Most Read in the Category of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

1-) Can you give some information about the children of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?

Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, had three sons, Qasim, Abdullah, Ibrahim, and four daughters; he had, in total, seven children. They are as follows according to the birth sequence: Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayya, Ummu Kulthum, Fatima, Abdullah and Ibrahim. Six of those seven children were from Khadija, and the seventh was from Mary of Egypt, may Allah be pleased with them all.
Although Ibn Ishaq says that the Prophet had two more sons named Tahir and Tayyib, it is stated that they are the titles of Abdullah.

 1) Qasim:
The first child of Allah's Messenger was Qasim. For this reason, he was named Abu'l Qasim (the father of Qasim). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) liked being called Abu'l Qasim. And the Companions would call him by this name. According to Ibn Sa'd, Qasim lived for two years. He passed away in Makkah. The first one among the children of the Prophet was Qasim.
2) Zaynab:
She was the oldest daughter of the Prophet. She was born after Qasim. When Zaynab was born, Allah's Messenger was thirty years old. Zaynab, born in Makkah, passed away in Madinah in the eighth year of the Migration. She was thirty years old.
Zaynab first married Abul'as, her maternal aunt's son. As Abul'as did not leave idolaters at first; he was caught as prisoner of war in the Battle of Badr, and when he was saved, he promised to send Zaynab to Madinah. Allah's Messenger sent Zayd Ibn Haritha to fetch his family. It was Zayd who brought Zaynab to Medina. Zaynab went to Madinah but her husband, Abul'as, stayed in Makkah.
Abul'as was captured again as prisoner by Muslims but was freed because of Zaynab's protection.
When Abul'as was saved from being prisoner once again, he went to Makkah. After giving the trusts to their possessors, he accepted Islam. He migrated to Madinah. As he became a Muslim, their marriage was renewed. Abul'as behaved well toward Zaynab. For this reason, he earned the appreciation of the Prophet. After reuniting with her husband, Zaynab could not live long. Upon her death, her body was washed by Ummu Ayman and Sawda, may Allah be pleased with them. Her funeral prayer was led by Allah's Messenger and she was put into her grave by Abul'as.
3) Ruqayya
She was the second daughter of Allah's Messenger. When she was born, the Prophet was 33 years old. Ruqayya was engaged to Utba, Abu Lahab's son, before her father's prophethood. When Allah's Messenger started calling people to Islam, Abu Lahab summoned his son and said to him:
“My son! If you do not separate from Muhammad's daughter, I will separate from you.” And Utba left Ruqayya as a result of his father's inducements. Then Ruqayya married Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him. Uthman and his wife Ruqayya joined the first group of people who migrated to Ethiopia. Uthman returned to Makkah from Ethiopia and from there migrated to Madinah. Ruqayya became ill during the Battle of Badr and therefore Uthman could not take part in the Battle of Badr. He was counted among the excused because he had to stay with his wife.
The day when Zayd Ibn Haritha brought the news of Badr victory to Madinah, Rukayya passed away. And Allah's Messenger could not take part in his daughter's, Ruqayya's, funeral because of the Battle of Badr.
4) Ummu Kulthum:
She was born before the onset of Islam. Her mother is Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her. Ummu Kulthum was engaged to Utayba, second son of Abu Lahab, before Islam came. Upon the onset of Islam, Abu Lahab did not believe and became a ferocious enemy of Islam. When Tabbat Surah (a Quranic Chapter) was revealed about him, he asked his son to separate from Ummu Kulthum. And he obeyed his father and left her.
At the end of the Battle of Badr, one year after the death of Ruqayya, in the third year of the Migration, she married Uthman.

As is narrated by Bukhari, when Hafsa was widowed, and when Umar, her father, applied to Uthman, he showed hesitation. Then Allah's Messenger said to Umar:
I will find a man to you better than Uthman and to Uthman a man better than you. Give your daughter to me, and I will give my daughter to Uthman.

Ummu Kulthum, who married Uthman, lived with him for 6 years. She passed away in the ninth year of the Migration. Her funeral prayer was led by Allah's Messenger. She was buried by Ali, Fadl, and Usama, may Allah be pleased with them all.
As Uthman married two daughters of Allah's Messenger, Ruqayya and Ummu Kulthum, he was given the title “Zinnurayn” which means “Owner of two lights.”
5) Fatima:
Prophet Muhammad's youngest and most beloved daughter. She was born in Makkah when the Divine Revelation started to come. She married Ali in Madinah in the second year of the Migration. When they married, Fatima was 15, and Ali was 24 years old. Allah's Messenger prepared for his daughter a bedcover, two grinders, a water bag, and Fatima used the grinders and the water bag all her life.
Allah's Messenger wanted Ali and Fatima to get on well and if some dispute took place between them, he would reconcile them. One day, Ali behaved harshly toward Fatima and she came to Allah's Messenger and complained about him. After Fatima, Ali, too, came and complained about her, but The Prophet made peace between them.
Once, Ali wanted to take another wife; the Prophet, who heard about it, became very upset and said in one of his sermons: 

“My daughter is part of my heart. Whatever makes my daughter grieved makes me grieved, too.” Thereupon, Ali changed his mind and did not marry any woman when Fatima was alive.
Fatima passed away in the 11th year of the Migration, 6 months after her father's death. When Allah's Messenger passed away, she was 25 years old.

Allah's Messenger loved his daughter Fatima dearly. During his illness, he called her close to him. He whispered something to her, upon which Fatima cried. He whispered again. This time Fatima smiled. Thereupon Aisha, The Prophet's wife, asked about it. Fatima replied as follows:
Firstly, Allah's Messenger said that he would die after his illness; so I cried. Then he informed me that the first one in his family to reunite with him would be me; this time, I became happy.”

It was Fatima who continued the lineage of the Prophet. Fatima had five children: Hasan, Husayn, Muhsin, Ummu Kulthum, and Zaynab. Among them Muhsin passed away as a child.
6) Abdullah:
He was born in Makkah before the Migration. He lived for three months. He passed away as a baby. 'Tahir' and 'Tayyib' were Abdullah's other names. 

7)Ibrahim:
He was the youngest child of the Prophet. He was born in Madinah in the 8th year of the Migration. According to Ibn Ishaq, all other children of the Prophet other than Ibrahim were born before his prophethood. Ibrahim was born of Egyptian Mary and, as is narrated from Aisha, passed away when he was 17 or 18 months old.

Allah's Messenger was very pleased by Ibrahim's birth and gave a feast on the seventh day, distributed alms to the poor and named his son after Prophet Abraham, because:
The Prophet's sons born of Khadija had passed away when they were very young. And he did not have any children from his other wives.
Salma, Abu Rafi's wife, became a wetnurse for Ibrahim. Bukhari narrates that Ummu Sayf breastfed Ibrahim. Allah's Messenger would drop by the wetnurse, see Ibrahim, caress and kiss him.

Ibrahim passed away in Ummu Sayf's house. When The Prophet heard that his son became ill, he went to him with Abdurrahman Ibn Awf, and cried when he saw Ibrahim suffer in the clutch of death, he could not help crying. When Abdurrahman remarked:
“Allah's Messenger, what are you doing?” he replied:
“My feelings of compassion became highly aroused.”

Allah's Messenger led the funeral prayer of his son; Fadl son of Abbas, Usama son of Zayd, Uthman son of Maz'un placed Ibrahim into his grave. He was buried in the Baqi' graveyard.

When Ibrahim passed away, the sun was eclipsed. When people said “The sun joined the mourning.” Allah's Messenger said:
The sun and the moon are among the signs of Allah. They are not eclipsed because of a mortal's death!” and thus, he protected Muslims from such false beliefs.


2-) Is Prophet Muhammad (SAW) alive in his grave?

As it is known, any subject may be commented diffirently. As a pricipal we do not make any comment about individuals, especially those we do not know much about.

The view that our Prophet (pbuh) is alive in his grave is also the view of many Sunni scholars. Actually every person is alive in their grave, which is to say in the barzah (intermediate; the state of the soul after death and before the final judgment). Because the dying is only body, the soul is eternal and with Allah’s making it eternal it is eternal.

According to the hadith that Hazrath Enes narrated, Our Prophet (pbuh) when coming round Kudus (Jarusalem), He stopped at Hazrath Moses’ grave and saw him praying. (see Muslim, Fadâil, 42- hadith no 164). In that hadith it is stated that Hazrath Moses is alive in his grave after thousands years. The intention from grave is barzah realm (intermediate realm). As a matter of fact, Our Prophet (pbuh) when going up to heaven, He had seen Hazrath Abraham, Hazrath Moses and Hazrath Isa (Jesus) praying and He had served them as an imam. (See Muslim, Iman, 75; hadith No: 277; Nevevî, the explanation of the concerned hadith).

According to another hadith narration of Hazrath Enes, Our Prophet (pbuh) said that prophets are alive in their graves and praying there. Hafiz al- Haysami pointed that this hadith is sound (see Macmau’z-Zavaid, 8/211).

It is wrong to say “Our Prophet (pbuh) is present everywhere.” Because these attributes are belonging to Allah. Prophets or saint’s seeing something only can be with the permission and telling of Allah.

The subject that Our Prophet is made up light is clear. If the aim is to say that his body had been made up by light, it is clearly wrong. Because it is among the facts that his being created is like other people. But if the aim is to refer to the hadith “Allah firstly created my noor (light).” (Aclunî, 1/265), we can not say anything to that. May Allah not astray us from straight way, amin!


3-) How did Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) practice his prayers?

Our Prophet’s way of practicing prayers is as explained in Islamic catechism books. This issue is explained in fards, sunnahs and wajibs of prayers. However, the psychological state of the Prophet when starting prayer is very important.

Hazrat Aisha narrates: The Messenger of Allah talked to us and we talked to him. However, he was as if he had not recognized us when it was time for prayer, and he turned to Allah with his all existence. (Fazail-i A’mal p.303).

The Companions asked the Messenger of Allah (pbuh):

- “Allah the Glorious states in chapter al-Fath that He forgave you totally. So, why are you still practicing so long and infinite prayers?” 
The Lord of the Universe (pbuh) answered:

-“Why shall I not be a thankful servant to Allah?”


As stated in a hadith, while the Messenger of Allah was practicing prayers, a sobbing cry sound like the sound of a grinding mill used to come from his blessed chest.

As narrated from Hazrat Aisha, while the Messenger of Allah was practicing prayers, some sounds like sound of boiling pot used to come from his chest. (Ibn-i Maja, Mukaddima, 3).

As our reverend mother Hazrat Aisha narrated, the Messenger of Allah used to continue practicing tahajjud prayer at nights for a very long time until his blessed feet swelled up. His reverend wife, impressed by this situation, asked: “O the Messenger of Allah, although your sins committed and to be committed have been already forgiven, why are you still doing like this?”

He replied to this: “O Aisha, shall I not be a very thankful servant to my Lord?” (Bukhari, Tahajjud, 6).

Hazrat Ata narrated as follows: I asked Hazrat Aisha to tell us the most astonishing event she witnessed about the Messenger of Allah. Hazrat Aisha cried and said: “Whatever was not astonishing about him? One night he came and got in bed with me. My skin touched his and he said: “O Abu Bakr’s daughter, let me off! Let me worship my Lord.” I said: “I love being with you, but I prefer to do as you wish.”

I let him. He got up and went to ewer. He took ablution. He did not waste water by using it too much. Then he started praying and started to cry. He cried so much that his tears flew down through his chest. Then he bent for ruqu and cried. Then he prostrated for sajdah and still cried. Then he raised his head from sajdah and still cried. He continued to cry until morning. When it was time for Morning Prayer (fajr), Bilal came and recited adhan (call to prayer). And then I said: “O the Messenger of Allah! What is that makes you cry? Allah ha forgiven your sins committed and to be committed.” He said: “Shall I not be a thankful servant to Allah? Shall I not give Him thanks?”

While the Lord of the Universe (pbuh) was about to submit his blissful soul to Allah, his last advice to humankind was being careful about practicing prayers and this was the last hadith narrated from him. Hazrat Anas narrates:

“When the time of death came upon the Messenger of Allah, the whole of the advice he made before he submitted his soul is as follows:

“Do not neglect Namaz (prayers) and be fair about your slaves’ rights.” (Assist. Prof. Ibrahim Canan, Kutub-i Sitte translation and interpretation, vol.17, p.338).

When the time for prayer came, the Messenger of Allah used to become a hundred times happier and more excited than the happiness and excitement of a person who is given the news that a beloved one has come. He was at the zenith of humbleness (khushu) and modesty to his Lord and he was much delighted in invocating and begging to Him as a servant. Once, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) described prayer as follows:

“Prayer (namaz/salah) is practiced in twos. In each two rakats, there is a tahiyyat. Prayer is to feel humble and to lower yourself… You raise your hands upwards; palms turned to your face, for the Lord and beg saying O Lord! O Lord! Whoever omits this, his prayer is incomplete.” (Tirmidhi, Salat, 166). In other words, prayer means for servant to understand his helplessness and impotence compared to the Creator and to show his neediness with cries and storms in his inner world and to invocate and supplicate Him.

Muslims would practice five times a day, which is fard upon them; however, the Messenger of Allah would also practice nawafil prayers such as midmorning, ishraq and tahajjud in addition to daily prayers. Although all Muslims practice seventeen rakats of fard prayers which are fard upon them everyday, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) used to practice about 50-60 rakats of fard and nawafil prayers day and night in a day. The feeling of love for Allah in his heart during prayers was superior to any other feelings for the Messenger of Allah. He used to extend ruqu so much that anyone seeing him from a distance would think that he forgot to prostrate.

Huzaifa narrates: One night, I started prayer together with the Prophet (pbuh). He started reciting the surah al-Baqarah. I thought to myself that he would bend for ruqu when he cited the hundredth verse. However, he continued reciting when he reached the hundredth verse. I thought to myself that he would practice two rakats with this surah. He continued reciting. I thought he would bend for ruqu when he finishes this surah. Then he started reciting al-Nisa. When he finished it, he started reciting al-i Imran. He was reciting slowly. When the invocation verses came, he said “subhanallah” and when supplication verses came, he supplicated. When istiaza verses came, he sought refuge with Allah. Then he bent for ruqu. He started saying “Subhana Rabbiya’l-Azim”. His ruqu lasted as long as his qiyam (standing). Then he stood up saying “Semiallahu limen hamideh. Rabbena leke’l hamd.” He stayed in qiyam almost as long as ruqu. Then he prostrated. He said “Subhana Rabbiya’l A’la.” His prostration (sajdah) was also as long as his qiyam. (Muslim, Salatu’l-Musafirin, 203).

He used to practice his prayers, from the beginning of revelation on, in the yard of Baytullah, before the eyes of idolaters who gave him hardships and tortured him mercilessly. Some of the idolaters attacked him while he was praying and yet he did not stop his praying because of fearing them. During war, when both sides came across and their swords crushed each other, their spears flew whizzing and their hearts beat crazily, Muslims used to line up and practice their prayers, with the Prophet being their imam in the front, at the time of prayer.

Abu Huraira narrates: During a war expedition, the Messenger of Allah encamped somewhere between Dajnan and Usfan. Idolaters said: “They have got a prayer which is more precious for them than their fathers and children. It is Asr prayer. Get ready and attack them all together at once!”

Gabriel the Archangel (Jibril) came and told the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to divide his companions into two groups, told one group to wait in alert together with their weapons while the other group is practicing prayer with Prophet. He told him to practice one rakat with the first group and then one rakat with the second group so that each group would pray one rakat with the Prophet and the Prophet would have practiced two rakats this way. (Tirmidhi, Tafsir, 4/3035).

The Messenger of Allah’s desire for being in Allah’s presence was so great that he practiced not only fard prayers during war but practiced prayers at nights until morning. Actually, Hazrat Ali, while describing Badr Battle, says:

“At Badr, there was no other cavalier than Mikdad amongst us. I know it well that all of us slept then except for the Messenger of Allah. However, the Messenger of Allah practiced prayer and cried until the morning under a tree.”

This was his loyalty to Allah. He practiced his prayers always in time. Moreover, he did not miss any prayer when his illness, which caused him to die, was at its zenith. His illness got so severe that he was eventually so weak and tired. He went to masjid with the help of two people for Dhuhr and Asr and practiced them with people. Although he was writhing in pain of death, he reminded his people the most beneficial issues for them and his last words were “Prayer! Prayer! Fear Allah about the slaves you own!”. (Abu Dawud, Adab, 133).

The issues which our beloved Prophet found useful to remind us before he died must, of course, be those which are the most important ones for humankind’s duty of religious service. The first one is the pillar of Islam, prayer (salat) which lets human beings closer to the Creator and the Beloved One. And the second one is fair treatment to the weak, our workers and wives, whom Allah entrusted to us, which will save us from rolling down into Hell.

One day, while the Messenger of Allah was waiting for praying time in masjid with his companions, a man stood up and said to the Prophet: “O Messenger of Allah! I committed a sin.” The Messenger did not respond to the man.

When the Messenger finished praying, the same man stood up again and repeated his words. The Messenger asked him: “Did you not practice this prayer with us? And did you not take ablution properly for it?”

The man said: Yes, o the Messenger of Allah!. The Messenger said: “So, that prayer will redeem for the sin you committed.” (Heysemi, Majmau’z-zawaid, I, 301).


4-) How was our Prophet’s (pbuh) funeral prayer performed?

Our Prophet’s funeral prayer was performed. However, since there was not a caliph of Muslims, it was performed not in congregation but individually. Moreover, it was performed individually because the Prophet was in the room from whence he passed away to the Hereafter and the room was not large enough for all Muslims to fit in together. Firstly, Hazrat Abu Bakr came to the presence of the Prophet and performed the funeral prayer. Then, Hazrat Umar, Hazrat Uthman, Hazrat Talha, Hazrat Zubair and then other Muslims performed the funeral prayer, all one after another.

Abdullah b. Mas’ud narrates:

Our Prophet, our beloved one, informed us about his death one month before he died. (1)

O Messenger of Allah! When is your time of death?’ we asked.

The time of death has drawn near. Time of returning to Allah, to Heaven, to Sidratu’l-Muntaha, to Rafiqu’l-Ala, to Destiny and to blissful and blessed life has drawn near’ said he. (2).

O Messenger of Allah! Who should wash you?’ we asked.

Whoever closest to me from my household’ he said.

‘O Messenger of Allah! With what shall we cover you and enshroud?’ we asked.

Enshroud with this clothing of mine if you wish, or Egyptian fabric or cloth!’ he said.

‘O Messenger of Allah! Who shall perform your funeral prayer?’ we asked.

 ‘May Allah have mercy on you! May He reward you with blessings because of your prophet! (3) When you wash and enshroud me, put me on that wooden bed of mine and place next to my grave in my house! Then, leave me alone for a while! Because, firstly my two friends, Gabriel and Michael, and then Israfel, and later Angel of Death, Azrael, together with his army of angels will perform my funeral prayer! (4) After that, enter in groups and perform my funeral prayer and send me your revering and compliments! However, do not disturb me by praising and crying out! (5) Let the men from my household begin performing my funeral prayer first! Then, let their women perform! Then you perform! Send my compliments to those from my Companions, who are not present here! And send my compliments also to those to come from my tribe and those to follow my religion and me until the Day of Resurrection!’

O Messenger of Allah! Who shall place you into your grave?’ we asked.

‘My household and lots of angels, whom you do not see but who see you’ he said.” (6)

In accordance with that explanation, firstly four archangels performed the Prophet’s funeral prayer and then the other angels did.

After that, firstly, Hazrat Abu Bakr came to the presence of the Prophet and performed the funeral prayer. Then, Hazrat Umar, Hazrat Uthman, Hazrat Talha, Hazrat Zubair and then other Muslims performed the funeral prayer, all one after another.

References:

1- Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 2, p. 256-257, Tabari, History, vol. 3, p. 1 92-1 93, Ibn Athir, Kamil, vol. 2, p. 320, Abu'l-Fida, al-Bidayah, vol. 5, p. 253, Ibn Hajar, Matalibu'l-aliya, vol. 4, p. 261.
2- Ibn Sa'd, vol. 2, p. 257, Tabari, vol. 3, p. 193, Suhaylf, Rawidu'l-unuf, vol. 7, p. 590, Ibn Athir, vol. 2, p. 320, Abu'l-Fida, vol. 5, p. 253, Ibn Hajar, vol. 4, p. 261.
3- Ibn Sa'd, vol. 2, p. 257, Balazuri, Ansabu'l-ashraf, vol. 1, p. 564, Tabari, vol. 3, p. 193, Ibn Athir, vol. 2, p. 320, Abu'l-Fida, vol. 5, p. 253, Ibn Hajar, vol. 4, p. 261.
4- Ibn Sa'd, vol. 2, p. 257, Balazuri, vol. 1, p. 564, Tabari, vol. 3, p. 193, Abu'l-Fida, vol. 5, p. 253, Ibn Hajar, vol. 4, p. 261.
5- Ibn Sa'd, vol. 2, p. 256-257, Balazuri, vol. 1, p. 564, Tabari, vol. 3, p. 192-193, Suhaylf, vol. 7, p. 590, Ibn Athir, vol. 2, p. 320, Abu'l-Fida, vol. 5, p. 253, Ibn Hajar, vol. 4, p. 261-262.
6- Ibn Sa'd, vol. 2, p. 193, Ahmad b. Hanbal, vol. 4, p. 106.
M. Asım Köksal, İslam Tarihi, Köksal Yayıncılık: 8/231-236.


5-) Who are the breastfeeders of the Prophet?

