakah and joined the apostates.
On the other hand, Khalid b. Walid, who was appointed as the commander-in-chief by Hz. Abu Bakr to fight apostates,swore that he would kill Malik, who was a brave warrior and who strengthened apostates.
One day, a military team of Hz. Khalid caught Malik b. Nuwayra and his eleven men and took them to the commander, Hz. Khalid. There was an argument whether Malik was an apostate (murtad) or not. Hz. Khalid believed that Malik was an apostate and had him executed. Thus, Malik's wife Mutammim and his children became slaves. Then, Khalid married Malik's wife Mutammim.
The Companions who believed that Malik was not an apostate complained to Hz. Abu Bakr about him. He questioned Khalid b. Walid regarding the issue. Hz. Khalid said that he had killed Malik due to a promise he had made and apologized to Hz. Abu Bakr.
Hz Umar held the view that it was necessary to have Hz. Khalid executed due to Malik.
However, Hz. Abu Bakr said retaliation was not in question for killing a person by mistake. Then, Hz. Umar made the following offer: "At least, he should be removed of his duty."
However, Hz. Abu Bakr opposed this offer by saying, “I will not sheathe a sword that Allah sent against the polytheists."
There is another important issue here. Sayf b. Umar, who was a historian belonging to the tribe of Sons of Tamim, made up unreal narrations and stories about the death of Malik b. Nuwayra ofthe tribe of Sons of Tamim.
Shiites did not hesitate to use thoseunreal narrations and stories against Hz. Abu Bakr and Hz. Khalid in the course of history. For, they regarded Hz. Khalid as a man of Hz. Abu Bakr; acting upon this view, they thought Khalid did not like Hz. Ali.
For, according to Shiites, since Hz. Abu Bakr did not like Hz. Ali, Hz. Khalid, whom they regarded to be a man of Hz. Abu Bakr, should not like Hz. Ali.
This is the real story in summary. (see Sarıcık, Murat, Dört Halife, Nesil Yayınları, İstanbul 2010, p. 59- 60; Fayda, Mustafa, "Mâlik b. Nüveyre", DİA, XXVII, İstanbul 2003, p. 514- 515)
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One of the people who claimed to be prophets after the death of the Prophet (pbuh) during the caliphate of Hz. Ebu Bakr was a woman called Sajah, who belonged to the tribe of Sons of Tamim. When this woman claimed to be a prophet, her tribe, Sons of Talib and many Bedouins believed in her and followed her. After a while, Sajah marched toward Yamama with her army. She married Musaylima al-Kadhdhab, another fake prophet, and approved his prophethood.
Malik b. Nuwayra, the leader of Butah, believed in Sajah, exited the religion of Islam and became an apostate. When he believed in Sajah, his tribe followed him. When Sajah went to al-Jazirah, the north of Arabia, the tribe of Sons of Tamim returned to Islam and Malik hesitated. Meanwhile, a group of soldiers fighting under the command of Khalid b. Walid, who was a commander fighting against the apostates at that time, caught Malik b. Nuwayra and some of his important men, and took them to the presence of Khalid. Abu Qatada, who was near Khalid b. Walid and who was one of his soldiers said that Malik and his men called adhan and performed prayers hence they should not be harmed. Another soldier in the army of Khalid said that they did not call adhan and that they did not perform prayers. Hz. Abu Bakr, the Caliph, accepted calling adhan and performing prayers as a sign of Islam in the war against the apostates and ordered that such tribes should not be harmed.
It was a cold night. Khalid b. Walid probably hesitated about Malik b. Nuwayra and his men and wanted them to be imprisoned by acting cautiously. He called his officer and told him “to mudafaa” the prisoners. In Arabic, the word mudafaa is derived from the word dafaat, which means to heat, to warm. It also means to protect. Therefore, Khalid b. Walid’s order meant to imprison the men and to protect them from cold. However, the same word meant to kill in the language of the tribe of Kinana. Upon the order of Khalid b. Walid, Malik and his men were killed at night. When Khalid heard the screams, he came out but it was too late. Meanwhile, Khalid said, “When Allah wishes something, it happens.”
After this incident, Abu Qatada, one of the Companions, went to Madinah and told Hz. Abu Bakr about the incident. Hz Umar wanted Hz. Khalid to be removed of the duty of commander-in-chief. However, Hz. Abu Bakr summoned Khalid to Madinah and listened to him. He accepted Khalid’s excuse but he did not like it when he heard that he married Malik’s wife. Hz. Abu Bakr paid diyah from the Treasury for Malik b. Nuwayra and the other people who returned to Islam (the witnessing of Abu Qatada is accepted here) but who were killed by mistake. However, Hz. Umar wanted retaliation. Hz. Abu Bakr said, “Retaliation is not in question for killing a person by mistake.” Hz. Umar made the following offer: "At least, he should be removed of his duty." Hz. Abu Bakr opposed this offer by saying, “I will not sheathe a sword that Allah sent against the polytheists."