The three dear women who breastfed the Prophet are as follows:
1. Thuwayba:
Thuwayba who was the slave of Abu Lahab nursed our Prophet along with her son, Masruh. Thuwayba also nursed Abu Salama and Hamza, who was an uncle of our Prophet. That nursing happened before the nursing of Halima Sadiya. (Ibn Sad, Tabaqat, 1/108; Ansab, 1/42)
When our Prophet was in Makkah, He visited Thuwayba, inquired after her health and helped her. After the Prophet immigrated to Madinah, he continued his care of her and sent clothes to her. Khadijah wanted to set this woman free by buying her from Abu Lahab but he did not want to sell her at first, he himself set her free afterwards. (Tabaqat, 1/108)

When our Prophet returned from the fight of Khyber, she had passed away. Her son, Masruh, died before his mother.
2. Halima Sadiya:
Halima, the daughter of Abu Zuayb (may Allah be pleased with him), is from the Sa’d family. Her husband is Abdul- uzza, the son of Harith. She nursed our Prophet along with her son, Abdullah. Halima bint Abu Zuayd also had two daughters called Judama (Shayma) and Unaysa. Since they were older than Abdullah, they cared for the Prophet (pbuh). (Tabaqat, 1/108-110)

The Prophet stayed in the city where Halima lived till he was four. After his marriage to Khadija, that respectable woman came to visit our Prophet. When she talked about the drought and famine in her hometown, Khadija made her pleased by giving her forty sheep and a camel as a gift. That respectable foster mother was buried in the cemetery of Baqi in Madinah.
3. Umm Ayman:
Imam Suyuti reports that this respectable woman whose name is Barakah is one of the breastfeeders of our Prophet. (al-Hawi li’l-fatawi, 2/389)
Ummu Ayman was one of the slaves of the father of Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He set her free when he married Khadija. When the Master of the Universe (pbuh) talked about her, he said “She is the woman who was a mother to me after my mother (whom I loved as much as my mother)”.  One day when the Prophet said, “whoever wants to marry a woman of Paradise should marry Umm Ayman”, Zayd bin Haritha married her immediately. Usama bin Zayd was born out of that marriage.


6-) Is there a hadith as follows?: "Never will succeed such a nation as lets their affairs carried out by a woman."

Yes, there is a hadith as follows: "Never will succeed such a nation as lets their affairs carried out by a woman." (Bukhari, Maghazi, 82, Fitan, 18; Tirmidhi, Fitan, 75; Nasai, Qudat, 8; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V, 43, 51, 38, 47). b- According to Hanafis, it is permissible for a woman to be a judge that deals with financial issues because her witnessing is valid for daily issues. However, a woman cannot be a judge for issues that necessitate hadd (severe penalty) and qisas (retaliation). According to the most of the scholars, the judges and the heads of states must be male. A woman cannot be a judge or a head of a state; the evidence is the hadith quoted above: “Never will succeed such a nation as lets their affairs carried out by a woman." (Bukhari, Maghazi, 82, Fitan, 18; Tirmidhi, Fitan, 75; Nasai, Qudat, 8; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V, 43, 51, 38, 47). In some narrations, the same hadith is as follows: “Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler."  Since the duty of presidency includes the duty of judging too, the difference in the narration will not affect the result. The reason why women are not given the duty of judging is explained as follows in classical fiqh resources: The duty of judging necessitates having full view, being shrewd and having experience related to the incidents in life. The fact that the experience of women is less and that they are not involved in the incidents in life very much is very important. On the other hand, the judge needs to have some sessions with male scholars, witnesses, plaintiffs and defendants. It is forbidden for a woman to have a session with men for fear of mischief. Allah states one of the features of women regarding witnessing as follows: "And get two witnesses, out of your own men And if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her " (al-Baqara, 2/282). Therefore, women are not deemed appropriate for the post of a president or a governor because neither the Prophet nor the four Caliphs nor those who followed them appointed a woman judge or governor. (see Ibn Rushd, II, 449; ash-Shirbini, IV, 375; Ibn Qudama, IX, 39). However, the reasons given above may be insignificant for the believing women who were educated in accordance with Islamic criteria, who have a good command of law, who obtained the sagacity to give religious fatwas for the problems Muslims face, who knows the Islamic society well, and who gained experience by observing social events closely today. On the other hand, the fact that today the courts are open to everybody and that the defendant, witnesses, plaintiff, legal experts and the audience sit in the places reserved for them eliminates the fear of women and men staying together in a private room and the fear of mischief. However, since the ugliest affairs of the society, cruelty, injustice and harsh conflicts are dealt with in the courts, it is more appropriate for a believing woman, who is kinder and more sensitive than a man, to prefer other professions that are more suitable for her nature. This sensitivity of women is also valid for the posts of governing and presidency. Ibn Jarir at-Tabari states the following regarding the issue (d. 310/922): It is permissible for a woman to be a judge regarding every issue because since it is permissible for a woman to become a mufti, it should be permissible for her to become a judge, too." (az-Zuhayli, VI, 483). Due to the issues discussed above and similar issues, there are some scholars who object to women working as a judge and becoming a president but there are also others who say there is no drawback to it provided that they have the necessary qualifications. Those who have the view that it is permissible for a woman to be a president interpret the hadith, "Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler" as a sentence uttered for a specific state not for all nations and states in general. According to them, Hazrat Prophet informed people that the State of Sasanids, which was ruled by a woman, would fall. As a matter of fact, it fell after a short while. They think that the Prophet did not mean all times and all of the states ruled by women. However, the other scholars say that the hadiths includes all times and nations and that women cannot be judges, governors or presidents.   

The judgment made by the Turkish Higher Committee for the Religious Affairs is as follows: “In Islam, there is no discrimination between men and women because they are humans; both are responsible for the orders and prohibitions of Allah. All people, whether men or women, are responsible for improving the earth and worshipping Allah. There is no difference between a man and a woman in terms of being humans and worshipping Allah; there is no difference between them in terms of basic rights and responsibilities, either. The basic rights and freedoms given to men in Islam are also given to women. Accordingly, there is no discrimination between women and men in terms of  basic rights like maintaining and developing one’s material and spiritual existence, the freedom of conscious, religious belief and thought, being a defendant or plaintiff before the judges in the court by making use of legitimate ways, the right to be treated with equality and justice before the law, dwelling immunity, protecting one’s honor, the right to marry and establish a family, privacy immunity and security of earning one’s living. The fact that it is mentioned in the Quran that the Prophet took the oath of fealty from women (al-Mumtahina, 60/12) expresses the independence of the will of woman in Islam clearly. Therefore, being a woman is not something that limits the rights and deeds. Women have the right to appeal to the court if the rights that they have are violated by their husbands or others and ask the judges to eliminate the injustice. A substantial part of the discussions regarding the place and rights of women in Islam is about the participation of women in social life, their work life and undertaking official duties.  

 1. Women Taking Part in Commercial Life and Business: According to Islam, a woman can work at home or outside and help her husband earn a living, as a general rule. It is possible for the roles of spouses in the family life to change based on the conditions and necessities. What matters is to lead a peaceful and regular life and to undertake responsibilities in accordance with the possibilities and abilities of individuals in a balanced way. The narration mentioned in some resources that Hazrat Prophet gave the duty of taking care of the domestic responsibilities to Hazrat Fatima, his daughter, and the external responsibilities to Hazrat Ali, his son-in-law, (1)  is not a binding rule that aims to form a family model for Muslims but a recipe in the form of advice based on necessities, traditions and customs. Besides, the contribution of a housewife to her family and the community is too important to despise. Women and men are in an equal state in the financial and commercial fields; women are not exposed to any limitations because they are female; they have all of the rights and powers that men have in the field of trade and law of obligations. In Islam, people are encouraged to work, without discriminating between men and women; the following is stated in the Quran: "That man can have nothing but what he strives for" (an-Najm, 53/39); "… to men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn: but ask Allah of His bounty..." (an-Nisa 4/32). There is no discrimination between men and women in the following verse about trade that is deemed within the framework of working: “O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah hath been to you Most Merciful.” (an-Nisa, 4/29), and in the following hadith: “One would rather take a rope and cut wood and carry it than ask others”(2). Everybody, whether man or woman, has the right to earn money legitimately as long as they observe the general principles imposed by Islam regarding human relations and commercial life like lucidity, honesty, trust, straightforwardness, keeping promises, abiding by the terms and agreements, not taking advantage of people’s weakness, ignorance and troubles. 

2. Ruling Women: In some resources, there are views and judgments that limit the duty of public affairs for women. However, those views and judgments do not originate from definite expressions of verses or hadiths; they are the conclusions that the scholars made taking into account the socio-cultural and economic conditions that they were experiencing. Beginning from the period of Hazrat Prophet, women started to work in private and public sectors as teachers, officials, doctors, nurses and municipal police officers. As a matter of fact, Hazrat Umar appointed Shifa b. Abdullah as a supervisor in the Madinah market. Almost all of the scholars agree on it. However, there are many different opinions as to whether they can work as judges and as senior administrators. Most of the Islamic scholars hold the view that women cannot work as judges. However, that view is not based on a clear verse or hadith but on the traditions and considerations of the society. Hanafis and Ibn Hazm hold the view that women can act as judges for the kinds of cases for which they can be witnesses. Islamic scholars like Tabari and Hasan al-Basri think that there is no religious drawback to women working as judges. Those views show that Islamic scholars of the classical period stated their views about whether women can be judges or not acting upon their information, culture and experiences in their own era. There are views in classical fiqh resources that women cannot work as senior administrators. They also originate from the information, culture and experiences of the scholars in their own era. Since being a judge and a senior administrator is an important public duty in the society, Islam is interested in the qualities that are necessary to fulfill those duties properly; it does not make a discrimination based on gender, age or color. Women during the period of Hazrat Prophet and the Companions made ijtihads and judgments, and gave fatwas, that is, they worked as judges and administrators in a sense, took part in wars and carried out political activities that could affect the decisions of the government although the negative views about them had not been fully eliminated yet. However, putting the rights and powers women have into practice and women’s taking active roles in social life are entirely related to socioeconomic and cultural conditions and necessities. Islam regards it sufficient to state basic rights and criteria and leaves the rest to the course of the development of the Islamic communities. Similarly, it is stated in classical resources that one of the conditions of being a head of state is being a man and the hadith, "Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler."(3) is used as evidence; in order to support that view, it is also stated that the head of the state needs to lead the army when there is a war and to recite the Friday sermon and lead the prayer. Like all other public duties, qualifications and abilities are necessary for the duty of presidency; therefore, what matters for the duty of presidency is not the gender but qualifications and abilities. On the other hand, the head of the state does not have to lead the army when there is a war, does not have to recite the Friday sermon and lead the prayer. It is possible for the head of the state to appoint others to fulfill those duties. As for the hadith, “Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler", Hazrat Prophet informed people that the State of Sasanids, which was ruled by a woman, would fall after a short while. As a matter of fact, it fell after a short while. On the other hand, the fact that when Balqis, the Queen of Sheba, is mentioned in the Quran, no negative expressions are used and the fact that there were in the past and there are now strong states ruled by women but survived for a long time shows that the hadith of the Prophet regarding the issue does not contain a general judgment. Therefore, there is not a definite and binding verse or hadith that prohibits a woman from working for the public. Therefore, it is religiously permissible for a woman who has sufficient qualifications and abilities to work as an administrator including a president.

3. Conclusion: Under the light of the explanations above, it has been decided that a) the same rights and freedoms that are given to men are also given to women in Islam; being a woman does not limit any rights and deeds, b) everybody, whether man or woman, has the right to work, to do business and to take part in business life as long as long as they observe the basic principles  and decrees introduced by Islam and general rules of morality, c) there is no drawback to a woman who has sufficient qualifications and abilities working as an administrator including a president”. 1- Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, X/165, No: 9118; XIII/284, No: 16355; Ömer Nasuhî Bilmen, Hukuk-i İslamiyye, II/484. 2- Bukhari, Buyu’ 5. 3- Bukhari, Maghazi, 82; Tirmidhi, Fitan, 75.


7-) A woman is married for four (things); her wealth, her family status, her beauty and her religion. Choose (marry) the religious woman so that your home will be in abundance. (Bukhari) Could you please explain this hadith?

A woman is married for four (things); her wealth, her family status, her beauty and her religion. Choose (marry) the religious woman so that your home will be in abundance. (Bukhari)

Islam gives importance to the selection of a good spouse so that the marriage will last longer. In order to make the home a place where there is peace, harmony, happiness and mutual confidence, the factor of religion should be prioritized because the factor of religion increases, becomes more beautiful, improves and strengths the ties as man gets older. However, richness, beauty, and factors such as relations are both transitory and cause man to have arrogance; and they are considered a cause of discomfort.

Do not marry women for their beauties; it is possible that their beauties cause them to become morally corrupt. Do not marry them for their wealth because their wealth may cause them to go astray. Marry women because of their piety. There is no doubt that a woman whose cloth is torn is superior to women who are better. (Ibn Majah)

Preferring a pious spouse means happiness and also a decision that will result in eternal salvation because spouses who support themselves spiritually protect one another from harams and become a encouraging factor for gaining Allah’s consent.

About this subject, Badiuzzaman Said Nursi says;

According to the Shari’a, the husband should be a good match for the wife. That is, they should be suitable to one another. The most important aspect of this being suitable is from the point of view of religion. (The Flashes)

According to Nursi, spouses should be a good match in terms of piety, high ethics and fearing from Allah (SWT). A man who takes the religiousness of his righteous wife as a model and loves her for her morals and piety so as not to lose his companion of eternity is regarded to have gained worldly and other worldly painfree happiness. A woman is regarded to have gained eternal happiness who sees the religiousness of her husband, adheres to religion herself so as not to lose her everlasting friend and companion.

Otherwise, a man who commits evil deeds that will cause him to lose his righteous wife eternally will ruin himself. And a woman who does not take her husband who tries to live with taqwa as a model that will cause her to lose her husband will ruin herself. If a woman and man copy each other’s debauchery, sins and bad deeds and throw each other into fire they will ruin their love and happiness. (see ibid)

Said Nursi states that

A man who bases his love on the beauty of the good manners and ethics of the woman and the fact that she is the source of compassion and a gift from Allah rather than her material and physical beauty will receive love and respect from his wife in the same way; he adds that the mutual love and respect will increase as both spouses get old and ugly; thus, the worldly life will turn to happiness and that the love based on physical beauty will soon end and it will be replaced by conflict. (Sözler: Words)

As Badiuzzaman Said Nursi puts it, to love one’s spouse based on her fine compassion, beautiful characters, good manners and high ethics and thus to protect oneself from committing sins will enable him to receive from the All Compassionate his spouse in a more beautiful attractive and charming physical and spiritual beauty than the houris of Paradise in the hereafter as an eternal spouse, fine friend and a loyal lover.(see ibid)


8-) What is the importance of saying salawat for our Prophet (PBUH)?

As it is known, it is a non-ignorable duty and debt of fidelity of every Muslim to say salawat whenever the name of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned.

It is informed that for every Muslim who understands the wisdom of the existence thanks to him, it is fard to say salawat once in the life, wajib for the following mentions and sunnah for repetitions; it is said that skipping salawat causes deprivation from intercession (shafaah).

A person who feels gratitude for someone who does him a favor and a person who shows respect to a person for a long time just for the sake of a cup of coffee will definitely feel gratitude for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who was a means for saving his eternal life, and will say salawat with great respect when he hears his name and will attain his intercession with his loyalty.

Our Lord orders us to say salawat for the Prophet in the 56th verse of the Chapter al-Ahzab:

Allah and His angels, send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! send ye blessings on him and salute him, with all respect.!

As a necessity of the command of that verse it has been stated that it is fard to say salawat once in the life, wajib for the first hearing of following mentions and sunnah for repetitions in the same place. What is understood is that after each salawat and salam, both our Lord and the angels become pleased; in addition, the angels pray for those who say salawat. We see in hadith books that the angels pray for the person who says salawat, which causes the rank of our Prophet (pbuh) to rise in Paradise, as “May Allah make your rank rise, too” and other angels say ‘amin’ for that prayer. They react as “May Allah not make your rank rise” for those who do not say salawat and the other angels agree with that reaction by saying ‘amin’. Thus, those who say salawat when they hear the name of our Prophet (pbuh) receive good prayers from the angels and those who do not say salawat receive the curse of the angels. Furthermore, our Prophet (pbuh) is offended by the unfaithful people of his umma who do not say salawat for him although they hear his name and expresses his reproach as “May his nose be covered with dust.” 

There are numerous kinds of salawat. The most famous of them are the ones that we recite after tahiyyat during prayers: “Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin wa ala ali Muhammad” and “Sallallahu alayhi wasallam”. Their meanings can be summarized as follows:

May the mercy of our Lord, the asking forgiveness of the angels and our salam (greetings) be upon Hazrat Muhammad and his family.

Since salawat like that are prayers special to our Prophet, our Lord will not reject a prayer special to him. 

If we start our special prayers with salawat that is not rejected and finish with salawat, we expect that our prayer between two accepted prayers will be accepted too.

When the name of the Prophet is seen while reading and writing it is the best to say:

–“Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin wa ala ali Muhammad” or “Sallallahu alayhi wasallam”, the initials (pbuh) written in the texts are used to remind salawat.  However, when the salawat signs like that increase in a text, the readers sometimes have difficulty and the signs that are added for respect sometimes may cause disrespect, contrary to what is intended. Instead of causing disrespect, it is better to decrease those signs and leave it to the understanding of the reader.

It cannot be said that salawat said for the Prophet will cause the forgiveness of sins because something like that is not in question. It causes a rise in the rank. Therefore, nobody can estimate and determine the rank of the Prophet because each second salawat like rivers flow from his umma every second and it is understood that the rise in rank will never stop and that it will go on till the doomsday. 

A historical example of respect:

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna always addressed his servant Muhammad, whom he liked a lot, as Muhammad, but once he addressed him using his father’s name. The servant felt bad about it and asked the Sultan why he had addressed him using his father’s name but not using his nice name. The Sultan answered:

–I always had wudu and called that lofty name when I had wudu. Now I do not have wudu! I felt ashamed to pronounce that name without wudu!

Those who show laziness in saying salawat when his holy name is pronounced should read and draw lessons from that event.


9-) What is the sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) regarding eating?

There is no list stating that the Prophet ate this and that on this day and that day, etc. It is not certain what the Prophet ate weekly because he did not lead a comfortable life. On some days, he tied a stone on his stomach due to hunger because he did not have any food in his house.

The Prophet’s manner of eating and drinking:

So to speak, Allah placed man in the center of all beings. Everything, whether living or non-living, is like a luna moth around him. He placed sustenance in the center of the realm of humanity. He makes all people turn around sustenance. The reason why man was given so much authority and so much care, why he was created in need of sustenance and why he pursues sustenance throughout his life is thanking Allah.

Thanking Allah means to know who sends us all kinds of material and spiritual sustenance that we need, to feel gratitude toward Him, to express it when it is necessary and to use all kinds of possibilities and energy He gives us in a way to please Him.

The outlines of the manners of eating and drinking become manifest with this criterion. They are to start eating food by the name of Allah, to show respect to bounties, to think about the artistic fineness that bounties have and to praise Allah after eating them.

The second important manner of eating and drinking is to eat and drink halal food. We must not eat the food forbidden by the religion and the food that we have no right to eat. Examples to forbidden food are the meat of the animals that are not slaughtered in accordance with Islamic criteria, pork and other inedible living beings and wine. The table of bounties that Allah prepares for us is very big. The halal (permissible) food is much more than the forbidden food.

Some food is forbidden due to their harms that we know and do not know. The framework of halal food is big enough to meet all of our needs and desires. There is no need to commit a forbidden act. The food that is normally halal but that belongs to others is also forbidden to eat or drink unless their owners give consent to it.

Another manner of eating is not to eat or drink excessively. Just like eating or drinking too much, eating or drinking too little is not halal, either. It is not regarded appropriate by the medicine and ethics. It is not appropriate to eat less than necessary even if one does so in order to worship.

The Prophet did not regard it appropriate to fast every day. He advised us to leave one-third of the stomach for food, one-third for water and to leave the remaining one-third empty. He did not approve of guzzling. He also advised us not to sit at the table before one feels hungry and to leave the table before one feels full.

The Prophet is a good example for us regarding the issue. According to what we learn from hadith books, his table was not a rich table consisting of various kinds of food. His table was plain since he led a plain life. He did not live to eat but ate to live. If there were no food when he came home, he would not make a fuss about it. He would find it sufficient to eat one or two dates.

Hazrat Prophet had two meals a day. He advised us to eat little. He ate and drank all kinds of food that was not haram. He did not feed on only meat or on only vegetables. Although he liked some food more than others, he never said, “I do not love” this or that food.

He took part in dinners and feasts that he was invited to. He washed his hands before and after eating. He started eating by the name of Allah and ended with a short prayer. He always ate using his right hand. He warned those who ate by the left hand. When there was a shared dish in the middle of the table, he ate from the part that was in front of him. He did not lean to the right or left while eating. He advised us not to eat by leaning to one side. He prohibited people from eating facedown.

He prohibited us from wasting. He did not regard it appropriate to eat food that disturbs people like onion and garlic and then mingle with other people. He prohibited us from blowing into food and water. He said that the meals should not be eaten when they were hot. He advised us to cover the lids of food and water containers.

He advised people to eat meals together and said that meals eaten together were blessed and abundant. He talked without going extreme during meals.

Acting upon this sunnah and similar ones, the manners of eating and drinking are listed as follows:

1. To wash the hands before and after having a meal,

2. To eat the food that is in front of you,

3. To eat with the right hand,

4. To eat small morsels and to swallow after chewing the food well,

5. Not to take a new morsel before swallowing the morsel in the mouth and not to talk when the morsel is in the mouth,

6. To look in the glass before drinking water,

7. Not to drink water in one gulp,

8. Not to breathe into the glass,

9. To avoid words and acts that sicken others,

10. Not to look at the morsels of others and what they eat,

11. Not to approach one’s head to the plate while putting the morsel into the mouth,

12. Not to waste while eating; to finish one’s morsel and the food one puts on his plate,

13. To turn one’s face away from the table when it is necessary to remove something from the mouth and to cover the mouth with the left hand,

14. Not to dip the morsel one has bitten off into the dish,

15. To eat halal and clean food; to thank Allah,

16. If one has guests at the table, not to leave the table before the guests finish eating (if the host is someone that eats little he needs to eat slowly or act as if he is eating),

17. To wait for the eldest person or the person with the highest rank to start eating,

18. Not to eat in the streets unless one has to.


10-) What are the characteristics of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in Holy Books?

Although the holy books except the Quran were sometimes distorted by men, there is a big similarity between the names and characteristics of our Prophet (pbuh) in various versions of those books.  

The Quran informs us that God Almighty sent apostles and prophets from time to time and sent down laws, commands or books to them. Based on that statement, the Quran mentions the pages of Hazrat Ibrahim (Abraham), the Torah sent to Hazrat Musa (Moses), the Psalms sent to Hazrat Dawud (David) and the Gospel sent to Hazrat Eesa (Jesus).  The term “zuhurul-awwalin” (the books of the previous people) may have referred to some books of Zoroastrians or Brahmans.

The signs in the ancient holy texts of Iran:
The religion of Iran is the oldest religion of the world after the religion of Hindu. Their holy texts were available in two sources called dasatir and zend-avesta. In Dasatir No 14, some principles belonging to the religion of Islam were mentioned and the following sentences heralding the advent of our Prophet (pbuh) exist: “When the level of ethics of the Iranians lower, a light will emerge in Arabia. His followers will exalt his throne, religion and everything. There was a building (it indicates the Kaaba) that had been constructed and there were a lot of idols to be eliminated in it. People will turn towards it and worship. His followers will conquer the cities of Iran, Taus and Balh and many wise people of Iran will join his followers.

As it is clearly understood from the sentences above, the sun of Islam that will rise after centuries and its Prophet are described very clearly. It is written that the Prophet (pbuh) having the titles of “praised a lot”, “praised” and “mercy to the worlds” will eliminate the idols.

In Part 129 of Yasht 3, one of the parts of that book which still exists today, the same truths are expressed again and the person to eliminate the idols is mentioned as “mercy for everybody and the worlds”. As it is known, one of the names of our Prophet is “mercy to the worlds”.  

The signs in the holy Hindu texts:
In Hindu holy texts like Paru 8, Khand 8, Adhya 8 ve Shalok 5-8, our Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned as follows: “A spiritual educator who is a mellacha (someone who speaks a foreign language or a member of a foreign country) will come with his friends; his name will be Muhammad. After his advent, the rajah will bathe in the rivers of Punjab and Ganga. He tells him: O you! The source of pride of human beings, the inhabitant of the Arab land. You brought together a great force to kill the devil.” (Prof. Dr. Muhammed Hamidullah, Kuran-ı Kerim Tefsiri)

It is very remarkable that the name of our Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned exactly in the statement above. The phrase “the source of pride of human beings” means the same as the name of our Prophet, “the source of pride of the world”.

Buddha (Gautama Buddha) mentions a person who will honor the world after his death. That affectionate and kind-hearted person whose name is “matteya” in the Pali language, “maitreya” in Sanskrit and “armidia” in Burmese will call people to the right path.  In that news that Buddha gave a long time ago, those names mean “mercy”. As it is known, in the 21st verse of Chapter 21, the following is stated: “And We have not sent you but as a mercy to the worlds.” 

In one of those texts, the following is stated: “Buddha said, “I am not the first Buddha (guide) that came to the world and I will not be the last. Another person will come to the world some time later. He is a holy and enlightened person with an extraordinary administrative ability. He will teach you the same eternal truths that I have taught you.” Ananda asked: “How will he be known?” Buddha answered: “He will be known as maitreya (mercy).

In Pali and Sanskrit texts, the name of the exalted person that will come in the future is given as Maho, Maha and Metta. The first two names mean “exalted enlightener” and the last one means kind, helpful. Both of them are the attributes of our Prophet. Besides, it will be seen clearly that the names of Mohamet and Mahamet that are mentioned in some other holy texts are formed from the words maha and metta.

Let us continue our search in the Torah, Gospel and Psalms. The most detailed research about the issue is the one carried out by Husayn Jisri. That Syrian scholar, whose parents are Shiite, found out 114 signs about our Prophet (pbuh) from those holy books and published them in his book, Risala al-Hamidiya, which was also translated into Turkish.  

Even in the Torah, which is the most distorted text among the previous holy texts, the following signs regarding our Prophet (pbuh) exist: “He saw two riders, one on a donkey, and the other on a camel. He listened carefully.” (Ishaya xxı, 7)

Here, the first one of the two riders that the Prophet Ishaya was informed about was Hazrat Eesa (Jesus) because he went to Jerusalem on a donkey. It is clear that what is meant by the person on the camel is our Prophet (pbuh). Our Prophet was on a camel when he entered Madinah.  

By the way, we should state that the words faraklit or paraklit (pericletos) have been maintained in the translations of the Gospel but in the latest translation they have been changed to “muazzi” (comforter) in Arabic translations and to “teselli verici” (consoler) in Turkish translations.  

In the pages of Hazrat Shuayb (Jethro) the name of our Prophet is mentioned as mushaffah, which exactly means “Muhammad”. The equivalent of the word munhamanna in the Torah is Muhammad too (as it is known, Muhammad means a person who has been praised repeatedly). In addition, the name of our Prophet is mostly used as Ahyad in the Torah and Ahmad in the Gospel.

We end the issue with a hadith: “My name is Muhammad in the Quran, Ahmad in the Gospel and Ahyad in the Torah.

Zafer Magazine

Here is the related part quoted from The Letters by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi translated from the Turkish "Mektubat" by Şükran Vahide (Sözler Neşriyat)

SIXTEENTH SIGN
The wonders that took place before his prophetic mission, but which were related to it, are called irhasat, and these too were indications and proofs of his prophethood. They were of three kinds:
THE FIRST KIND
This kind of irhasat comprises the tidings of Muhammad’s (PBUH) prophethood given by the Torah, the Bible, the Psalms of David, and the scriptures revealed to other prophets, as stated by the Qur’an. Indeed, since those Books are revealed scriptures and those who brought them were prophets, it is necessary and certain that they should have mentioned the one who would supersede their religions, change the shape of the universe, and illuminate half the earth with the light he brought. Is it possible that those scriptures, which foretold insignificant events, would not speak of the most important phenomenon of humanity, the prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH)? Yes, since they would certainly speak of it, they would either denounce it as a falsehood and so save their religions from destruction and their books from abrogation, or they would affirm it, and through that man of truth, save their religions from superstition and corruption. Now, both friend and foe agree that there is no sign of any such denouncement in the scriptures, in which case there must be affirmation. And since there is certain affirmation, and since there is a definite reason and fundamental cause for such affirmation, we too shall demonstrate through three categorical proofs the existence of this affirmation:
F i r s t P r o o f: God’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) says to them through the tongue of the Qur’an: “Your scriptures describe and confirm me; they confirm me in the things I say.” He challenges them with verses such as,
Say, “Bring the Torah and read it, if you are men of truth!” 292
Say, “Come, let us gather together, our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves; then let us earnestly pray and invoke the curse of God on those who lie!” 293
Despite his continuously taunting them with verses such as these, no Jewish scholar or Christian priest was able to show he had made any error. If they had been able to, those very numerous and very obdurate and jealous unbelievers and dissembling Jews and the whole world of unbelief would have proclaimed it everywhere. The Prophet also said:
“Either you find any error of mine, or I shall fight you until I destroy you!” And they chose war and wretchedness. That means they could not find any error. For if they had, they would have been saved from all that.
S e c o n d P r o o f: The words of the Torah, the Bible, and the Psalms do not have the miraculousness of those of the Qur’an. They have also been translated again and again, and a great many alien words have become intermingled with them. Also, the words of commentators and their false interpretations have been confused with their verses. In addition, the distortions of the ignorant and the hostile have been incorporated into them. In these ways, the corruptions and alterations have multiplied in those Books. In fact, Shaykh Rahmat Allah al-Hindi, the well-known scholar, proved to Jewish and Christian scholars and priests thousands of corruptions in them, and silenced them. Nevertheless, despite these corruptions, in our times the celebrated Husayn Jisri (May God have mercy on him) extracted one hundred and ten indications to the prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH), and included them in his Risalat al-Hamidiya. This was translated into Turkish by the late Ismail Hakki of Manastir; whoever wishes may refer to it.
Also, many Jewish and Christian scholars acknowledged and admitted that the attributes of Muhammad the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace) were written in their Books. The famous Roman Emperor Heraclius, who was a non-Muslim himself, said: “Jesus foretold Muham-mad’s coming.”  294
Also, another Roman ruler called Muqawqis, the Governor of Egypt, and celebrated Jewish scholars and leaders such as Ibn Suriya, Zubayr b. Batiya, Ibn Akhtab and his brother Ka‘b b. Asad, although remaining non-Muslim, admitted: “He is described in our Books.” 295
Also, some of the well-known Jewish scholars and Christian priests gave up their obduracy on seeing Muhammad’s (PBUH) attributes as described in the above-mentioned books, and believed in him. They then pointed out these references to other Jewish and Christian scholars, and convinced them. Among them were the famous ‘Abd Allah b. Salam, Wahb b. Munabbih, Abu Yasir, the two sons of Sa‘ya, Asid and Tha‘laba, and Shamul. 296 The latter lived at the time of Tubba‘, the ruler of Yemen. Shamul became a believer before Muhammad’s prophetic mission and without ever seeing him, just as Tubba‘ did. 297 While the guest of the Bani Nadir before the prophetic mission, a gnostic called Ibn al-Hayyaban declared: “A prophet will soon appear, and this is the place to which he will emigrate.” He died there. Later, when that tribe was at war with God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace), Asid and Tha‘laba came forward and cried out to the tribe: “By God, he is the one Ibn al-Hayyaban promised would come.” 298 But they did not heed him, and paid the penalty.
Also, many of the Jewish scholars like, Ibn Yasin, Mikhayriq, and Ka‘b al-Ahbar, became believers on seeing the prophetic attributes in their Books, and silenced those who did not accept faith. 299
Also, the famous Christian scholar and monk, Bahira, who was mentioned above: 300 God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) was twelve years old when he went to Damascus with his uncle, and it was for his sake that Bahira invited the Quraysh. For he had seen a cloud casting its shadow on the travelling caravan. When it continued to do so, he realized that the one he was seeking had remained with the caravan, and had sent someone to fetch him. He told Abu Talib: “Return to Makkah! The Jews are exceedingly jealous and will resort to treachery, for his attributes are described in the Torah.” 
Also, Nestor the Abyssinian, and the ruler of that country, the Negus, came to believe on seeing Muhammad’s attributes written in their Books. 301
Also, a well-known Christian scholar called Daghatr became a believer on seeing the description of the Prophet, and was martyred when he proclaimed this among the Byzantines. 302
Also, from the Christian leaders, Harith b. Abi Shumar al-Ghasani and the prominent rulers and religious leaders of Damascus such as Sahib al-Ilya, Heraclius, Ibn Natur and al-Jarud, entered the fold of Islam, after seeing the Prophet’s description in their Books. Of them, only Heraclius concealed his belief for the sake of worldly rule. 303
Also, like these, Salman al-Farsi had also formerly been a Christian. He searched for the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) after seeing his description. 304
Also, a famous scholar called Tamim, and the well-known Abyssinian ruler, the Negus, and the Abyssinian Christians, and the priests of Najran, all unanimously declared that they had seen the Prophet’s description in their Books, and had come to believe in him. 305
T h e T h i r d P r o o f : Here, as examples, we shall point out from the Gospel, the Torah, and the Psalms, a few instances of verses concerning our Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace).
First: In the Psalms, there is the following verse:
O God, send to us after the period between prophets one who will establish an exemplary model.306
Here, “One who will establish an exemplary model” refers to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).  
A verse from the Gospels says:
The Messiah said: “I am leaving for my father and your father, so that He may send you the Paraclete,” 307
that is, Ahmad Muhammad.
A second verse from the Gospels:
I ask from my Lord for the Paraclete that he may abide with you forever. 308
Paraclete, meaning ‘the distinguisher of good from evil,’ is the name of our Prophet in those Books.
A verse from the Torah says:
Verily God told Abraham that Hagar -the mother of Isma‘il- will bear children. There will emerge from her sons one whose hand will be above all, and the hands of all will be opened to him in reverence. 309
Another verse from the Torah:
And He said to Moses: “O Moses, verily I shall send them a prophet like you, from the sons of their brothers [the children of Isma‘il]; I shall place My word in his mouth, and shall punish whoever does not accept the words of the one who will speak in My name.” 310
A third verse from the Torah:
Moses said: “O Lord! Verily I have found in the Torah the best of Communities that will emerge for the benefit of humanity, that will enjoin good and forbid wrong, and that will believe in God. Let it be my Community!” God said: “That is the Community of Muhammad.” 311
A REMINDER: In those books, the name of Muhammad is given in Syriac form, such as Mushaffah, Munhamanna, Himyata, and names meaning Muhammad in Hebrew. Otherwise the name of Muhammad is explicitly mentioned only in a few places, which were also altered by the jealous Jews. 312
A verse from the Psalms of David states:
O David! A prophet will appear after you, named Ahmad Muhammad; he will be truthful, and he will be a chief, and his Community will be forgiven. 313
One of the Seven ‘Abd Allah’s, ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘As, who made extensive studies of the earlier scriptures, and ‘Abd Allah b. Salam, who was the earliest to accept Islam from among the famous Jewish scholars, and the famous scholar Ka‘b al-Ahbar from among the Children of Israel, all pointed out in the Torah, which was not then corrupted to its present extent, the following verse, which after addressing Moses, then addresses the Prophet-yet-to-come:
O Prophet, verily We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of glad tidings, a warner and a protection for the unlettered. You are My bondsman, and I have named you ‘the Reliant on God.’ You shall not be harsh, stern, and clamorous in the market places, nor shall you requite evil with evil, but instead pardon and forgive. God shall not take you unto Himself until you straighten a crooked people by causing them to say, “No god but God.” 314
Another verse from the Torah:
Muhammad is God’s Messenger, his birthplace is Makkah, he will emigrate to Tayba, his rule will be in Damascus, and his Community will constantly praise God. 315
In this verse, a Syriac word meaning Muhammad is mentioned for the word Muhammad.
Here is another verse from the Torah:
You are My bondsman and messenger, and I have named you ‘Reliant on God,’ 316 
which is addressed to a prophet who is to come after Moses, and is from the progeny of Isma‘il, the brother of Isaac.
In the following verse from the Torah,
My chosen bondsman is not harsh or stern, 317
the meaning of Mukhtar (chosen) is the same as ‘Mustafa,’ a name of Muhammad.
In several places in the Gospels, a prophet who will come after Jesus is referred to as “the Master of the World.” He is described as:
He will have with him a staff of iron with which he will fight, as will his people. 318
This verse indicates that a prophet will come with a sword, charged with waging jihad. Qadib min hadid (literally, staff of iron) means sword. And so will be his community. In agreement with the Biblical verse mentioned above, and referring to it as well as some other verses, the following Qur’anic verse at the end of Sura al-Fath also states that his community, like him, will be commanded to wage jihad:
And their similitude in the Gospel is like a seed that sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, filling the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the unbelievers with rage at them. 319
In the Thirty-Third Chapter 320 of the Fifth Book of the Torah, there is the following verse:
The Lord came from Sinai, rose up unto us from Sa‘ir, and shined forth from Mount Paran. 321
In this verse, with the phrase “the Lord came from Sinai,” the prophethood of Moses is mentioned; with the phrase “rose up unto us from Sa‘ir” (Sa‘ir being a mountain near Damascus), the prophethood of Jesus is indicated. And the phrase “He shined forth from Mount Paran (the Paran Mountains being the mountains of Hijaz), gives tidings of the prophethood of Muhammad (PBUH), all will agree. Moreover, confirming the sentence, “This is their similitude in the Torah,” 322 is the following verse of the Torah concerning the Companions of the Prophet who would shine forth from the Paran Mountains: 
The flags of the blessed ones will be with him, and they will be on his right. 323
In this verse, the Companions are described as “the blessed ones,” that is, his Companions are blessed, righteous men, the beloved ones of God.
In the Forty-Second Chapter of the Book of Isaiah, there are the following verses:
See My servant, whom I uphold; My Chosen One, in whom I delight. He will reveal justice to the nations of the world.... He will encourage the fainthearted, those tempted to despair. He will see full justice given to all who have been wronged. He will not be satisfied until truth and righteousness prevail throughout the earth, nor until even distant lands beyond the seas have put their trust in him. 324
Here, the verses explicitly describe Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), the prophet at the end of time.
In the Fourth Chapter of the Book of Micah, are the following verses:
But in the last days it shall come to pass that the mountain of the House of God will be the most renowned one of all the mountains of the world, praised by all nations; people from all over the world will make pilgrimage there. “Come,” they will say to one another, “let us go up to the mountain of God and the House of God.” 325
These verses obviously describe the most blessed mountain in the world, Mount ‘Arafat, and the worship and proclamations of “God is Most Great!” of those making the Hajj, who will flock there from all climes, and the Community of Muhammad, famous for the Divine Mercy it will receive.
In the Seventy-Second Chapter of the Psalms, there are the following verses:
And he will reign from sea to sea,
And from the River to the ends of the earth.
The kings of Yemen and the Islands
All will bring their gifts.
And to him all the kings will prostrate themselves,
All the nations will serve him.
...............................
And he will live,
And on his behalf prayer will be made constantly,
All day long he will be praised.
...............................
His name will prove to be to time indefinite,
It will continue as long as the sun.
All will be blessed in him,
All nations will praise him. 326
These verses describe the Glory of the World, the Prophet Muhammad (Upon be blessings and peace) in most clear fashion. Apart from Muhammad the Arabian, what prophet has come since David (Upon whom be peace) who has spread his religion from East to West, made kings pay tribute, and brought rulers to submission as though prostrating; to whom every day one fifth of mankind offer benedictions and prayers, and whose lights have irradiated from Madinah? Has there been any other?
Again, the Turkish translation of John’s Gospel, Chapter Fourteen verse twenty, 327 says:
I shall not speak with you for much longer, for the ruler of the world is coming, and I am nothing compared with him.
Thus, the title Ruler of the World means Glory of the World. And the title of Glory of the World is one of the most famous of Muhammad the Arabian’s (Upon whom be blessings and peace) titles.
Again in John’s Gospel, Chapter Sixteen verse seven, it says:
But I am telling you the truth. My departure is but for your benefit. For, unless I depart, the Comforter will not come. 328
Now see, who other than Muhammad the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace) is the Ruler of the World and true consoler of men? Yes, the Glory of the World is he, and he is the one who will save transitory man from eternal extinction and thus comforts him.
Again, the eighth verse of Chapter Sixteen in John’s Gospel:
When he comes, he will give the world convincing evidence concerning its sin, its righteousness, and its judgement. 329
Who other than Muhammad the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace) has turned the world’s wrongdoing into righteousness, saved men from sin and associating partners with God, and transformed politics and world rule?
Also from the Gospel of John, the eleventh verse of Chapter Sixteen:
There is deliverance from judgement, for the Ruler of this World has already been judged. 330
Here “the Ruler of the World” is certainly Ahmad Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), for he is known as the Master of Humanity. 331
Also, in John’s Gospel, the thirteenth verse of Chapter Twelve: 332
But when he, the Spirit of Truth, comes, he will guide you all to the truth, for he will not be presenting his own ideas, but will be passing onto you what he has heard. He will tell you about the future. 333
This verse is explicit. Who apart from Muhammad the Arabian (Upon whom be blessings and peace) has called all men to the truth, whose every statement was based on Revelation, has spoken what he had heard from Gabriel, and informed man in detail about the resurrection of the dead and the Hereafter? Who other than he could do this?
Also, the Books of other prophets include names in Syriac and Hebrew that correspond to the various names of the Prophet (PBUH), such as Muhammad, Ahmad, Mukhtar. For example, in the scriptures of the Prophet Shu‘ayb, his name is Mushaffah, 334 and means ‘Muhammad.’ In the Torah, he is mentioned as Munhamanna, which again means ‘Muhammad,’ and as Himyata, 335 which means ‘the Prophet of al-Haram.’ In the Psalms, he is called al-Mukhtar. 336 Again in the Torah, the name is al-Hatam al-Khatam. 337 Both in the Torah and in the Psalms,  
it is Muqim al-Sunna, 338 in the scriptures of Abraham and in the Torah, he is mentioned as Mazmaz, 339 and again in the Torah, as Ahyad.
God’s Most Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) himself said: “In the Qur’an, my name is Muhammad, in the Bible, Ahmad, and in the Torah, Ahyad.” 340 In fact, the Bible refers to him as “The one with the sword and the staff.” 341 Indeed, the greatest of the prophets who wielded the sword, and was charged with fighting in God’s way together with his community, was God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace). The Gospels also describe him as “wearing a crown.” 342 Yes, this title is particular to God’s Messenger, for “crown” means turban, for in former days, it was the Arabs who as a people, all wore the turban and headband. This definitely therefore refers to God’s Messenger.
The term Paraclete in the Gospel, or Faraqlit, is defined in Biblical interpretation as “the one who distinguishes truth from falsehood.” 343 It is therefore the name of one who in the future will lead people to the truth.
In one place in the Gospels, Jesus (Upon whom be peace) says: “I am going so that the Lord of the World may come.” 344 Who other than the Noble Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace) has come after Jesus who will be the Ruler of the World, distinguish and separate truth from falsehood, and guide mankind in place of Jesus? That is to say, Jesus (Upon whom be peace) was constantly giving his community the good news: Another will come; no need will remain for me. I am his forerunner and herald. Confirming this is the following verse of the Qur’an:
And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: “O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of God unto you, confirming that which was revealed before me in the Torah and bringing the good tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad [the Praised One].” 345
Yes, in the Gospels, Jesus gave the glad tidings many times, that the greatest leader of mankind would come. He is mentioned with various names, in, of course, Syriac and Hebrew-which scholars have seen, which bear the meaning of Ahmad, Muhammad, and the Distinguisher between Truth and Falsehood. That is to say, on many occasions Jesus (Upon whom be peace) told of the coming of Ahmad (Upon whom be blessings and peace). 346
Q u e s t i o n : Why is it that while the other prophets foretell the coming of Muhammad (PBUH), Jesus (PUH) does so more fully and in the form of good news?
T h e A n s w e r : Because Ahmad (Upon whom be blessings and peace) defended Jesus (Upon whom be peace) against the fearsome denials and slander of the Jews, and saved his religion from corruption. Furthermore, in the face of the burdensome Shari‘a of the Children of Israel, who did not recognize Jesus, he came with an elevated Shari‘a which was easy, all-encompassing, and completed the deficiencies of Jesus’ Shari‘a. For these reasons, Jesus often gave the good news, the Ruler of the World will come!
Now it is clear that in the Torah, the Gospels, the Psalms of David, and in the scriptures of other prophets, there are numerous discussions of a prophet who is to come at a later time, many verses mentioning him. Just as we pointed out examples of these, showing that he is mentioned in these Books under various names. Who, other than Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), the Prophet of the end of time, could it be that these scriptures of the prophets speak of so repeatedly in their verses, and with such importance?
THE SECOND KIND
The signs of prophethood that were manifested by way of irhasat also include those tidings of his coming given before his prophetic mission in that time between prophets by the soothsayers and certain people known as saints and gnostics at that time; they published their claims and passed them down to subsequent generations in their poetry. These are numerous, and we shall mention some that are well-known, and have been accepted and narrated by the scholars of history and the Prophet’s life.
First: One of the rulers of Yemen, called Tubba‘, saw descriptions of God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) in former scriptures, and believed in him. He announced this by means of a poem, 
which went like this:
I bear witness to Ahmad, for he is a Messenger from God, the Creator of man;
Were I to live long enough to see him, I would be a minister and a cousin to him.. 347
That is, I would have been like ‘Ali.
Second: Quss b. Sa‘ida was the most renowned and most significant orator of the Arabs, a monotheist, and man of enlightened mind. Before Muhammad’s prophetic mission, he announced his messengership with these lines:
Ahmad shall be sent forth amongst us, the best prophet ever sent;
God’s blessings be upon him, whenever a riding party sets out amidst cries! 348
Third: Ka‘b b. Lu’ayy, one of the forefathers of the Prophet, announced Muhammad’s prophethood by way of inspiration as follows:
Suddenly, Muhammad the Prophet will appear,
Giving tidings most true. 349
Fourth: Sayf b. Dhi-Yazan, one of the rulers of Yemen, read descriptions of God’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) in the old scriptures, and believing in him, longed to see him. When ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Muhammad’s grandfather, went to Yemen with some of the Quraysh, Sayf summoned them and said: “A child will be born in Hijaz, with a mark between his shoulders resembling a seal. He will be the leader of all humanity.” Then, in private he told ‘Abd al-Muttalib: “You are his grandfather,” 350 foretelling his prophethood in a wondrous way.
Fifth: Waraqa b. Nawfal was a cousin of Khadija. When the first Revelation came, the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) was deeply shaken. Khadija described the event to the well-known Waraqa b. Nawfal, who told her to send him to him. God’s Messenger went to Waraqa and told him how the Revelation had come. Waraqa  
Said: “Good news, O Muhammad! I testify that you are the awaited prophet who was foretold by Jesus.” 351 That is, Do not worry! It was truly the coming of Revelation.
Sixth: Before the prophetic mission, a gnostic called Athkalan al-Himyari asked the Quraysh when he saw them: “Is there anyone among you who claims prophethood?” They replied in the negative. He again asked them at the start of his mission, and this time their reply was affirmative. Athkalan said: “The world is awaiting him!” 352
Seventh: Ibn al-‘Ala, a famous Christian scholar, told of God’s Messenger (PBUH) before his mission, never having seen him. He later came, saw the Messenger, and said: “By the One Who sent you in truth, I found your description in the Gospels, and the Son of Mary gave glad tidings of your coming.” 353