During his caliphate, Hz. Umar followed his governors and commanders closely and applied a very strict policy. However, Hz. Abu Bakr did not want to put much pressure on the administrators. He did not agree to unseat a commander due to a mistake made during a war.
When Hz. Umar became the caliph, he unseated Khalid b. Walid from the post of commander-in-chief during the Battle of Yarmuk and appointed Abu Ubayda b. Jarrah instead of him. Some people thought the reason for this was Malik b. Nuwayra but Hz. Umar wrote to his governors/administrators that it was not the reason for it as follows: “I did not unseat Khalid due to being angry with him or due to his treason. However, I feared that people would fall into mischief because of him and that they would rely on him (not Allah) due to achievements; therefore, I wanted people to know that the one that really does things is Allah.” (1)
1- Ibnl-Athir Ali b. Abdul-Karim, al-Kamil fit-Tarikh, I-VXII, Beirut nd. II, 353- 357; Abu Zayd Shibli, Khalid Ibnul-Walid, Maktabatul- Khanji, Egypt, 1952, p. 102- 105, 189- 193; Mustafa Fayda, “Halid b. Velid”.
The narration about “damning” mentioned above was put forward by the Shiite.
According to Ahl as-Sunnah scholars, there is no single sound narration regarding the issue.
The Prophet’s (pbuh) damning about something like that is not in accordance with the nature of this issue. It should not be thought that the Prophet (pbuh), who did not damn the polytheists and munafiqs, should damn those who left Usama’s army.
Besides, all of the people who were in this army were the Companions who were sincere believers. Islamic scholars hold the view that this story was made up by the Shiite in order to declare that Hz. Abu Bakr and Hz. Umar were unbelievers.
Some Shiites give Ibn Sad’s Tabaqat and Ibn Hisham’s Sirah as reference on the internet. Although we searched for it a lot, we could not find the issue of “damning” in the places where Usama’s army is mentioned in those resources.
Besides, if the Prophet had made such a warning, Hz. Abu Bakr and Hz. Umar, who acted the most sincerely toward Allah and His Messenger and showed them the most respect, would have taken this warning into consideration more than anybody else, as the ummah of Islam would agree unanimously –except some groups.
The Prophet Muhammad is an Arab. Allah Almighty sent him from among Arabs. The Prophet was born in Makkah and he grew up there. All of his ancestors were Arabs like him.
Allah sent down the Quran, His last book, in Arabic. The Prophet (pbuh) himself mentions his lineage and language as follows:
"I am an Arab in terms of lineage. I am a member of Qurayshi tribe. My language is the language of Sons of Sa'd."
Halima, the wet nurse of the Prophet, was a member of Sons of Sa'd. He lived with them for four years and learned their language; he learnt fluent and real Arabic.
As it is mentioned in tafsir, hadith and siyar books, the only language that the Prophet (pbuh) knew and spoke was Arabic. There is no resource mentioning that the Prophet spoke any other languages. It is stated in some resources that he uttered a few words in Persian but it does not mean that he spoke Persian.
After the Prophet (pbuh) came to Madinah, delegations and letters started to come from various nations, especially the Jews living around Madinah. The Prophet advised Zayd bin Thabit, one of the revelation scribes, to learn Hebrew and Syriac in order to understand what the delegations said and to respond to the letters. There are hadiths in hadith books like Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and Musnad, and siyar resources regarding the issue. For instance, as it is mentioned in Musnad, Zayd bin Thabit expresses it as follows:
"When the Messenger of Allah arrived in Madinah, I was a child. They took me to the Messenger of Allah. He liked me very much. They said to the Messenger of Allah:
'O Messenger of Allah! This child is from Sons of Najjar. He memorized more than ten chapters.'
The Messenger of Allah liked it very much. Once, he said to me,
"O Zayd! Learn the writing of Jews. By Allah, I cannot trust in what Jews write to me."
"I learned to read and write Hebrew in fifteen nights. After that, I started to read the letters Jews sent to the Messenger of Allah and to write them answers in Hebrew." (Musnad, V/136)
Zayd bin Thabit also learned Syrac because it was necessary.
Once, the Prophet (pbuh) received a letter in Syriac. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to Zayd bin Thabit,
"I receive letters in Syriac. Can you write in Syriac well?" Zayd said,
"I do not know Syriac."The Prophet (pbuh) said,
"Then, try to learn this language."
Hz. Zayd learned Syriac in seventeen days. It is a miracle of the Prophet that he learned it so quickly. After that, Zayd wrote the letters that came to the Prophet in Syriac and wrote answers to them. (Tirmidhi, Istidhan: 22; Abu Dawud, Ilm: 2)
It is clearly understood from the narrations above that the Prophet gave the letters that came to him in foreign languages to Zayd; it became his duty. Those narrations show that the Prophet did not speak any language other than Arabic.