References

292. Qur’an,
293. Qur’an, 3:61.
294. Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, ‘Uyun al-Athar ii, 26; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364.
295. Suyuti, al-Khasa’is al-Kubra ii, 139; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 366; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744-5; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya iv, 80, 81, 272; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa iii, 362; Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi 403-4; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 85.
296. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 366; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744-5; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya iv, 80-1; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa iii, 361-2; Waqidi, al-Maghazi 405-4; Ibn Jawzi, Sifat al-Safwa iii, 361-2; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 79; ii, 492.
297. Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 367; ii, 526; vi, 240-9; al-Hindi, Kanz al-‘Ummal xi, 401; xii, 390-408; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739-43; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id viii, 240.
298. Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 80-1; iv, 31; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744-5; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 137; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 82; Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-Safwa, i, 87.
299. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739; Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-Safwa i, 87; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 87-8, 135; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa 161-3; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 78-9.
300. See, page 169 fn. 176. Also: Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 24; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 158.
301. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744.
302. See, page 202, fn. 297.
303. Bukhari, Bad’ al-Wahy 6; Shahadat 28; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 121, 150-1; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 198; Tabarani, al-Mu’jam al-Kabir iii, 2108; Ibn ‘Adiyy, al-Kamil fi’l-Du’afa iii, 1094; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 101-2.
304. al-‘Asqalani, Fath al-Bari, vii, 222; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 82; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 310-6; Musnad v, 437; Ibn Hisham, Sirat al-Nabi i, 233; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa no: 213; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak iii, 604; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 670; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 144; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 258-64.
305. Musnad i, 461; Abu Da’ud, Jana’iz 58; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744-6; Jisri, Risale-i Hamidiye (Turkish trans.) i, 240; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 163.
307. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 352; Jisri, Risale-i Hamidiye (Turkish trans.) i, 250; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 201.
308. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 99; Jisri, Risale-i Hamidiye i, 255; Gospel of John, 14:16.
309. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 105-6; Genesis, Chap. 16.
310. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 86; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 347.
311. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 746; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 107-18.
312. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112-3; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 189.
313. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353; Kandahlawi, Hayat al-Sahaba i, 18; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 326; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 122.
314. Bukhari, Buyu’ 5; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 346; Darimi, Muqaddima 2; Kandahlawi, Hayat al-Sahaba i, 17; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 326; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 105, 135; al-‘Ajurri, al-Shari’a 444, 452; Qastalani, Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 192; Isaiah, chap. 42.
315. Darimi, Muqaddima 2; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 346-51; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 116; Abu Na^im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 72.
316. See, fn. 314. (This is part of the same verse.)
317. Darimi, Muqaddima 2; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 105, 119; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739.
318. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 99, 114.
319. Qur’an, 48:29
320. Deuteronomy, 33:2.
321. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 348; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 113.
322. Qur’an, 48:29.
323. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 348; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 113; Deuteronomy, 33:2.
324. Isaiah, 42:1-4, 10.
325. Micah, 4:1-2.
326. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 91-104; Jisri, Risale-i Hamidiye (Turkish trans.) i, 410; Psalms, 72:8, 10, 11, 15-17.
327. 14:30. (Tr.)
328. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 99.
329. Âli al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 99.
330. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 95-7; al-Anwar al-Muhammadiyya.
331. Yes, he is such a lord and ruler that in most centuries for one thousand three hundred and fifty years he has had at least three hundred and fifty million followers and subjects, who have obeyed his commands in complete submission, and every day renew their allegiance to him by calling down God’s blessings on him.
332. 16:13. (Tr.)
333. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 346; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743.
334. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112; Qastalani, Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 189.
335. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 346, 354; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112-3.
336. Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya vi, 189; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739.
337. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 114.
338. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 115.
339. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 113; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353.
340. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 108, 112; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353.
341. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 114; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 353.
342. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 113, 114; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 739.
343. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 112.
344. See, page 208, fn. 328.
345. Qur’an, 61:6.
346. At the site of the tomb of Sham’un al-Safa, the famous traveller Evliya Chelebi came across the following verses from the Gospels, written on gazelle hide: “A youth from the progeny of Abraham is to be a prophet. He will not be a liar; his birthplace will be Makkah; he will come with piety; his blessed name is Ahmad Muhammad;• those who obey him will prosper in this world and the next.”
347. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 166; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 363; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 740; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak ii, 388; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 138.
348. Suyuti, al-Fath al-Kabir ii, 133; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 230; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 363; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 740; Tabarani, al-Majmu’ al-Kabir xii, 1254; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 101; Abu Na^im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 105.
349. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 244; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 364; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 740; Abu Na^im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 89-90.
350. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 328; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 343; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 740; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak ii, 388; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 95-6; Halabi, al-Sirat al-Halabiya i, 187.
351. Bukhari, Bad’ al-Wahy 3; Anbiya’ 21; Ta’bir 1; Musnad (Tahqiq: Ahmad Shakir) iv, 304 no: 2846; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 363; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 743; ‘Ajurri, al-Shari’a 443; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 217.
352. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 363; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 742; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 140.
353. ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 744; Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala’l-‘Alamin 121, 208.


11-) What is the importance that Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) gave to education?

Hazrat Prophet (pbuh), who aimed to form a community that believed in Allah, gave great importance to science and education. The importance given to knowledge, learning, teaching, students and teachers is used a lot in his activities and words. There are many hadiths that encourage education and criticizes ignorance in hadith literature.

The first command sent down to him regarding the issue was “Proclaim” or “Read”. Therefore, reading is the first command of Allah to him and his ummah. Besides, there are verses that encourage people to learn and that praise scholars and scientists in the Quran. It is stated in the Quran that the divine duty of conveying Islam of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) consists of education. The following is stated regarding the issue:

"Allah did confer a great favor on the Believers when He sent among them an Messenger from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom..."1

Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) explains the nature of his duty as follows in a hadith: 

"Allah sent me as a teacher."2

Therefore, to teach and educate the community that he was sent to are among his duties of prophethood. The encouragement of the Quran and Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) increased the desire to write and to learn. People started to go near him and other teachers in order to learn something during his period.  

Based on those principles, it will be appropriate to mention the activities of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) related to education. Even during the period of Makkah, he gave importance to the writing and preservation of the verses that were revealed to him. He encouraged people to duplicate and distribute the verses. He used the place called Dar al-Arqam as a center of education during the first years of the period of Makkah. People read and wrote the verses of the Quran there; they learned and taught religious information and they practiced what they learned. Those who wanted to learn about Islam went there, too. Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) dealt with the education of the Muslims of Madinah that came to the place called Aqabah near Makkah and he sent a teacher to Madinah to teach them the Quran and the principles of Islam upon their request.  

Afterh the Hijrah, the first and foremost activity of the Prophet (pbuh) in Madinah was to build a mosque, Masjid an-Nabawi, which was both a place of worshipping and a center of education. In a place next to the mosque called as-Suffa, some Companions were busy with learning the Quran and writing. Some of the people who came to Madinah from different regions in order to learn the principles of Islam stayed there. At times, the number of the students staying in as-Suffa amounted to four hundred. Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) himself taught people there; he also appointed some teachers to teach people the Quran and writing. Ubada bin Samit was one of the Companions who taught the Quran and writing there. 3 Not only Muslim teachers but also polytheist teachers taught people to write there. As a matter of fact, the polytheists who were held captive by Muslims during the Battle of Badr and who did not find any money to pay the ransom to be freed were freed after they taught ten Muslim children to read and write. Zayd b. Thabit learned to read and write this way. Doubtlessly, that application was a great thing when the conditions of that period are taken into consideration.  

A narration that Ahmad b. Hanbal reports gives some information and clues about the application of polytheist captives teaching writing. According to the narration, one of the students goes to his father crying. His father asks him why he is crying. The child says that his teacher has beaten him. His father says, “Bad man! He takes the revenge of Badr…” "4  As we are going to mention soon, there is no violence in the education of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh). However, it is understood from the act of the polytheist teacher that there existed beating in the previous traditions. However, we have no information whether the Prophet (pbuh) was aware of the incident and if he was, what he did.  

Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) regarded those who came to Masjid an-Nabawi in order to learn as equal to those who fought in the way of Allah. 5 When Masjid an-Nabawi and Suffa were not enough for education soon, new places were opened for education in Madinah. The resources inform us that there were nine more mosques besides Masjid an-Nabawi in Madinah when the Prophet was alive. It is certain that the Prophet (pbuh) gave religious talks in those mosques, prayers were performed and educational activities took place.

Our Prophet (pbuh) continued the activities of education outside fixed places, too. He did not limit education to certain places and times. We want to give an incident as an example.

During a travel, Hazrat Prophet guessed that the man who was coming toward him on a camel wanted to talk to him. After greeting him, the Prophet asked the man where he was going. The man said he wanted to talk to the Messenger of Allah. Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) introduced himself. The man asked him, “What is belief? Teach it to me.” The Prophet (pbuh) said, “Testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His messenger. Perform prayers, pay zakah, fast in Ramadan and go to hajj.” The man said he agreed to do them. However, something unexpected happened. The foot of his camel was trapped in a mousetrap and the camel collapsed. The man fell off the camel and died. The Prophet (pbuh) took care of the man’s dead body, washed and enshrouded his body.6

Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) did not discriminate between women and men in education; he ensured the education of both men and women. He allocated a special day for women and gave them a talk. There were female teachers during his period. As a matter of fact, Shifa (Umm Sulayman b. Haysama) taught Hazrat Hafsa (may Allah be pleased with her), one of the wives of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh), to write. The wives of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) took care of the education of the girls. They taught the young girls that came to their houses. And those girls taught what they had learnt to other girls. The wives of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh), especially Hazrat Aisha and Umm Salama (may Allah be pleased with them), and some other women contributed a lot to education.

Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) praised the woman of Ansar who did not feel embarrassed to ask questions.7 Acting upon this point, it is possible to deduce that women showed great interest in learning. The Companions took care of the education of their children. For instance, Sa'd b. Abu Waqqas taught her daughter to write.

It is known that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) did not discriminate between free people and slaves in terms of education. His following statement is mentioned a lot in hadith resources:

"There are two rewards for a person who educates a concubine, trains her, frees her and marries her off."8

Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) advised and encouraged people to use easy methods in education and to show patience and tolerance. As a matter of fact, he said, "Teach people; make things easy; do not make things difficult; keep silent when you become furious!" and he repeated the statement, "Keep silent when you become furious!" three times.9 The impression he made on the Companions as a teacher is very positive. Muawiya b. Hakam as-Sulami stated the following regarding the issue: "I have never seen a better teacher than the Messenger of Allah. He neither reprimanded, nor beat nor insulted me."10

Writing is very important for the activities of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh). He dictated the verses of the Quran. He arranged the document of Madinah in writing. He organized the first census in writing. He made all his contracts in writing. He made officials write the income and the estimation, imposition and collection of the revenues. When he set off for an expedition, he gathered his army in a field, made the officials write the names of the people and recorded the number of the soldiers.  

Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) advised and ordered families to teach their young members in both spiritual and material fields: archery, swimming, calculation, medicine, genealogy and reading the Quran. In his period, everybody, children, young people, the elderly, received education. He appointed teachers to the regions where people accepted Islam. Thus, those who could read and write among the people of Madinah increased; during the life and after the death of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh), literacy increased in the places that Muslims conquered. 

There were some people among the Companions who could speak Persian, Greek, Coptic, Abyssinian, Hebrew and Syriac. Once the Prophet (pbuh) asked Zayd bin Thabit, "Do you speak Syriac? I receive letters in Syriac." When Zayd b. Thabit said, “I do not know”, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “Learn it”. Thereupon, Zayd learned Hebrew and Syriac. 11

There were not separate schools to educate administrators and officials. However, since learning the Quran was compulsory in the places where people were trained, those who had been educated there were appointed as administrators.

Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) encouraged people to spread knowledge; he asked them to teach what they knew to others.12 He asked the people who came to Madinah, stayed there for a while and learned Islam to teach people what they learned when they went to their homeland. 13 He cautioned the delegation of Abdulqays to preserve belief and knowledge.14 It is important in that it attracts attention to the relation between knowledge and belief.

As a result of intensive and hard work, Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) educated the members of a community that lived in compliance with the traditions and customs of the ignorance (jahiliyya) and formed a brand-new Islamic community from those people. This wonderful transformation became possible through education. Among the people he educated, hafizes (people who memorized the whole Quran), scholars of reading the Quran, judges, governors and commanders of the army, statesmen and presidents emerged.

Doubtlessly, Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) realized education based on the physical conditions, needs and methods of the period he lived in. The places of education, subjects, and methods can change in ten-twenty years and sometimes in a shorter time today. Then, the universal practices of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) regarding education that can always be valid are important for us. We can list them as follows:

- Giving importance to reading and writing;

- Not including violence in education;

- Practicing something himself first or teaching something by showing it if what he teaches is something practical;

- Not moving on to a new issue before making something understood very well (it is reported that he did not move on to new verses before he made ten verses understood very well);15

- Not making students bored or tired out;

- Taking into consideration the age, capacity and the level of information and culture of the people he teaches;

- Raising questions and attracting the attention of people and then answering them;

- Using a way of improving the intelligence (asking something that is known in the form of a riddle.);

- Explaining the reason of a decree to the society so that it will be understood better when it is necessary;

- Presenting an issue with examples and similes and if necessary using gestures and even drawings;

- Encouraging people to ask questions except for questions asked just for the sake of discussion, controversy and obstinacy; and answering them in a convincing way;

- Referring some questions and their answers to the Companions even when he is together with them in order to show that he values them, to contribute to the development of their responsibility and consciousness and to make them get used to questions like that;

- Appreciating people openly when he gets the correct answer from them in order to encourage and gratify them;

- Not avoiding repetition if it is necessary;

- Summarizing the issue first and giving the details after that sometimes;

- Teaching something by dictating when necessary, etc.16

Footnotes:

1- Aal-i Imran, 164.

2- Ibn Hanbal, III, 328; Ibn Majah, I, 17 .

3- Ibn Hanbal, V, 315.

4- Ibn Hanbal, I, 247.

5- Ibn Hanbal, II, 418.

6- Ibn Hanbal, IV, 359.

7- Bukhari, I, 41.

8- Bukhari, I, 33; Ibn Hanbal, IV, 395, 402, 414.

9- Ibn Hanbal, I, 239, 283, 365.

10- Ibn Hanbal, V, 447-448; Muslim, I, 381; Darimi, p. 353-354.

11- Ibn Hanbal, V, 182; Tirmidhi, IV, 67-68.

12- Muslim, III, 2156; Darimi, 62.

13- Bukhari, I, 30, 167.

14- Bukhari, I, 30.

15- Ibn Hanbal, V, 410.

16- Fore detailed information and examples regarding the issue, see Abu Ghudda, Hz. Muhammed ve Öğretim Metodları, trnsl. Enbiya Yıldırım, İstanbul 1998.


12-) When did Muhammad (pbuh) become a nabi (prophet) and when a rasul (messenger)?

Nabi is an Arabic word derived from “naba”, which means news; so nabi means a person who was given prophethood and some divine decrees by Allah.

“Rasul” means a person who was sent by Allah to convey divine decrees to people. (1)

In short, a “rasul” has a book and shariah (legal system), but a nabi is responsible for inviting people to the shariah of the antecedent messenger.  Every rasul is a nabi but not every nabi is a rasul. After that explanation, it will be better to mention how revelation came to our Prophet (pbuh). The first revelation came to Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) as a true dream. Every dream that he saw came true in every detail. After that, he was made to like to be alone. Therefore, he sometimes went to the cave of Hira and started to worship there as in the religion of Hazrat Ibrahim (pbuh). Once, he went to the Cave of Hira to worship. On Allah’s command, Gabriel (Jibril) came and said to Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) “Read”. “Read in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created? Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Read! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful? He Who taught (the use of) the Pen? Taught man that which he knew not.”(2) Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) got excited and went home; he said to his wife, Khadija, “Cover me with something, cover me.” He remained covered until his fear died away.(3)

Thus, the first revelation came to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He was forty years old then. After that revelation, the revelation ceased for a period of time. There are various narrations about the length of the period. It is at least fifteen days and at most three years.(4)

Our Prophet (pbuh) says the following about the resumption of the revelation:

“One day, I heard a voice from the sky while I was walking. When I looked up, I saw the angel that came to me in Hira. He was sitting in a chair between the sky and earth.  I was afraid a lot. I returned home. I said, “Cover me with something, cover me.” Then, Allah, the Almighty, sent the following verses: ‘O thou wrapped up (in a mantle)! Arise and deliver thy warning! And thy Lord do thou magnify! And thy garments keep free from stain! And all abomination shun!’ (5).

 “After that, the revelation did not cease again.”(6)

Our Prophet (pbuh) became a nabi not a rasul with the first revelation in Hira. Then, he had not been appointed with the duty of messengership. He became a rasul when the revelation resumed again after a period of cessation.(7)

So, it is true that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) became  nabi first and then a rasul. However it is not certain how much time passes between his prophethood and messengership. There are different narrations about it.(8)

References

1- Hussain Jisrî. Ar-Risalat  al-Hamidiyya, p. 524-531
2- Chapter al-Alaq, 1-5.
3- Muslim, Eeman; 73.
4- Tajrid translation, 2:13.
5- Chapter al-Muddathir, 1-5.
6- - Chapter al; 73.
7- Hak Dini Kur'ân Dili, 8:5944.
8- Zekâi Konrapa, Peygamberimiz, p. 72.

Mehmet PAKSU


13-) Last Sermon

For the answer please click on the link given below.

The last sermon of Our Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).


14-) Prophet Full Name

Our Prophet has lots of names. The most famous ones are Muhammad, Ahmad, Mustafa and Mahmud.  Here, we quoted 99 names of him from the book of “Mevâhib-i Ledünniye”. You can find his rest names from that book.

Abdullah: Allah’s servant.
Âbeed: Servant, worshipper.
Âdeel: Just, equitable.
Ahmad: Most laudable, gratefully commemorable.
Ahsan: Most beautiful, very good, better, best.
Ali: High, exalted, sublime.
Âlim: Very learned, wise, scholar.
Allâma: Exceedingly learned.

Âmil: Governor, high administration officer.
Aziz: Dear, beloved.
Beshir: Messenger of good news.
Burhan: Proof, evidence.
Jabbâr: Tyrant, tyrannical.
Javâd: Liberal, generous.
Ejvad: The most liberal, the most generous.
Ekrem: The most noble.
Emin: Free from doubt,trustworthy.

Fadlullah: Reached His pleasure.
Fâruk: Who discriminates between right and wrong.

Fattâh: Opener of all ways.

Gâleep: Victorious, victor.
Ganee: Rich, wealthy.
Habib: Lover, beloved.
Hâdi: Who shows the right way.

Hâfiz: Keeper, protector, guardian.
Khalîl: Sincere and intimate friend.

Halîm: Gentle and good-tempered.

Khâlis: Pure, clean.
Hâmid: Who praises.
Hammâd: Who praises so much.
Hanîf: Sincere and steadfast in the faith.
Kamar: Moon.

Kayyum: Administrator.
Kerîm: Kind, generous.

Mâcid: Illustrious.

Mahmûd: Lauded.

Mansûr: Victorious, triumphant.

Mâsum: Innocent, sinless.
Medenî: Civilized; cultured.
Mahdî: Guided, rightly guided.

Mekkî: Belonging to Mecca, Meccan.

Marhûm: One whom Allah has takeninto his mercy.
Mes’ûd: Happy.
Meteen: Firm, strong; trustworthy.
Mualleem: Teacher.

Muktada: Imitated, folloved, taken as a model.
Mubârak: Bountiful, auspicious.

Mujtabâ: Specially selected, chosen.

Mukarram: Honored, revered.
Muktafî: satisfied and content.
Munîr: That gives light.
Mursel: Sent with a messaga or mission; messenger.

Murtazâ: With whom one is pleased.
Muslih: Who puts to rights.
Mustafa: Chosen.
Mustaqim: Upright, honest.
Mutî: Obedient, submissive to Allah.
Mu’tî: Who gives; giver.

Muzaffar: Victorious, triumphant.
Mushâvir: Coincilor, consultant.
Nakî: Very clean.
Nakeeb: Chief, leader of community.
Nâsih: Advisor.
Nâtıq: Who speaks.
Nebee: Prophet.

Najyullah: Confidant of Allah.

Najm: Star.
Nesîb: Well-descended.

Nedhîr: One who warns or admonishes with threats.
Nîmet: Blessing, benediction.
Nûr: Light.
Râfi: Who raises, exalts.
Râgıb: Willing, wishing.

Raheem: Who feels compassion.

Râdhî: Satisfied, contented.
Rasûl: Messenger.
Rashid: Who follows the right road.
Saîd: Happy.

Sâbir: Patient, forbearing.
Sâdullah: Blessed by Allah.
Sâdıq: True, sincere.

Saffat: Purity; sincerity.
Sâhib: Possessing; companion.
Sâlih: Good; pious.

Salâm: Salutation.
Sayfullah: The sword or soldier of Allah.
Sayyid: Master, lord, chief.

Shâfi: Who intercedes. 

Shâkir: Thankful, grateful.
Tâhâ: The name in the Qur’an.
Tâhir: Very clean.

Takî: Allah-fearing, pious, who avoids sin.
Tayyib: Good, pleasent, pure.
Vâfi: Who fulfills a promise.

Vâiz: One who admonishes; preacher.
Vâsil: Who is joint with Allah in spirit.
Yâseen: The name in the Qur’an. Real and perfect man.
Zâhid: Piously abstemious.
Dhâkir: Who recites the names and praises of Allah.


15-) Will you explain the verses that tell about the human and prophetic aspects of the Prophet?

Hazrat Prophet has two personalities that are different from one another:
1-His human aspect
2-His prophetic aspect
Hazrat Prophet is a human being like us in terms of his human aspect. He eats and drinks; he is affected by cold. He does not know what will happen tomorrow or in the future.
In terms of his prophetic aspect, he receives revelation. He is the recipient of the messages sent by Allah. 
That the Prophet is a human being is not a deficiency for him; on the contrary, it is perfection. If he had been an angel and not a human being, he could not have become a leader and he could not have guided people.
The companions could differentiate between his human and prophetic aspects. For instance, when the Prophet deployed the army somewhere before the Battle of Badr, Hubab B.Mundhir, one of the Companions said, "O Messenger of Allah! If the deployment here was not ordered by revelation, it would be better for us to surround the water and be more advantageous." Hazrat Prophet approved his view. They acted in accordance with the view of Hubab.
The Messenger of Allah is informed about some secrets related to ghaib (the unknown, unseen). The greatest evidence of it is the Quran. We see many examples of it in the Quran.
When the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his consorts, and she then divulged it (to another) and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed part thereof and repudiated a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said "Who told thee this?" He said, "He told me who knows and is well-acquainted (with all things)." (at-Tahrim, 3)
“We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures.” In that verse, it is stated that Hazrat Muhammad was sent only as a mercy for all creatures and worlds. Mercy means feeling pity for. The meaning of the verse is as follows: Allah sent Hazrat Muhammad in order to save human beings from superstitions, bad habits and to guide them to the true path because he felt pity for them.
The Quran deals with both Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and his sunnah in many ways. According to a research, there are 115 verses in the Quran that are related to the issue.
Let us list the verses that mention Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and his sunnah under main headings by giving examples.
1- Verses stating that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) is a great blessing of Allah for believers.
“Allah did confer a great favor on the Believers when He sent among them an Messenger from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom, while, before that, they had been in manifest error.”
“Now hath come unto you a messenger from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that ye should perish: ardently anxious is he over you: to the Believers is he most kind and merciful. But if they turn away, Say : "Allah sufficeth me: There is not god but He: On Him is my trust - He the Lord of the Throne (of Glory) Supreme!.”
2- Verses stating that it is fard (obligatory) to believe in him.
“Believe in Allah and His Messenger.”
“And if any believe not in Allah and His Messenger, We have prepared, for those who reject Allah, a Blazing Fire.”
3- Verses showing Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) as a model man.
“Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the praise of Allah.”
“Nun. By the Pen and by the (Record) which (men) write― Thou art not, by the grace of thy Lord, mad or possessed. Nay, verily for thee is a Reward unfailing:  And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character.”
4- Verses indicating that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) received revelation other than the Quran,too.
“For Allah hath sent down to thee the Book and wisdom and taught thee what thou knewest not (before); and great is the Grace of Allah unto thee.”
“Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him.”
“But when Our Clear Signs are rehearsed unto them those who rest not their hope on their meeting with Us, say: "Bring us a Reading other than this or change this." Say: "It is not for me, of my own accord to change it: I follow naught but what is revealed unto me: if I were to disobey my Lord, I should myself fear the Penalty of a Great Day (to come)."
“Say: "I am no bringer of new-fangled doctrine among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration: I am but a Warner open and clear."
5- Verses showing that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) was given the duty and authority to explain the Quran.
“We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them.”
“And We sent down the Book to thee for the express purpose that thou shouldst make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe.”
 “We have sent among you a Messenger of your own rehearsing to you Our signs, and purifying you, and instructing you in Scripture and wisdom, and in new Knowledge.”
“We have sent down to thee the Book in truth, that thou mightest judge between men, as guided by Allah: so be not (used) as an advocate by those who betray their trust.”
“O Messenger! proclaim the (Message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission: and Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.”
6- Verses mentioning the arbitration of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and the approval of the judgments given by him.
“But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction.”
“If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination.”
“It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger, to have any option about their decision: if anyone disobeys Allah and His Messenger he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.”
“The answer of the Believers when summoned to Allah and His Messenger in order that He may judge between them, is no other than this: they say "We hear and we obey": it is such as these that will attain felicity.”
7- Verses giving Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) the authority to render something as haram (forbidden) or halal (legitimate).
“Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger nor, acknowledge the Religion of Truth from among the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission and feel themselves subdued..”
“"Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own (Scriptures);― in the Law and the Gospel;― for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil: he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them....”
8- Verses ordering obedience to Hazrat Prophet (pbuh).
“He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah.”
“So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you.”
“Say: "If ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." Say: "Obey Allah and His Messenger"; but if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject Faith..”
“We sent not an Messenger but to be obeyed, in accordance with the Will of Allah...”
9- Verses forbidding disobedience to Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and inflicting all kinds of pain and harm on him.
“Those are limits set by Allah: those who obey Allah and His Messenger will be admitted to Gardens with rivers flowing beneath, to abide therein (for ever)...”
“If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell.”
“Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger― Allah has cursed them in this world and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment.”
“This because they contended against Allah and His Messenger: if any contend against Allah and His Messenger Allah is strict in punishment.”
“On that day those who reject Faith and disobey the Messenger will wish that the earth were made one with them!..”
“He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah: but if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds). They have "Obedience" on their lips; but when they leave thee, a section of them meditate all night on things very different from what thou tellest them, but Allah records their nightly (plots)
“That is because they resisted Allah and His Messenger: and if anyone resists Allah, verily Allah is severe in Punishment..”
“Know they not that for those who oppose Allah and His Messenger is the Fire of Hell?― wherein they shall dwell. That is the supreme disgrace.”
10- Verses ordering respect and love for Hazrat Prophet (pbuh).
“The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers.”
“Allah and His angels, send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! send ye blessings on him and salute him, with all respect.”
“O ye who believe! put not yourselves forward before Allah and His Messenger: but fear Allah: for Allah is He who hears and knows all things. O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not.”
11- Verses stating that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) guide people to the right path.
“...If ye obey him, ye shall be on right guidance...”
“...And verily thou dost guide (men) to the Straight Way― The Way of Allah to whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth.”
“But verily thou callest them to the Straight Way.”
Along with the verses given under the headings above, some other important evaluations that we have reached In the light of more than a hundred verses are summarized as follows:
Allah chose someone among human beings as a model for them and appointed him as a prophet. It is indeed one of the greatest blessings for the humanity.
Human beings must believe in the messenger sent to them as a divine blessing and approve his prophethood and the religion he conveyed. However, the belief and approval must be in accordance with the criteria stated in the Quran not with the criteria of the people. 
Allah Himself educated and trained the last Prophet and He stated in His book that he has high ethics and that he has to be accepted as a model. 
The knowledge and information given to Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) as a messenger does not consist of only the Quran; he was given a lot of knowledge and information other than the Quran. Besides, he was given the authority to explain the verses of the Quran by Allah directly; thus, it was emphasized that his sunnah bound believers.
Obedience to Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) was mentioned together with obedience to Allah and it was emphasized clearly that obedience to the messenger means obedience to Allah. It clearly shows the value given to the sunnah of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) by the Quran. 
Hz Prophet (pbuh) was given the authority to give judgments, to render things as haram and halal directly by God Almighty. Therefore, the sunnah of Hz Prophet (pbuh) is an Islamic source regarding the issues that are not present in the Quran.  
“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.” This last verse is one of the verses that approve the prophethood of our Prophet.


16-) Prophet Muhammed (pbuh)

You can say "peace be upon him". However it is best to say it in Arabic version as well.


17-) What does the Holy hadith But for thee, the dearest, I would not have created the skies (universe) mean?

Doubtlessly, the most significant event in Universe is the birth of the Pride of the Universe, our Prophet Mohammad (pbuh), which is so honorable for the earth.

In fact, he is the seed of creation on the earth. If Allah the Almighty had not chosen to create him, the universe and the humankind would not have been created, either. Therefore, the door to the world of testing and trials would not have been opened, either. “If you look at this universe in front of you as if it were a book, the light of the Muhammad (pbuh) is the ink of this book’s author’s pen. If this great universe is considered a family tree, the light of Muhammad will be both the seed and the fruit of it. If this earth is considered a living object, that light will be its soul; if it is considered a huge human being, it will be its wit.
Here is the secret, to which the holy hadith “But for thee, the dearest, I would not have created the skies (universe)” indicates.

That should be understood from the hadith “But for thee, I would not have created the universe” and what is “the Reality of Muhammad”?

According to Sufi view, the reality of Muhammad was created when there was nothing else but Allah, and all other realities were created for and from that reality. The reason, essence and aim of the creation of the universe are this reality.

That information about the first creation in Sufism has significant similarities with the information in Risale-i Nur. Universe was created from Muhammad’s light. The reason and the result of the existence is Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). “That person, who is the leader of angels, the jinn and human beings, is the brightest and the most perfect fruit of this tree of universe; and he is the symbol of Divine Mercy and an example of Divine Affection. He is the clearest proof of Allah and the brightest light of the reality. He is the key to the secret of universe and the decipherer of the mystery of creation. He is scholiast of the wisdom behind universe and inviter to the sultanate of God. He is the one who owns all the favorable qualities of Divine Art and the most perfect example of the perfections created as he contains all the qualities in himself. For this reason, these qualities of his and his spiritual personality indicate that he is the main reason of the universe. That is to say; “The creator of the universe first looked at him and then created the universe. If He had not created him, He would not have created the universe”. Yes, the realities of the Quran and lights of Belief that he brought to the jinn and humankind; and the high moral qualities and perfections he owns are the certain proofs to this reality.”

Lawlaka (but for thee)

The reason why Prophet Muhammad was created is explained with the expression of “But for thee, I would not have created the universe (Lawlaka …), which is often used is Sufism and reported to be a holy hadith. (Ajluni, II: 164; Hakim el Mustadrak, II: 615)

Seed and Fruit

In Sufism, as the Messenger’s soul and light were created before all human beings, prophets and even before angels, he is the spiritual father of the humankind. It is said that Prophet Adam is the physical father of humankind and Prophet Muhammad is the spiritual father of the humankind.

Prophet Mohammad is described as the seed and the most perfect fruit of the creation in Risale-i Nur. That reality can be explained with the quotation below:

It is supposed to be a conscious being amongst living beings, because, the most perfect of the living beings are the conscious ones. And this conscious being is supposed to be from humankind; because, it is a human being that has the ability of infinite development amongst conscious beings. And amongst human beings, that person will be, of course, Muhammad (pnuh), because, no history has been able to show a person like him since the time of Adam and will not be able to show. In fact, that person has gathered the half of the earth and the one fifth of the humankind under his spiritual sultanate and pursued his spiritual sultanate for one hundred three thousand fifty years with perfect might; and he has been the master of all mature people in terms of all kinds of truths. Of course, this person who reached the highest level of good morals - as agreed upon by his friends and foes – who challenged the whole world on his own with his first order, and who showed the Miraculous Quran which is the praying language of more than a hundred million people is this eminent person in question, no one else could be. He is both the seed and fruit of this universe”.

Just as this life is an abstract of the universe, so too are consciousness and sense. Wit is also an abstract of consciousness and sense. And soul is also a real and pure precious part of life and it is also a stable and free member of life. Similarly, both the physical and spiritual lives of Muhammad (pbuh) are abstracts of life, extracted from life and soul of the universe. And the prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh) is the purest abstract of sense, conscious and wit of the universe. Maybe, the physical and spiritual lives of Muhammad are the life of the living universe because of the witness of his works. And the prophethood of Mohammad (pbuh) is the consciousness of the conscious universe and its light. And the revelation of the Quran is the soul of the living universe and the wit of the conscious universe, because of the witness of living truths.

Yes, yes, yes! If the light of Muhammad’s prophethood was excluded from the universe, the universe would die. If the Quran was excluded, the universe would be witless and the sphere of the earth would lose its mind and maybe it would unconsciously crash into a planet.

If you look at this great universe in front of you as if it were a book, the light of Muhammad (pbuh) is the ink of the universe’s author’s pen. If that great universe is considered to be a family tree, the light of Muhammad will be both the seed and the fruit of it. If the universe is considered to be a huge human being, that light will be its wit. If it is considered to be a beautiful adorable garden of heaven, the light of Muhammad will be its nightingale. If it is considered to be an enormous palace, the light of Muhammad will be the capital and majesty of this Everlasting Sultanate, and also the minister, inviter and herald of this supreme palace which includes all masterpieces with its beautiful images. He invites all human beings. He describes all antiquities, wonders and miracles of the palace. He invites people to believe in the owner of the palace in an attractive and bewildering way. In fact, he is the sun of the two worlds (i.e. the earth and hereafter), who is named “Ahmad” in the Bible, “Ahyad” in the Torah and “Muhammad” in the Quran.

There is a seed amongst human beings, from which Allah created all of the creatures. That seed is the Prophet Muhammad is only the lord of all humankind and the best of human beings, agreed upon by all mature people and maybe by most of the humankind.
Muhammad (pbuh), who worships and obeys the owner of the universe’s obvious Godhood, eternal glory and infinite endowments, and who endeavors to introduce Him, is essential like the sun in this universe. The supreme master of the humankind, the supreme prophet, the honor of the universe and the reality of Muhammad (pbuh) is both the reason of the creation of the universe, and the result and the fruit of this creation. This universe’s real perfection, Allah’s eternal and immortal reflections, phenomenon of His attributions and His wise acts are reasoned works and meaningful letters which bear an eternal sign and lead to a place of happiness and hereafter which all conscious beings long for. All of them are recognized through the reality of Muhammad and his prophethood; therefore, this universe is a strong and certain witness to his prophethood.

A. Qadir, the scholar, attracts attention to the following points regarding the issue:

This speech is directly addressed to the Prophet as he is the life of the living beings, the life of the universe, honorable receiver of the manifestation of Allah’s names, the light of all beings with souls, the main seed of the universe, the reason of the creation of the universe and the faultless fruit of this creation. Then, it is addressed to living beings, conscious beings and servants of Allah on behalf of him. There is a reality of Muhammad and a reality of Ahmad represented by Muhammad (pbuh). He existed with his reality of Ahmad before he came to the world and is the twin of the reality of the Kaaba. For this reason, he was named Ahmad in the Bible; as is mentioned in the Quran, Prophet Jesus heralded about him as Ahmad. He represented the reality of Muhammad after honoring the world with his birth and prophethood. After his death, the manifestation of the reality of Ahmad is valid.

Another aspect of the issue is as follows: The Prophet’s (pbuh) prophethood was before all prophets indeed. As a matter of fact, he says in a hadith: “The first creation of Allah is my light”. In another hadith, he announces that “While the Prophet Adam was still weltering in mud and clay, I was a prophet”. That is to say, the plan of his prophethood was made before everything. This issue was dealt as “the reality of Ahmad” and pondered upon by Sufis. In their discussions, the reality of Ahmad was also considered to be the reality of universe, and with this, the Prophet (pbuh)’s glory and his ownership of the greatest prophecy was meant.

Necip Fazıl used to say, “because of whom we exist” to describe him. This approach is inspired by the holy hadith “But for thee, I would have not created the universe”, the meaning of which is true, though is criticized in terms of hadith criteria. Yes, Allah created the universe for him. If the universe is a book describing Allah, and it is so, the interpreter of this book is the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). If it were not for him, the book of the universe would remain as a book which could not be read and comprehended. In this sense, we would live in it, but we would not be able to recognize Him and reach Him. However, Allah created the beings so that they would obey Him, as He declared in the Quran; and according to the interpretation of Ibn Abbas, He created them so that they would recognize Him. In this sense, it can be said that if it were not for prophet Mohammad, the existence would be unknown and thus Allah would not be recognized. Then, he can be called the main reason of the creation.

Every prophet who came before him mentioned him as much as their duty required and heralded about him. For instance, as is told in the book Shifa-i Sharif by the great scholar Qadi Iyad of Andalucía, after having eaten the forbidden fruit, Prophet Adam asked for forgiveness from Allah, making Muhammad the redeemer and said “Forgive me for the sake of Muhammad!”. When Allah asked “How do you know about Muhammad?”, he answered “I saw it written on the door of Heaven ‘There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger’. Someone whose name is juxtaposed with Your name must be the most precious one for You.” For the last time, Prophet Jesus mentioned him: “I have much more to say to you, more than you can now bear.  But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come.  He will bring glory to me by taking from what is mine and making it known to you.” (John, 16:12-14).