(Mehmed Paksu, Meseleler ve Çözümleri - 1)
There are some scholars who say the statement, "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate"is weak or reliable; there are also some scholars who say this statement does not belong to the Prophet (pbuh) and hence it is fabricated. However, it is not possible to regard this narration, which exists also in Ahl as-Sunnah resources, as non-existent. As a matter of fact, it is reported as a hadith. (al-Jamius-Saghir 1/415, Sawaiqul-Muhriqa 73; Tahdhibut-Tahdhib 6/320; Hakim, Mustadrak 3/126)
The hadith exists only in Tirmidhi's Sunan among Kutub as-Sitta books. The narration in Tirmidhi is as follows: “I am the house of wisdom and Ali is its gate." The narration in Uqayli, Tabarani, Ibn Adi and Hakim is as follows: "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate. He who wants knowledge should come to the gate.”
The narration that Hz. Ali is the gate of the door of knowledge of the city of knowledge owned by the Prophet is disputable among hadith scholars but it is understood that such a hadith exists and that it is hasan though it does not reach the degree of soundness.
It can be nothing but a subjective claim to state that caliphate belongs to Hz. Ali and his descendants by using a hadith out of its context and using it as a reference not directly but based on some signs and interpretations related to one of the most important and vital issues of the Islamic ummah. As a matter of fact, just Shiite scholars agree with it.
However, when it is considered that such a hadith exists, it is necessary to accept the greatness of Hz. Ali in terms of knowledge (ilm). It is a historical fact that he has an important place among the Companions. It is necessary to understand the ilm that Hz. Ali has as an understanding comprehending the deep meanings of the Quran and the Sunnah rather than an esoteric understanding that he knows ghayb. As a matter of fact, he himself approved it and said that he had nothing but the Book of Allah and the understanding (fahm) given to a Muslim.
Therefore, the love toward Hz. Ali must not reach an extreme level that blinds eyes and deafens ears as it is seen in many groups. Muslims have to be consistent and moderate related to love and in all other issues.
That Hz. Ali is the gate of the city of knowledge increases his virtues but this should not bring about a tendency to regard the other Companions inferior. Every Companion has superior virtues that belong to them and that do not exist in others.
To sum up, it is never appropriate to regard Hz. Ali as the most superior one among the Companions acting upon the narration above and similar ones without taking the other narrations into consideration. As a matter of fact, many statements praising other Companions especially the four caliphs were narrated from the Prophet (pbuh). It can be wrong to decree based on one or two narrations without taking the other narrations into consideration.
From this point of view, it is not appropriate to abandon this narration with the anxiety that it shows Hz. Ali as superior to the other caliphs; similarly, it is not appropriate to regard Hz. Ali as the most superior one among the Companions acting upon this narration only. It is necessary to evaluate every statement in its context.
Hz. Ammar was not killed by Hz. Muawiya. Besides this narration was interpreted; there are some scholars who interpreted the people who killed Ammar as those who took him to the battlefield. On the other hand, there are some scholars who interpreted it as only the people who actually killed him. (Kısas-ı Enbiya, 1/561 ff.; al- Khulafaur-Rashidun, 224-225)
This incident is an evidence showing that Hz. Ali and his followers were right but this event, which took place among the Companions, is as a result of ijtihad; therefore, none of them is held responsible for it. The one who killed and the one who was killed are people of Paradise. For, mujtahids receive rewards even when they make mistakes; Hz. Muawiya, who made a mistake in his ijtihad on this occasion, cannot be accused of heresy and fisq (sinfulness) and cannot be criticized. He needs to be mentioned as a mujtahid and with his good deeds. For, a mujtahid that makes a mistake cannot be accused of heresy and fisq. (see Sharhul-Aqaid, p.325, Hashiyatul-Kastalli 'ala Sharhil-Aqaid, p.180-181)
After the Battle of Jamal, Hz. Ali arranged his soldiers again and walked against Hz. Muawiya, who was the governor of Damascus then. Both armies confronted in Siffin. One of those who made great efforts in this battle was again Hz. Ammar. During the battle, he met Hz. Amr b. As and talked to him. Hz. Ammar tried to warn Hz. Amr.
It was one of the most severe days of the war. He went to a quiet place to have a rest and to break his fast. When he drank the milk that was brought to him, his face shone with a smile. He expressed his joy by saying, "I will rejoin my friends today. I will rejoin the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his friends." For, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had given him the glad tiding that the last thing he would drink in this world was milk.
He returned to the battlefield. He started to fight with might and main. Meanwhile an unfortunate person called Ibn Jadiya wounded him and caused him to fall off his animal. He died after a while. When Hz. Ammar was martyred, the opposing party panicked. They knew about the hadith of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). They interpreted the hadith based on their own view.
He was buried in the cemetery of Kufa. It is narrated that he was ninety-one years old when he was martyred.
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