Prophet Jesus introduced him as Ahmad. It is a divine coincidence that his grandfather Abdulmuttalib named him Muhammad, saying,May all that is on earth and in the skies extol him”. Significant people such as Imam Rabbani dealt with the reality of Ahmad and the reality of Muhammad attentively. He was the owner of the reality of Ahmad before he came to the world, so Prophet Jesus heralded about him as Ahmad. He represented the reality of Muhammad in terms of his mission on the earth. The leader of Prophets turned to the state of being the soul of existence with the title of “Ahmad” after having accomplished that mission, and reaching the reality of Ahmad and actually realizing the reality of Ahmad.

He was honored with ascension in a time when he was exposed to lots of torment and torture. He left Gabriel behind, who guided him through the journey from inside of the universe to the outside of the universe, after a point and continued the journey. As Nizami, who is the writer of “Mahzan-i Asrar” (Treasure of Secrets), describes with his wide and colorful words: “Stars lined up like cobblestoned on his way, angels became his guides, the half moon was like a horseshoe under his horse’s feet and the sun sought refuge in his light”. He came to a point between possibility and necessity, which is expressed as “the height of two arches and the lowest level”. It means: he was a human and would eat, drink, sleep and walk the streets like other people. However, with the expression of Busayri: “He was a human being, yet not like other human beings; he was like a ruby amongst stones”. We can explain it as follows, with a simple simile:

For instance, each person who passes by the Selimiye Mosque feels something personally. An architect with a good taste feels a great pleasure in front of its artiness. A shepherd feels something in front of it, too. Another instance, gourmets recognize different dishes very well and they are different from other people. Similarly, he sensed everything in a different way than all people. He was an ordinary person like us physically, but he lived in all different dimensions. When he started to pray, sometimes Heaven would seem in front of him and he would step towards it. And sometimes he would step back when something else seemed. He reached the last limit of humanity with ascension, from whence started the eternity. As nothing and no one else can be Allah, he was doubtlessly not Allah and cannot be. For this reason, the level he reached has been called somewhere between “the height of two arches and the lowest level” which means “possibility and necessity”. Though some Islamic theologians and hadith interpreters evaluate it in a different way because of his situation in that position, Sufis say that he saw Allah, freed from time and place. Even when he was in that position, he wanted to return among us and he did. Abd’ul-Quddus, one of the eminent dervishes, says: “If I were to reach that position and was between deciding whether to return or to stay there, I would choose to stay and would never return”. However, he came back to the people who made him suffer and carried them and us to Heaven, which we had lost. At least, he evoked in us that feeling. With the expression of Mawlana, “he led his life amongst people and with Allah, his one foot on reality and other amongst 72 nations.”

Şadi Eren (Assist. Prof)


18-) Could you please give information about Juwayriya bint al-Harith b. Abi Dirar, Hazrat Prophet’s wife?

Juwayriya bint al-Harith b. Abi Dirar (d. 56/676) Hazrat Prophet’s wife.

She was born circa 607. She is the daughter of Harith b. Abi Dirar, the chief of Bani Mustaliq branch of the Khuzaa tribe. She was married to her cousin before she married the Prophet in the 5th year of Hijrah (626-27). Her marriage to the Prophet took place as follows: The Sons of Mustaliq started to get ready to fight against Muslims before the Battle of Handaq. When the Prophet found out about it, Muslims attacked them and defeated them in the Battle of Bani Mustaliq. Hundreds of captives were caught and taken to Madinah; they were given to the soldiers who took part in the battle. Juwayriya, who was only twenty years old and whose husband died in the battle, was given to Thabit bin Qays bin Shammas or his cousin. After determining the amount of money with Thabit bin Qays to be paid in order to be freed from slavery, she went to the Prophet, introduced herself and asked him to help her with the money. Then, she accepted the proposal of the Prophet, who paid the necessary money for her freedom, and married him. According to another narration that is reported from Juwayriya herself, her father came to Madinah in order to save his daughter; he paid the money and then married her off to the Prophet. Another narration from the freed slave of Juwayriya confirms it.  

The Muslims who heard that the Prophet married Juwayriya freed all of the slaves belonging to the Sons of Bani Mustaliq in order to please the Prophet. This marriage ended the enmity between the Muslims and the Sons of Mustaliq; it is understood that the real aim of the Prophet in marrying Juwayriya was to make the Sons of Mustaliq approach Islam. The fact that the Sons of Mustaliq embraced Islam after this marriage proves it.

The name of Juwayriya before she embraced Islam was “Barra”, which means a “righteous, good woman”. The Prophet, who regarded such names as people considering themselves as very good people and did not like it, changed her name to Juwayriya, which means a “little girl”. According to what Hazrat Aisha reports, Juwayriya was very keen on worshipping. 

Juwayriya reported seven hadiths from the Prophet. On of them is in Sahih- al-Bukhari, and one of them is in Sahih Muslim. Companions and their successors like Ibn Abbas, Jabir b. Abdullah, Ibn Umar and Mujahid b. Jabr reported hadiths from her.

Juwayriya died in the month of Rabiul-Awwal in 56 in Madinah. (DİA. Cuveyriye binti Haris Item)


19-) Could you give information about the Prophet’s wives and his polygamy?

THE PROPHET’S WIVES 

1. Khadijah:

The Prophet’s married life starts with our reverend mother Khadijah. When he married her, the Prophet was 25 years of age and she was 40. So, the age gap between them was 15 years. She was a bit different to the Prophet from his other wives. She was there for him while he spread the message; she consolidated him when all the people abandoned him and mocked at him. Yet more, when the Prophet received the first revelation, which made him tremble with awe, she, without any hesitation, said the following soft and relaxing words: 

“Good tidings to you! I swear by Allah that Allah will never embarrass you, because you take care of your relatives, say the truest words, take on the burdens of those who are unable to do their errands on their own, host your guests in the very best way and you help people with events which happen in the path of Allah.” 

This precious woman is also one of the first Muslims. She passed away in the tenth year of the prophethood, three years before the Migration (Hijrah). The Messenger of Allah was very sad upon reverend Khadijah’s death. That year was named the year of sorrow because sorrowful events happened one after another in that year, such as the deaths of Abu Talib, who was the Prophet’s uncle and defender against idolaters, and of Khadija, with whom he found peace. 

The Messenger of Allah’s marriage with Khadijah lasted 25 years and his all children except for Ibrahim were born from this precious woman. When she died, the Prophet was 50 years old. That is to say, the Prophet spent the most of his married life and also his youth and mature years only with a woman who was 15 years older than him. 

2. Sawda bint Zam’a:

This wife of his was also one of the first Muslims. Her first husband had passed away after the migration to Ethiopia and she was left alone. The Prophet healed this heart-broken woman’s wounds, saved her from miserableness by marrying her and became her companion. After all, this great woman wanted nothing else in the worldly life but being the Prophet’s wife; and when she married the Prophet, she was 55 years old. As it can be understood from this, the real aim in this marriage was helping a woman who was left alone and giving her a safe home. 

3. Aisha:

She was the first and only virgin woman whom the Prophet married. She was the only daughter of Hazrat Abu Bakr, who was to become a caliph later on. Moreover, she was a woman of rare intelligence and a nature that can take over and pursue the cause of the prophethood in the best way. Her life after marriage and her later services proved that she, the eminent creation, could be nobody’s wife but the Prophet’s. As a matter of fact, she proved herself to be the greatest hadith reporter, the most perfect commentator of the Quran and the most precious scholar of Islamic law, and tried to represent the Prophet in all aspects. 

His marriage with reverend Aisha was the greatest gift for his cave-mate Abu Bakr, who was always with him and coped with his troubles together with him. 

4. Hafsa bint Umar:

Hafsa was a widow. Her husband was a warrior who had been martyred in the battle of Badr. She was upset with her husband’s death and was left alone. His father Hazrat Umar firstly offered Hazrat Uthman to marry her daughter but he declined. Then, he offered Hazrat Abu Bakr the same but he declined as well. Upon witnessing this, the Messenger of Allah said that he wanted to marry her without waiting anymore and married her. This marriage was also a result of an obligation and with this marriage, that sublime person, Hazrat Umar was pleased and the loneliness of a woman, who was upset with her husband’s death and was left alone ended. 

5. Zainab bint Huzaima:

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) married this woman after Hafsa. Her first husband was Ubaidah bin Harith who had been martyred at the Battle of Badr. This woman, who was left alone was 60 years old. She desperately needed a helping hand in this time of her loneliness. The Prophet of mercy and compassion who realized her neediness wanted to take her under his protection by marrying her. besides, she passed away two years after they got married. 

Of course, it is impossible for a marriage with a sixty-year old woman to have passion. The only aim of this marriage was to help someone who was left alone. 

6. Umm Salama:

She was also one of the first Muslims and one of those who migrated to Ethiopia. Later, she migrated to Madina. Her dear husband, who accompanied her during troublesome migration travels and never left her alone, was martyred at the Battle of Uhud. Firstly, Hazrat Abu Bakr and Umar offered their hand of mercy to this woman, who had to handle with life on her own with her orphaned children, but she declined their offers. 

Later, the Messenger of Allah proposed to her and she accepted. So, her orphaned children could have a warm home, overcame the sorrow of their father’s death with the help of the Messenger of Allah and had a father who would never make them miss their real father. 

Umm Salama was a woman of great intelligence and sagacity, too, like Hazrat Aisha. She was talented to be a mentor and conveyor of the message. With this marriage, the hand of mercy took her under protection, and another student to whom especially women would be thankful was accepted for the school of knowledge and spiritual guidance. 

Otherwise, we cannot explain in another way why the Messenger of Allah, who was almost sixty, took on much responsibility by marrying a widow who had lots of children. 

7. Umm Habiba (Ramla bint Abu Sufyan):

She was a daughter of Abu Sufyan who led the unbelief in Mecca. Our Lord, who is capable of bringing the dead to life and ending the lives of the living, granted faith, in the early years of Islam, to this woman, who was predestined to ascend to the position of the mother of believers in the future. 

She had to migrate to Ethiopia with her husband because she could not live her faith under difficult conditions of Mecca. However, her husband converted to Christianity during this voyage and then he died. So, Umm Habiba was left alone. When the Messenger of Allah heard of this, he sent a message to the Negus saying that he wanted to marry this woman, who was left alone. Umm Habiba was very happy to hear this and she married the Prophet in the presence of the Negus. 

If the Prophet had not done so, this lonely and helpless woman would have had either to turn back to Mecca and leave her faith under violent torment by her father and family or to beg Christians for help or to become a beggar to be able to live on. However, this marriage was the most favorable option. 

Because of this marriage, Abu Sufyan, who was the fiercest enemy of Muslims and the Prophet then, lessened his torments to believers; and his grudge for the Prophet was a bit eased. Moreover, a relation was built with the Umayyad, which served as a factor that led them to become Muslims. After that, Abu Sufyan had the advantage of visiting the Prophet’s house easily and thus knowing Islam better and in the end, he became a believer. 

As clearly seen, the aim of this marriage was to help a lonely woman, to lessen through her the torments Muslims suffered and to lead a fierce enemy to faith by building relations with him. 

8. Juwairiyyah bint Harith:

Muslims won the Battle of Muraysi and gained a lot of booty, together with about 700 captives. Juwairiyyah, the daughter of the leader of Bani Mustaliq tribe, was amongst the captives, too. Juwairiyyah was Harith bin Dirar’s daughter. Harith was the leader of Mustaliq Jews. Juwairiyyah was first married to Musafi bin Safwan. Then, Musafi died at the Battle of Muraysi. Juwairiyyah went to the Prophet and asked for her freedom. The Messenger of Allah paid her ransom himself and set her free. When her mother came to bring her back, she preferred to become a Muslim and stayed in Madina and later, she married the Messenger of Allah. 

After this marriage of the Messenger of Allah’s, the captives owned by Abdulmuttalib tribe were set free, and then the other Muslims, upon seeing this, set all of the other captives free thinking that people of a tribe who are relatives to the Messenger of Allah could not be kept as captives. 

This marriage of the Prophet took place also when he was in his sixties. He aimed at building relations with an important tribe; he had lots of captives set free, and more importantly, caused a lot of Jews to convert to Islam and ascended a woman, whose husband was killed in battle against Muslims and thus was full of hatred against Muslims, to the position of the mother of believers by taking her under his wings of mercy. 

9. Safiyya bint Huyayy:

Her real name was Zainab. At those times, booty for chiefs and leaders in Arabia was called safiyya. As this woman was booty for the Messenger of Allah, she was named Safiyya. Her parents were important people from Jews. Her father was the leader of the Sons of Nadir and her mother was the daughter of the leader of the Sons of Qurayza. Her father, husband and brother were killed at the Battle of Khaybar and many people of her tribe were captured. Safiyya was full of excessive anger and hatred against Islam. 

The Messenger of Allah caused her to soften her feelings by marrying her after the battle. Through this marriage, relations were built with an important part of Jews and therefore, they could get to know Islam closer. Moreover, knowing some bad intentions of enemies beforehand became easier and the borders of Islam started to expand. 

10. Mariyatu’l Qibtiyyah (Umm Ibrahim):

The Messenger of Allah sent letters to sovereigns of neighboring countries in order to call them to Islam. One of these sovereigns was Muqawqis, the sovereign of Egypt. Muqawqis greeted the messenger in a good way and sent the Prophet some presents and two bondswomen. These two bondswomen learnt about Islam on their way and converted to Islam. When they arrived in Madina, the Messenger of Allah took Mariya for himself. Later, he set her free and married her, who gave birth to his son Ibrahim. 

This marriage had great influence on all Egyptians. Egyptians did not take sides at the war between Muslims and Byzantians living in Egypt and did not support the Byzantians. One of the reasons of this was that a woman from their nation was married to the Prophet. 

11. Maimunah bint Harith:

Her real name was Barrah, which was changed for Maimunah by the Messenger of Allah later. It was the Prophet’s last marriage. One year after the Hudaibiyyah covenant, the Prophet and Muslims visited Mecca for circumambulation (tawaf). Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle, offered the Messenger of Allah to marry Maimunah. As a matter of fact, Maimunah was Abbas’ sister in law and she authorized him to choose the person for her to marry. The Prophet accepted this offer and married her. Upon this, the people of Mecca said: “It means Muhammad still loves his fellow citizens.” 

This marriage happened when the Messenger of Allah was in his sixties. The aim of this marriage was to help a widow, who was left amongst idolaters in Mecca although she was Muslim, to save her from her troubles and to make a goodwill gesture for the people of Mecca. 

12. Hazrat Zainab bint Jahsh:

Hadhrat Zainab was born twenty years before the beginning of the prophethood and was the daughter of the Prophet’s aunt. Her real name was Barrah. The Messenger of Allah changed her name for Zainab. Her father was Burrah from Beni Asad tribe and her mother was Umm bint Abdulmuttalib, the Prophet’s aunt. She was one of the first migrants from Mecca to Madina. She was single when she migrated to Madina. The Prophet married her off to his stepson, Zaid bin Haritha. 

As it is known, the era of Mecca was the era of fundamentals of faith and the era of Madina was the era of fortification of Islamic rules. Events that happened during this era either abolished a superstitious rule spread in society and rooting from the past, replaced it with a new one or laid down a brand new one. 

The fact that Hazrat Zainab was married to Hazrat Zaid before the Prophet and that later got married to the Prophet unlike his other wives brought about rules abolishing the customs and traditions of the Era of Ignorance. 

The marriage of the Prophet which was objected the most both by the hypocrites of that time and the ignorant people of this time was the one with Hazrat Zainab. Moreover, it was a marriage which led to the establishment of very important rules. 

As a result of all these reasons, this marriage contract was a “divine contract”, which means it was signed by Allah the Glorious Himself. 

The notions of slavery and privileged class of people were quite strong and rooted in the Era of Ignorance. This had to be abolished and it had to be emphasized that the superiority of people for Allah did not stem from their class, rank or race but from their taqwa. For this reason, this wrong belief about marriage, which is one of the most vulnerable issues, had to be abolished through this marriage. 

The Prophet wanted to take a step towards this aim by marrying a noble and beautiful woman like Zainab off to his servant Zaid, whom he had set free. However, Zainab and her brothers did not favor the idea at first, which must have been because of the common belief in the society; because it was not traditionally appropriate for a free woman and a former servant to get married. 

Zainab told the Messenger of Allah her opinion: “O Messenger of Allah, I am your aunt’s daughter. I do not want to marry him. Moreover, I am from Quraish.” The Messenger of Allah explained to her that Zaid was very dear to him and to Islam and stated that he was indeed a noble person because of his parents. 

Then, 36th verse of sura al-Ahzab was sent: “It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys God and His Apostle, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.” 

Upon this, Zainab agreed to marry him saying, “I will not disobey Allah and His Messenger.” 

However, this marriage did not work out. There was not a sincere love and respect between them. Although Zainab was a religious woman who feared Allah, she was proud of her beauty and nobility, and looked down on her husband, who was a former slave and hurt him with sarcasm. 

Hazrat Zaid could not cope with this increasing incompatibility anymore. He consulted the Prophet and said that he wanted to get divorced. The Prophet was very upset because it was him who wanted this marriage to happen. He wanted to break the society’s wrong beliefs. For this reason, he said to Zaid every time he came to him: “Keep your wife, do not divorce her.” However, despite everything, this marriage did not last more than one year. Zaid had to divorce her at the end. 

After a while, it was time to abolish another common but wrong custom coming from the Era of Ignorance. It was the belief that stepchildren were considered as biological children and that, therefore, wives of stepsons were considered as stepfathers’ real daughters.

Islam changed the notion of step-child totally. The Quranic verse on this topic was very clear: 

“Call them by (the names of) their fathers: that is juster in the sight of God. But if ye know not their father's (names, call them) your Brothers in faith, or your maulas.” (Sura al-Ahzab, 5) 

After this Quranic verse was sent, Zaid was started to be called Zaid bin Haritha, in attribution to his father. After this wrong belief about stepchildren was abolished, it was made clear that their wives were not like stepfathers’ real daughters. Yet, this had to be proven and strenghtened with an example. This would be possible through the marriage of Hazrat Zainab and the Prophet. However, the Prophet was worried about possible gossips while abolishing this rooted tradition. However, this principle brought by Islam was supposed to be applied by him for sure. It was indispensable. As a matter of fact, the Quran explains it as follows: 

“Behold! Thou didst say to one who had received the grace of God and thy favor: "Retain thou (in wedlock) thy wife, and fear God." But thou didst hide in thy heart that which God was about to make manifest: thou didst fear the people, but it is more fitting that thou shouldst fear God. Then when Zaid had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary (formality), We joined her in marriage to thee: in order that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the Believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have dissolved with the necessary (formality) (their marriage) with them. And God's command must be fulfilled.” (Sura al-Ahzab, 37) 

Following this verse, in the fifth year of Migration (Hijrah), Zainab married the Prophet with a divine contract when she was 35. 

As a matter of fact, hypocrites started gossiping about this marriage: “Although Muhammad knew that his son’s wife was forbidden to him, he married his son’s wife!”, said they. Upon this, 40th verse of sura al-Ahzab was sent: 

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Apostle of God, and the Seal of the Prophets: and God has full knowledge of all things.” 

Although prophets are a kind of father to their ummah and take care of them with more mercy and affection than their real fathers, this does not mean a biological fatherhood. So, this Quranic verse made it clear that it was not inappropriate in terms of reason, knowledge and nature for prophets to marry a woman from their ummah. With this, Islam separated the law of step-children and that of biological children from each other. However, this tradition was so old and strong that none of the Muslims could dare to have such a marriage at that time. For this reason, hypocrites of that time kept gossiping about this marriage and made up several stories about it. Yet more, they attempted to show this marriage as evidence to the Prophet’s lustfulness (God forbid). 

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi’s succinct and silencing response to those who think of this marriage to be a result of lust is as follows: 

“God forbid, a hundred thousand times! The hand of such vile doubts cannot reach up to that elevated one! Yes, he was such that from the age of fifteen to forty when the blood is fiery and exuberant and the passions of the soul enf1amed, sufficed and was content with a single older woman like Khadija the Great (May God be pleased with her) with complete chastity and purity - as is agreed by friend and foe alike. His then having numerous wives after the age of forty, that is, when bodily heat subsides and the passions are quietened, is evidence proving decisively and self-evidently to those who are even a little fair-minded that such marriages were not to satisfy the carnal appetites, but were based on other important instances of wisdom.” (Risale-i Nur Collection, Seventh Letter)

The Prophet, who knew Zainab when she was a virgin, could have married her before having her marry Zaid. There was no objection to it. So, this marriage includes important reasons such as correcting wrong beliefs that were spread amongst people and laying down some new rules.


20-) What does Nur al-Muhammadi (Light of Muhammad) mean?

“Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth” (an-Nur, 35)

Light is the opposite of all kinds of darkness.

Ilm (knowledge) is light; it eliminates the darkness of ignorance.

Guidance is a different light; aberration disappears when it comes.

Belief is also light; it destroys the darkness of unbelief.

Each light eliminates a type of darkness and shows a reality.

Before this realm was created, everything was in the darkness of absence. God Almighty ended the darkness with His grace and benevolence; and He created the first creature that would be the nucleus for all beings. That creature was the light of Muhammad.  

It is necessary to study the hadith, “The first thing Allah created is my light.” because we often see and hear some wrong interpretations and groundless objections regarding it.  

As it is known, all of the traits of living beings are recorded in their genetic codes. That recording is a divine program written by the pen of destiny. You cannot find the shape of the tree, the hardness of the trunk, the greenness of the leaf, the taste of the fruit in the code in the seed. All of those traits are recorded in the DNA in the form of base order, but that program is neither hard nor soft, neither green nor red. They are all present in the form of a plan and program in the code, but it is in vain to try to find all of the traits of the tree exactly in that code. A person who thinks that all of the creatures were created from the light of Muhammad without taking that point into consideration will try to establish a similarity between the light of Muhammad and stars, forests and seas; and he is mistaken.  

The plans that we make are like that, too; aren’t they? All of the parts of a house are present in the plan but you cannot cook in the kitchen in the plan.

“Just as among the Names there is a Greatest Name, so too among the impresses of those Names there is a greatest impress, and that is man” (Sözler: Words ) The greatest name contains all of the names; similarly, man, who is the greatest impress, contain the names that are manifest in the whole realm of beings. Based on the rule, “when something is mentioned in the absolute form, it denotes perfection”, when man is mentioned, Hazrat Muahammad (pbuh), who is the most advanced individual of the realm of humanity and who is the sun of the sky of prophethood, comes to mind. 

All of the divine names were manifested in the light of Muhammad first. For instance, he has the manifestation of the name al-Muhyi (the Giver of Life) and he has life. All of the lives to be created in the other phases are all the manifestations of this name, which became manifest in him first. That luminous life is the beginning point and seed of all lives. However, it is obvious that it will be wrong to establish a relationship between all kinds of life and the clean and perfect spirit of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).  

Another example: to preserve is a divine deed.

The name al-Hafiz (the Preserver) is also manifest in the light of Muhammad and then it became like a seed for the “preserved tablet”, “nuclei”, “eggs”, “sperms”, and finally ”memories”.

“Wisdom requires that the tree of creation also, be formed from a seed. And such a seed that contains the essentials and principles of other worlds besides the corporeal world.” (Sözler: Words)

According to Muhyiddin Arabi, who is the founder of Wahdah al-Wujud (Oneness of Being) school, all of the forms of the beings to be created until the eternity were present in the knowledge of Allah in the form of, so to speak, a luminous nucleus. Muhyiddin Arabi names this first level of appearance that contained all of the forms of the beings concisely using phrases like “haqiqah al-muhammadiyya” (the reality of Muhammad), “alam al-wahda” (the realm of the unicity), “wujud al-ijmali” (the concise being) and “nur al-Muhammadi” (the light of Muhammad).   

Accordingly, the light of Muhammad is the common name of all of the forms of the beings, and they were transferred to the circle of power from the circle of knowledge.

Imam Rabbani states the following:

“As for the sentence that I wrote meaning ‘improvement took place from the reality of Muhammad’, what is meant by the reality is the shadow of that reality; they said, “It is the summary of the knowledge” for that reality and used the term “wahda” (unicity).”(Mektubat v. 2)

The realm of the unicity is one of the four names that Muhyiddin Arabi gave to the first phase of appearance.  

As it is known, wahda means oneness and kathra means multitude. In the nucleus, there exists oneness; and multitude came into being from that oneness. Tens of branches, hundreds of fruit, thousands of leaves express multitude; and this realm of multitude is born out of oneness. The sky in which endless stars are present, the earth in which endless living beings live, the realm of angels whose number is unknown to us and many more beings express multitude and all of them came into being from the realm of the unicity, from the light of Muhammad.  

An important clue from Risale-i Nur Collection: after different interpretations of the verse: “the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of Creation), before We clove them asunder” are presented, the following meaning is added:

“There is one more phase of the mentioned verse behind the phases regarding the ordinary levels: the kneaded matter that was created from the light of Muhammad indicates that the planets and the sun were separated from the dough of that light.” Mesnevî-i nuriye

As it is understood from those expressions, the realm was created phase by phase from the light of Muhammad, which is the creation nucleus of the light of Muhammad. The creation of the physical world, skies and the earth took place based on that rule. A “kneaded matter” was created from that light and that essential dough; that coded creature was used as a base for the creation of our globe.   

In the continuation of the hadith: “The first thing Allah created is my light”, the phases of the creation is expressed as, pen, tablet, throne, angels, which are the carriers of the throne, chair, other angels, skies, earth... respectively. Maybe in the phases before the creation of the skies and the earth, the creation took place directly from the light of Muhammad; and in this phase, an essential matter was created from the light of Muhammad, and this nucleus was used as a base for the creation of the skies and the earth. In this world of wisdom, in which everything is attributed to a cause, it is highly appropriate for the divine wisdom that the beginning of this visible realm was determined like that.

It should not be found strange that matter was created from light. As a matter of fact, what we name as matter is actually known to be condensed energy. The fact that atom is transferred to energy when it is smashed shows that power and strength are present in the foundation. They are not condensed or material; they are fine and luminous.   

The hadith: “Angels were created out of light and jinn were created out of smoky flame” informs us that jinn were not directly created out of light of Muhammad but in a different way or in a different phase.   

According to the verse that means: “there not a thing but celebrates His praise”, everything knows Allah, praises and glorifies Him. It is understood from the fact that the nucleus being both in the first essence of the universe and in its being apparent in the visible realm is called “the light of Muhammad that the furthest level in knowing Allah, praising and glorifying Him belongs to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He is aware of the furthest level of all of the divine names. The real aim of the creation of the universe is him. All of the worshipping performed by other beings, the knowledge acquired by them, and the love enjoyed by them are like a shadow in comparison to him.   

“Also, the Divine effulgence which the Most Noble Prophet (pbuh), who manifested the Greatest Name, received in a single verse, may have been as much as the whole effulgence one of the other Prophets received.” Sözler: Words

That is, the loftiness, brightness and transparency of the light of Muhammad in the first creation overshadowed all of the other things, and that nucleus being was called the light of Muhammad.

Author: Alaaddin Basar (Prof.Dr.)

Please click on the links given below;

What is the first thing that God Almighty created?

Will you explain the verses that tell about the human and prophetic aspects of the Prophet?

What does the Holy hadith; But for thee, the dearest, I would not have created the skies (universe) mean?


21-) prophet muhammad,up to heaven

It is known that Our Prophet (peace be upon him) saw the Heaven and Hill in the Miracle of the Miraj (prophet mohammed's ascension). But, we could not find any information about "at what site did Our Prophet (pbuh) go up to heaven?".


22-) muhammad

The names of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) “Muhammad” and “Ahmad” are mentioned five times in the Quran. Four times Muhammad and one time Ahmad is mentioned.

Muhammad is mentioned in the surahs given below;

Surah Al-i Imran (The Family of Imran), 144; Surah Al-Ahzab (The Confederates), 40; Surah Muhammad, 2; Surah Al-Fath (victory), 29.

Ahmad is mentioned in the 6th verse of the Surah As-Saff (Battle Array).

But, our Prophet has many names other than these two. Many of them are mentioned in the verses of the Quran.


23-) How did our Prophet make a living after being a prophet?

Our Prophet (pbuh) was occupied in trade before he married and he continued to be occupied with trade using the wealth of Hazrat Khadija, our mother. (Salih Suruç, Peygamberimizin Hayatı, Mekke devri, p, 143)

Our Prophet worked as a shepherd when he was a child and he was sometimes occupied in trade when he was young.

After becoming a prophet, he practiced the religion of Islam that Allah sent and conveyed it to people. He spent his whole life preaching Islam.   

Our Prophet was in charge of a religion and umma (community). Therefore, he undertook a duty that covered all aspects of life.

He was the commander-in-chief in wars, the administrator of the umma of Muhammad, a judge solving problems, a teacher to arrange the affairs of the world and the hereafter; he lived as a leader and served Islam.

Therefore, he received some of the war booty; so, he made a living without asking anything from anyone.


24-) Why was Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) polygamous?

Let us deal with the issue from the point of view of that spotless personality. First of all, it must be known that our Prophet (pbuh), who was at the peak of high ethics, did not marry until he was 25 years old. Given the special situation of that hot country and that he lived in chastity, which is a fact that has been accepted since the period he lived, for so many years, it will be seen that he had chastity, a powerful will and a great control over his soul. If he had made a tiny mistake regarding the issue, his enemies in the past and today would have already declared it to the world. However, all of his enemies in both the past and today never dared to say such a thing although they attributed so many impossible things to him.

Our Prophet (pbuh) married at the age of twenty-five for the first time. This marriage was with a woman who was very lofty and exceptional in the sight of Allah and His Messenger but who had married twice before. That happy marriage lasted twenty-three years and ended in the eighth year of the prophethood like a curtain that came down, leaving a bitter longing behind. The Prophet (pbuh) was left alone again as he was until he was 25. After that 23-year long happy life, the Prophet was the sole parent of their children for four or five years; he was fifty-three years old then.

When he began marrying other women, he was already past 55, when very little real interest and desire for marriage remains. It is not something that can be accepted by the conscience, mind and heart to regard marriages after the age of fifty-five in a hot country as something related to desires and lust.

Another issue that comes to the mind here is the aspect that the prophethood of the Messenger necessitated polygamy.

First of all, it should be known that those who talk like that are either those who do not accept any principles and religions or are members of other religions based on different books. The former have no right whatsoever to reproach something like that because they themselves are involved in casual relations with numerous sexual partners without obeying any laws or rules; they even have incest relationships;. The attack of the latter is also unjust, malicious and impulsive; it is something sorrowful for them. There are so many great prophets accepted by the books they have and the congregations that follow those books that married more than one woman and made so many marriages.

For instance, when Prophet Solomon and David are taken into consideration, it becomes clear that those who are members of those religions do not act justly when they oppose polygamy. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) did not start polygamy; besides, polygamy is not contrary to the spirit of prophethood. Furthermore, as it will be seen later, polygamy was more useful than people think in terms of the duty of prophethood.     

In a sense, polygamy is necessary especially for the prophets who brought new religious decrees and shariahs because there are many issues of the religion that take place within the privacy of the family; those issues can only be learned fully by the spouse of a prophet. Therefore, there is a need for women teachers who will explain those aspects of the religion clearly without having to use hints or innuendos – that kind of narration usually makes it difficult to understand and to practice those issues.

The chaste and virtuous women of the Prophet's household were responsible for being guides and conveyors for women; therefore, they were indispensable for the Prophet, prophethood and the world of women.

B) Another aspect is related to the spouses of the Prophet (pbuh):

    1) Since there were young, middle-aged, and old women among his wives, the religious judgments related to their different life stages and experiences were established. They were learned and applied first within the Prophet's household thanks to those chaste women

    2) Since each wife was from a different clan or tribe, bonds of kinship were established among those tribes and then between the Prophet and those tribes, which enabled a profound love and affinity in all of the community. Each clan and tribe regarded him as one of their members and they felt a profound interest toward him both due to religion and kinship.

    3) Each wife that he married from a different tribe, proved to be of great benefit and service to the cause of Islam both during and after the Prophet's life; they conveyed his implicit and explicit sunnahs and the religious decrees to their close and distant relatives. In this way, their clans, both women and men, learned about the Quran, tafsir (interpretation of the Quran) and hadith from them; and theywere able to understand the spirit of the religion.

    4) Through his marriages, the Prophet established ties of kinship almost throughout Arabia, which gave him the freedom to move and be accepted as a member of each family. Thanks to this close relation, everybody could go to him in person and learn the orders of the religion directly from him. The tribes also benefited collectively from their proximity to him: they considered themselves fortunate and took pride in that relationship.

Bani Makhzum through Umm Salama, the Umayyads through Umm Habiba and the Hashimites through Zaynab bint Jahsh considered themselves close to the Prophet and regarded themselves fortunate.

C) What we have mentioned so far is general and could be true of all prophets in some respects. Now we will deal specifically with the virtues of each wife of Prophet Muhammad one by one:

We will see here that the reason and mind of man has to bow down before the blessed life of the Prophet (pbuh), who is supported by revelation; in other words, the thought of man has to prostrate before this genius, who is under the shade of revelation.

    1) Hazrat Khadija (may Allah be pleased with her) was the Prophet's first wife. His marriage to this precious woman, who was 15 years older than him, is the greatest example for every marriage. He was loyal to Hazrat Khadija and showed respect to her during their marriage; he never forgot her after she died and mentioned her almost at any occasion. 

The Prophet (pbuh) did not marry for four or five years after the death of Hazrat Khadija. Although he had to look after several children, he put up with the difficulties and acted like both a mother and father for them. If he had had any weakness toward women, would he have acted like that?   

     2) His second wife, though she is not the second one chronologically, is Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her). She was the daughter of Abu Bakr, his closest friend; through this marriage, the Prophet accorded the highest honor and courtesy to a man who had shared all the good and bad times with him. Abu Bakr will have the honor of being together with the Prophet on the day when all the kinship will end with his eternal kinship. Yes, Hazrat Aisha and Abu Bakr had the honor of being close to the Prophet (pbuh) without leaving any material or spiritual gaps.          

Besides, Aisha, who was an exceptionally person, had the nature to carry forward the prophetic mission. Her life after the marriage and her service after it proved that she could only be the wife of a prophet. She was one of the greatest authorities on hadith, an excellent mufassir, and a most distinguished expert on Islamic law; she truly represented the inner and outer qualities and experiences of Prophet Muhammad with her unmatched understanding.

Therefore, the Prophet was told in a dream that he would marry her; thus, when she was still innocent and knew nothing of men and worldly affairs, she was prepared and entered the Prophet's household.

Thus, she would become a source of honor for Hazrat Abu Bakr and would be prepared to become one of the most remarkable students of the Prophet (pbuh) among women and a great teacher and conveyor of the message of Islam by developing all of her talents and abilities. She entered the blessed home of the Prophet (pbuh) both as a wife and student.

    3) His third wife, though she is not the third one chronologically, is Umm Salama (may Allah be pleased with her). Umm Salama, who was of the Makhzum clan and one of the first Muslims who had suffered great hardships in Makkah, migrated to Abyssinia and then to Madina, being among the ones in the first rank.

 Her husband put up with those long and troublesome journeys together with her. He was an unmatched person in her sight. When she lost her unmatched husband, Abu Salama, with whom she suffered many hardships, in Madinah, she was left alone with her children. Abu Bakr and Umar proposed marriage to her, aware of her needs and suffering as a destitute widow with children to support, but she refused them because she believed that no one could be better than her late husband.

Some time after that, the Prophet (pbuh) proposed marriage to her. This was quite right and natural because this great woman, who had never shied from sacrifice and suffering for Islam, was alone after having lived many years in the noblest Arabian clan; she could not be neglected and left to beg her way in life. Given her piety, sincerity, and what she had suffered, she certainly deserved to be helped. By marrying her, the Master of the Universe (pbuh) helped her. He was doing what he had always done, befriending those lacking in friends and supporting the fatherless children. He did what the conditions of that day necessitated.

Umm Salama was intelligent and talented like Hazrat Aisha. She had all the abilities to become a teacher and a conveyor of the message of Islam. When the Prophet took her under his protection, a new student to whom all women would be grateful was accepted into the school of knowledge and guidance.

We cannot explain the marriage of the Prophet, who was almost 60, with a widow with many children and assuming the related expenses and responsibilities with anything else, and never with lust and extreme tendency to women.

    4) Another wife of the Prophet was Ramla bint Abi Sufyan (Umm Habiba). She was the daughter of Abu Sufyan, a person who represented unbelief against prophethood for a certain period. She was one of the earliest Muslims who was in the first ranks. She was a woman who migrated to Abyssinia, where her husband later embraced Christianity; then her husband died and she underwent many troubles.

The Companions, at that time, were few in number and poor. They did not have enough money to support others. So, what were her options? She could convert to Christianity and get help that way or she could return to her father's home, now a headquarters of unbelief or she could wander from house to house as a beggar. It was impossible for a member of one of the most religious, noblest and richest women to do any of them. There was only one thing left: the intervention and help of the Prophet (pbuh)

This was in question in the marriage with Umm Habiba (may Allah be pleased with her). In the presence of Negus, the marriage of this woman, who made all kind of sacrifices for her religion, to the Prophet was performed, which was something quite natural for a woman who was away from her hometown among black people and who underwent so many misfortunes due to the exit of her husband from Islam and then his death. Let alone renouncing, it is necessary to applaud it because it is something that was realized by the Prophet because he had been sent as “a mercy to the worlds”.

Besides, this great woman had many things to bring to the education life of fellow Muslims. Thus, Umm Habiba joined the Prophet's household as a wife and student.

Through this marriage, Abu Sufyan's family had the opportunity to enter the house of the Prophet, which caused them to change their ideas and to soften. The influence of this marriage was beyond Abu Sufyan's immediate family; it influenced the whole Umayyads. It can even be said that this family, which was hostile and closed to other people, softened thanks to the marriage of Umm Habiba and was ready to do all kinds of good deeds.

    5) One of the women who entered the household of the Prophet was Zaynab bint Jahsh (may Allah be pleased with her). She was a lady of noble birth and descent with a deep thought as well as a close relative of the Prophet; she grew up near him. When the Prophet made known to her parents that he wished her to marry Zayd (may Allah be pleased with him) her family hesitated a bit because the family had hoped to marry their daughter off to the Prophet. Eventually, they consented to her marriage to Zayd bin Haritha when the Prophet insisted.

Zayd was a slave who had lost his freedom once and was among the slaves; then the Master of the Universe (pbuh) saved him from slavery. The Prophet (pbuh) wanted to establish equality and balance among people by insisting on that marriage and starting to do it among his relatives. However, Zaynab, who had a lofty nature, did not seem to continue this marriage, which she agreed due to the insistence of the Prophet, for a long time.  The marriage did not bring happiness to Zayd, either; it only brought him agony and longing.

In the end, Zayd divorced Zaynab; but the Prophet (pbuh) was trying to dissuade Zayd and to make the marriage continue. Meanwhile, Jibril came and brought the divine command ordering the Prophet to marry Zaynab. The test that the Prophet was undergoing was very severe; he was going to do something that had never been done before; he was going to declare war against established, deep-rooted customs. It was a tough struggle. It could only be done because it was ordered by Allah. With a deep consciousness of slavery, the Prophet did what he was ordered though it was very hard for his decent personality. As Hazrat Aisha stated, “If the Prophet had been inclined to suppress anything of what was revealed to him, he would surely have suppressed this verse.” Yes, it was so hard for the Prophet (pbuh)...

Divine wisdom wanted that lofty and chaste woman to enter the household of the Prophet (pbuh), to educate and train her, and to make her convey the message of Islam. In the end, this was realized. She acted in accordance with the rules that being a wife of the Prophet necessitated.   

Besides, in the Era of Jahiliyyah, an adopted child used to be addressed and regarded as one’s biological child and the wife of an adopted son used to be regarded as the wife of one’s biological son. When this custom that belonged to the Era of Jahiliyyah wanted to be abolished, the first application was carried out through the Prophet (pbuh).” … nor has He made your adopted sons your sons. Such is (only) your (manner of) speech by your mouths…”

    6) One of the women who had the honor of entering the household of the Prophet was Juwayriya bint Harith (may Allah be pleased with her). Muslims fought against her tribe and captivated both the men and women of the tribe. When this woman, who lived in the palace of her tribe, was brought to the presence of the Prophet, she was in considerable distress and felt humiliated; she was full of grudge and hatred.

The Prophet (pbuh) settled the problem very easily. When the Prophet married Juwayriya, she was elevated to the rank of the mother of the believers and received respect from the Companions. And when the Prophet said, “The relatives of the Prophet cannot be enslaved” and set them free, the hearts of Juwayriya and all her people were won.

As it is seen, our Prophet solved this problem very easily when he was about sixty by a marriage; thus, he made peace when there existed everything to continue the war.

     7) One of the fortunate women to enter the household of the Prophet was Safiyya bint Huyayy (may Allah be pleased with her), the daughter of a chieftain of Khaybar. In the famous Battle of Khaybar, she lost her father, brother, and husband, and her tribe was captured; Safiyya was flaming with vengeance. However, when she married the Prophet and was elevated to the high rank of being a wife of the Prophet, the Companions began to show respect to her and the Prophet treated her very nicely, which made Safiyya forget about all that had happened. She started to take pride in being a wife of the Prophet.

Besides, many Jews had the opportunity to know the Prophet closely through Safiyya and they changed their attitudes against Muslims. There are many wisdoms in one deed of Allah, who makes many things through one thing. He created many good deeds and abundance in this marriage as He did in the other marriages.

Furthermore, it is appropriate to say that the Prophet taught something to his ummah in that he was aware of the thoughts of his enemies. Women like Safiyya, women belonging to different nations and tribes, are very important for understanding the internal states of those nations; however, it is necessary to be careful in case they try to find out about the secrets of Muslims in the same way.    

    8) One of the fortunate women to enter the household of the Prophet was Sawda (may Allah be pleased with her). She was among the first to embrace Islam and she migrated to Abyssinia with her husband; Like Umm Habiba, she was left alone when her husband died.  

Prophet Muhammad married her and repaired her heart; saving her from becoming miserable, he became a companion to her. Sawda, who wanted to marry the Prophet (pbuh), did not want anything else in the world.   

Such were the circumstances and motives behind the Prophet's several marriages. There was no lust involved. He married either in order to connect a close relationship with his viziers, as it was the case when she married the daughters of Abu Bakr and Umar, when he saw the talents and abilities in them or due to some other reasons that we have mentioned one by one above; he undertook great burdens when he married them.

The fact that our Prophet (pbuh) provided each wife with accommodation, food, clothing  equally, that he treated them meticulously equally, that he prevented possible troubles among them before they took place and that he solved the problems very easily, or as Bernard Shaw put it, “as easily as one drinks coffee”, shows that this exceptional person is a prophet.

We know how difficult it is to manage one wife and two children and we bow respectfully before the Prophet, who managed many women that had married before and that had developed various habits in the homes of their previous husbands in a very harmonious way.    

There is one more issue to mention: it is the fact that the number of his wives was more than the amount that was legitimate for the men of his ummah. It was a special situation. It is a special law that contains many reasons and wisdoms that we might or might not know. The revelation restricting polygamy came after he had contracted all of these marriages. Thereafter, he also was forbidden to marry again. (2)

9) Another wife of the Prophet was Hafsa bint Umar al-Khattab, Hafsa, the daughter of Umar, was born five years before Muhammad (pbuh) became a prophet. Her mother was Zaynab, the sister of Uthman b. Maz'un, one of the great Companions.

It is not known when Hz Hafsa embraced Islam. It can be said that she became a Muslim after her father Umar embraced Islam because we know that all of Umar’s family and relatives embraced Islam then.

Hazrat Hafsa had been married to Khunays b. Huzafa, as-Sahmi. Huzafa was among the Muslims who migrated to Abyssinia. There are narrations that Hafsa also took part in this migration. After returning from Abyssinia, Huzafa migrated to Madinah together wit his wife Hafsa.  

Hazrat Khunays b. Huzafa took part in the Battle of Uhud and was seriously wounded. He died as a martyr due to that wound in Madinah. Hazrat Hafsa tried to heal her husband’s wound herself. She was very said when he died and she grieved for him. Hazrat Umar wanted Hazrat Abu Bakr to marry her daughter, Hafsa. However, Abu Bakr did not answer Umar’s offer. Then, Hazrat Umar offered Hazrat Uthman, whose wife Ruqayya, the daughter of the Prophet, had died and therefore, who was alone. However, Hazrat Uthman, who hoped to marry Umm Kulthum, the other daughter of the Prophet, said, “It is not appropriate for me to marry nowadays” after thinking for a while.  

Hazrat Umar, who tried to make her daughter marry a righteous believer with an act that fitted a Muslim father, went to the Prophet in a sad state when he could not do it. While talking to the Prophet, he said, “I am surprised by the behavior of Uthman. I offered him to marry Hafsa but he did not accept.” Hazrat Prophet said, “Shall I offer you a better son-in-law than Uthman and shall I offer Uthman a better father-in-law than you?” When Umar said, “Yes, o Messenger of Allah!”, Hazrat Prophet said, “Marry your daughter Hafsa off to me and I will marry my daughter Umm Kulthum off to Uthman.

Hazrat Umar was very pleased when he heard this offer. He had wanted to be relatives with the Prophet very much but he did not have the courage to offer him to marry Hafsa because Hafsa was, as Hazrat Aisha put it, “just like her father”, that is, she was a bit stern. With his offer, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) strengthened his relation with Umar and rewarded him due to his service to Islam by enabling the desire of Umar to realize.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) married Hazrat Hafsa in the middle of the third year of Hijrah. He gave Hafsa 400 dirhams, that is, 118 grams, of silver as mahr (dowry).

After the death of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), Hafsa led a very modest and religious life. About sixty hadiths were reported from her: some directly from her, others what she heard from her father. Hafsa, who could read and write, died in the fort-fifth year of Hijrah; her janazah prayer was led by Marwan, the governor of Madinah. According to another narration, she died in the forty-first year of Hijrah.

(1) see al-Ahzab, 33/4

(2) see al-Ahzab, 33/52

References:

This article was prepared from the books “Asrın Getirdiği Tereddütler (Questions and Answers)


25-) Was there a game like football during the Era of the Prophet (pbuh)?

Among the sports activities that the Prophet (pbuh) was engaged in, interested in and encouraged people to do, were games that aimed to prepared people to war and that were called games with a purpose.  They were games like horse riding, archery, throwing spears, swimming, wrestling, horse and camel racing. There were also games that aimed entertainment within a legitimate framework. The most common ones were running races. The Prophet himself raced with his wife, Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) several times. 

In the classical resources that are available, there exist sports activities that we have mentioned above and similar ones. However, there is no information that football and similar games were played and watched at that time. Nevertheless, Muhammad Hamidullah, the Pakistani scholar, who devoted most of his life to the research of the life of the Prophet, who carried out deep researches about the life of the Prophet (pbuh) in both Makkah and Madinah and who taught at Turkish universities for a while, mentions a game called “kurrak”, which can be described as football, in the second volume of his two-volume book called “the Prophet of Islam”.

The researchers that came after him received the information about the game “kurrak” from this resource. The information given in this resource is as follows: 

"Before Islam, in the Era of Ignorance, Makkans played a kind of foot ball called kurraki. Many people came to watch this game. There were fields to play kurraki in every district of Makkah. There existed kurrak in Madinah, too. We do not have detailed information about the form and the rules of that game. However, the Prophet (pbuh) did not ban this game."

That is the whole information in the books that are regarded as first level resources. It does not fit the personality of the Prophet (pbuh) and his ethics and sunnah to describe and introduce the Prophet (pbuh) as a “football spectator” and – God forbid– as a “football fanatic” acting upon this information.  Besides, it does not seem possible to establish a connection between the football played today and the game of “kurrak”. If there is a similarity, it is the fact that kurrak is known to be played by foot only. 

There are some conditions for games and entertainments to be regarded as permissible:

1. Not to neglect performing prayers and worshipping by being engrossed in it.
2. Not to gamble or bet on it.
3. To avoid cursing or swearing while playing.
4. To treat the opponents humanely and ethically.
5. To wear clothing items that are in accordance with Islamic criteria...

By the way, it is necessary to consider the warning in the following hadith: “Avoiding unnecessary things shows the beauty of the Islamic understanding of a person.” (Tirmidhi, Zuhd 11).

Resources:

1. Muhammad Hamidullah, İslam Peygamberi(The Prophet of Islam), 2:1075.
2. Celal Yeniçeri, Hz. Muhammed, Yaşadığı ve Yön Verdiği Hayat, İFAV Yayınları. p. 280
3. Bütün Yönleriyle Asr-ı Saadette İslam, Ensar Neşriyat. 4:380.


26-) What are the evidences of our prophet´s (PBUH) prophethood?

a- News About His Coming In the Previous Divine Books

In the previous divine books, there are expressions that give us some information about our Prophet’s (pbuh) coming as good news and that he will be sent to humankind as a prophet. Even if they were exposed to many changes, there are many signs about him in the Old Testament and New Testament copies that are present today.     

We will present only four of them from the Old Testament:

“…Moses says: “God will create a prophet like me among your brothers; you are going to listen to whatever he says. And all the prophets, Ishmael (Samuel) and the others coming in a row have always declared these days that are mentioned.”

“…And your Lord… did not create a prophet like Moses in Israel.”

“I will create a prophet like you for them among their brothers and I will put my words in his mouth and I will command him; he will tell everything to them.”

“The Lord came from Sinai and appeared to them from Sair; He shone upon Paran Mountains and ten thousands holy people came out of it. For them there was a fire decree on the right.”

We can conclude the following from the extracts taken from the Old Testament (Torah):

Moses’ address as “your brothers” to Israelites that come from the blood of Ibrahim’s son, Isaac is a symbol of Isaac’s brother Ishmael’s blood, namely to Ishmaelites. A prophet who will come from Ishmaelites can only be our Prophet; because only our Prophet (pbuh) has come from Ishmael’s blood. Here, it comes to mind that Jesus and Joshua as being prophets come after, but in fact, both of them come from Israelites not Ishmaelites. In fact, Moses has obviously told in the second verse that there will not be a prophet like him from Israelites.

Moses means our Prophet by saying “like me” because it was our Prophet who was like Moses; neither Jesus nor Joshua in many matters such as jihad, decrees that he brought, punishments he imposed, being someone who is highly obeyed by majority and so on.

The expression “I will put my words in his mouth” is our Prophet’s ability to read the Quran by heart even if he is illiterate. Allah, the Exalted, sent His revelation to His prophet and he orally told humankind about it. In this matter, He is in a position of intercessor. This verse of the Quran points to it: “Verily this is a Revelation from the Lord of the Worlds: With it came down the Spirit of Faith and Truth― To thy heart and mind, that thou mayest admonish. In the perspicuous Arabic tongue. Without doubt it is (announced) in the revealed Books of former peoples. Is it not a Sign to them that the learned of the Children of Israel knew it (as true)? (ash-Shuara, 26/192-197.)                

The expression “coming from Sina” symbolizes the divine decrees given on Mount Sinai. The expression “appearing from Sair” symbolizes the Bible given to Jesus. And the expression “shining on Paran mountains” represents our Prophet’s leaving from Mecca. Paran –with its spelling in Arabic, Faran- is one of the old names of Mecca and it is told in the genesis part of the Bible that Ishmael lives in Paran desert. In this verse, through the expression ‘holy’, is the character of our Prophet, who is away from every kind of faults and the people in his family and his companions. Similarly, the expression “fire decree on the right” indicates Jihad in Islam.

It is also possible to see some signs in some texts of the present day Bible:

“The corner stone became the head of corner…it is marvelous in our eyes… God’s property will be taken away from you and it will be given to a nation that will bring up His fruits and anyone who falls onto that stone will break into pieces; and that stone will cause anyone that it falls onto break into pieces and turn to powder.”

“Lord will you give you another prophet; and let him be with you till the end.”

“He will teach you everything and will bring into your mind whatever I have told you before.”

“…If I don’t go, the prophet will not come… and when He comes, He will bind all the world for sin, improvement and decrees.”

The “corner stone” in first verse cannot be Jesus; because there occurred no events like breaking into pieces and turning into pieces like powder during the period of Jesus and what he brought with him. However, it happened when our Prophet came. Besides, it was not Jesus who ruled but our Prophet. As a matter of fact, it was Jesus himself who told us that He did not come to rule. On the other hand, in hadiths, our Prophet himself tells us that he is the corner stone of prophethood construction, that is, the propethood was brought into perfection and completed with our Prophet.   

In the verses that followed, the origin of the word appearing as Prophet in Greek is “Piriklitos” and “Ahmad” in Arabic. Besides, in the Quran, it is mentioned that our Prophet’s name is “Ahmad” in the Bible. In fact, we do not have many Bibles today that tell us about our Prophet’s coming and his characteristics.

b- His Excellent and Unique Ethics

It is a fact confirmed by all resources that deal with history that our Prophet (pbuh) helped everybody, supported people who were in need, lived a plain life, never lied, forgave people who behaved adversely towards him, was a reliable person in all matters  and was a perfect man having “Excellent and Great Ethics” every period of his life before and after his prophethood. The Quran mentions our Prophet’s unique ethics as follows:

“And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character.” (al-Qalam, 68/4.)       

It can only be possible for a prophet who undergoes direct divine upbringing to live all moral values, and to give us examples of these values as a human against all kinds of detention, condition and situation in every phase of life.

He has combined all kind of excellent characteristics to form the greatest personality. He was absolutely brave and doughty but he was also excessively humble, meek and mild. Furthermore, the most importantly, his bravery and doughtiness never went ahead to break hearts and his humility and forgiving characteristic never fell down to an equal level of contempt and cowardice. Together with his solemnity and earnestness, our Prophet was a smiling and restful person. In addition, as well as his strong and austere characteristics, he was a person who loved everybody and showed mercy to them. In spite of being in a spiritual position that his lovers directed toward him with their deepest feelings, he was humble enough to talk to a child. Yet, he was extremely generous but he was also very economical; he would not to go beyond a point where extravagance started. The fact that he had all these characteristics, ethical values and many more like these and that he served as an example in accordance with them can only be explained by being a special human being and a person of duty (prophethood).

Our Prophet (pbuh), who preferred to live a plain life during his life, always refused the worldly promises offered to him again and again such as ranks and fortune in the period of Makkah. He also had an important role for his family and children to keep away from such things which he always kept himself away from. His sensitivity will be understood better about these matters if we look at his family where receiving charities and alms are forbidden and if we look at his daughter Fatimah for whom there was even no permission to wear a necklace. The fact that he did not change after all kinds of achievements, victories and financial possibilities acquired in the period of Madinah shows us the honesty degree of his great and unique ethics. The fact that he did not get confused and that he did not feel conceited and that he finished his duty as he started even after the greatest victories and conquests is a brilliant evidence of his prophethood.

In short, if there had been a lie or a sign of insincerity in his words and behaviors, he would certainly have been unable to hide it in his prophethood period or before the prophethood, and as a result, his opponents seeking for an opportunity would have reached their targets by benefiting from this situation without needing to grab their swords. 

Then, we can easily say that even if he had not shown any miracles, He, himself is a great evidence and witness for his honesty and prophethood.    
               
c- Revolutions He realized in the history of Humanity

It is impossible to show anybody else who comprehended and raised human beings that are complex creatures and who turned them into exemplary people in history who became pathfinders and teachers for civilized nations.
 
He is a rightful Prophet sent by God with true messages. The immaculate life that he led and the unique revolution that he realized are sound evidences that he speaks in the name of Allah.

We find it useful to make some remarks about the issue.

How can one suspect of him being a true Prophet? He embraced life at every point and built up a flawless universal system which he commenced with a man, a child, a slave and a woman integrating it into life in a period of twenty-three years, which is actually a really short time. How can one explain the fact that he speaks as an expert at every field gives straight answers and says immortal words despite the fact that he had no pedagogic education, did not graduate from any military school, never got in contact with a telescope or microscope in his life and he was illiterate?
Our Prophet extracted the most valuable guides of humanity out of a society that consisted of stubborn, oppressing and conceited people of the desert where the weak and the poor were kept down and where people were valued by their lineage and tribes. In this very society, interest, black-marketeering and power ruled. How can this situation be explained by anything except for the fact that he is a Prophet.

It is obvious that it is very hard to alter beliefs and habits, especially obsessions rooted in the brain and heart; it is even harder to make people who are over a certain age quit faulty and superstitious beliefs. In our modern world, making someone give up smoking is considered a great success let alone making people quit practices like taking alcohol, prostitution, bribing, defrauding and theft. Although scientist keep telling harms of alcohol, smoking and gambling, people still cannot be persuaded to quit them.

Let us have a look at the century which was completely changed by our Prophet. We witness that although he was not a ruler, which means he did not conduct his mission by force and as a matter of fact he did not have the possibility to do it by forcing people, he removed not one or ten but hundreds of habits and customs in a very short time with very little resources from various tribes and communities that consisted of stubborn, conservative and tradition-addicted people with deeply rooted customs. Moreover, not only did he remove those habits and customs but also he replaced them with features that make a man a real human. Is it not the duty of every single person that knows all of the facts mentioned above to say ’You are the Messenger of Allah’?

While doing all of  these, he did not benefit from intimidating or forcing; instead, he followed a way to conquer their hearts and minds; he persuaded them kindly that actually led them to love this religion. If he had used intimidation and brutal force, it would not have been possible for the religion he brought to reach today. He not only gained the love of his friends with his behavior which consists of tolerance, tenderness and being merciful but he also earned the love of his enemies who fought against him with their swords such as Khalid bin Walid, Wahshi, Abu Sufyan, Hind, Ikrimah and  Safwan.

He is the model for a quarter of the population of the world with the Quran he conveyed to people and with its living interpretation, his Sunnah. Besides, if it is not possible, and it is not possible, to show a second person whose name is heard all over the world five times a day, then, should not one think that this very person can only be a Prophet getting his power from Allah?

d- The news he gave about the past and the future

Only Allah can now ghaib (the unknown, the unseen). The Quran attracts attention to this truth in its many verses. In this respect, our Prophet would not have known about the future events as he was a human being but he knew about the future to the extent that Allah told him. The issue is expressed in a verse as follows;

“He (alone) knows the Unseen, nor does He make any one acquainted with His Mysteries― Except a messenger whom He has chosen”. (Jinn, 72/26-27.)

He did not say anything by himself; what He said was only what God informed him. So, we will assess the news of our Prophet about ghaib in two categories as the future and the past.

a- None of the news he gave using the Quran both about a single person and past nations like Ad, Thamud and Iram has been denied by the archeological and scientific researches carried out for fourteen centuries; on the contrary, they have been confirmed as new discoveries have been made every day. In addition, he not only told us these events as stories of the past but also as exemplary scenes that need to be taken lessons from. How can it be explained that our prophet (pbuh), who was illiterate, assuredly criticized the books of divine origin like the Torah and the Gospel in the presence of the scholars living at that time and the future scholars and confirmed the correct parts of them and corrected the mistakes in them? Only by the fact that he was a prophet.

b- We can mention some of his news about the future here except for those in the Quran: Just before the Battle of Badr, the Prophet showed people the exact death locations of the idolaters such as Abu Jahl, Utba, and Shayba and they died in the exact places that the Prophet showed. He told people that it would be her daughter, Fatima, who would die first after his death in his family and she died six month after the death of the Prophet. When Hassan was a small boy he pointed to him and said, ”This is my son, Hasan; He is a Sayyid and Allah will restore peace between two large groups through him and also it happened exactly. He said that Ammar Bin Yasir was going to be killed during a mischief.  He also said that Ummu Haram who was a relative of him would attend to an expedition and it happened during Cyprus expedition…

There is news of distant future from our Prophet. Since such news require comments and deep thought, this surpasses the capacity of this work.

As a result, There is no way but kneel down in front of this illiterate person once again and say that” You are the Messenger of Allah” as he miraculously narrated it with a perfect style and precision the events that happened centuries ago before his time and also events that will take place in the future.

Miracles That He Showed

Miracle can be defined as a situation or event shown by Allah through His Prophets to support the accuracy of inspiration, strengthen the faith of believers and to break the pertinacity of deniers. We can classify the miracles of our Prophet within two separate groups. The Quran itself and the miracles about those who are created:
 
a. The Eternal Miracle: The Quran

There is no suspicion that his greatest miracle is the Quran. The Quran, with its ultra modern reality, stands in front of us as evidence that supports the prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh).

The Quran came out in the hands of an illiterate person and the truths it includes do not conflict with each other. As it includes news from the future and the past and refers to some issues about creation, which are some of the miraculous features of the Quran, the things in the Quran are clear evidences of the fact that the Quran is the word of Allah and Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) is a prophet.

Every Prophet showed miracles associated with things which were popular at their time. For instance, during the time of Moses, magic was popular and he came up with a staff that wiped out all other magical things. Around the time of Jesus Christ, medical appliances and medicine were popular. Therefore,he was granted the miracle of healing incurable illnesses and reviving dead people. In the time of our Prophet poetry and being articulate in speech were highly important so he came up with the miraculous Quran as rhetoric would be the most effective and powerful instrument of his time and future. Therefore, our Prophet came with the miracle of the Quran, which silenced all poets, literary men and speech-makers.

b. Other miracles and the issues that should be emphasized about those miracles

Naturally, the miracles associated with our Prophet are not only limited to our Holy Book, the Quran. As he was sent as mercy to all worlds, he showed various miracles about all kinds of creatures and beings. When a sovereign sends his messenger to a country where different nations and communities reside, everyone welcomes this messenger in the name of their nation, tribe or community. In the same way, Our Prophet came to the humanity as a representative and an official. In addition, he was sent to other beings and creatures as a sign of mercy and forgiveness of Allah. That is, all beings gained their true meaning of existence when our Prophet taught humanity that there is only one God. So, all of the beings from angels to jinn, from stars to trees and stones, from animals to plants presented their thanks to him and became tools for the miracles that came out of his hand. Thus, everything became witnesses for the truthfulness of this messenger and declared it to the universe.

The point we are trying to emphasize may be regarded to include exaggerated expressions. At this point, it will be sufficient for us to remind this: it must not be forgotten that the message our Prophet brought, the mercy and forgiveness sent through him are associated with all other universes or dimensions. Based on this, it is reasonable that every dimension of the universe become a scene for those miracles that confirm his prophethood.

One cannot deny a miracle in terms of its probability. Although miracles are shown by prophets, it is Allah who creates them. Nothing is hard or easy for Him. The Quran says “It is Allah who does whatever He wishes to do”. God does things based on laws and reasons as it is a necessity of His Divine Justice. However, He does not have to do things based on reasons. Actually, it is out of question for Allah. So, He shows miracles both to show that He does not have to act based on the laws and  to prevent minds from being caught up by webs of reasons and laws. Thus, He reminds us that His power  is beyond cause and effect and that it is infinite.

All the miracles did not occur in public where everyone could clearly see them. If it had happened this way, there would be no wisdom for the existence of the human mind. In such a situation, human beings would not have their free will and they would be forced to believe, which would not be compatible with the test and trial that they underwent.

Most of the miracles were reported by a community that would not come together to tell lies. Some of the miracles were not reported by a group like the one mentioned above but they are as reliable as those since the other witnesses/sahabas (companions of the Prophet) did not object to them.


27-) Can you give information about the polygamy of the Prophet (pbuh) and the fact that his house was a school for his pure wives (azwaj at-tahirat)?

Answer 1:

First of all, we know it for sure that all of the deeds of a prophet comply with the consent of Allah. Allah wanted to show that they were human beings and that they could not know everything without the permission of Allah; so, they sometimes made wrong ijtihads but they were immediately corrected by Allah. There are some verses showing that Allah approved the polygamy of Hazrat Muhammed (pbuh). It means those marriages were permitted by Allah. Who dares to oppose that divine decree?

When Hazrat Prophet was twenty-five years old, he married Hazrat Khadija, who was forty. It cannot be said that the Prophet (pbuh) had a great inclination toward women because he did not marry again until Khadija died and he made several marriages after the age of fifty-three. The view, “He did not marry because he was afraid of Hazrat Khadija” is a groundless delusion because in a region where polygamy was prevalent and where women did not regard polygamy odd, there is no evidence excluding Hazrat Khadija from it. When the scientific rule of logic, “a probability that does not arise from any evidence has no scientific value” is taken into consideration, to think that the probability of “being afraid” is possible is nothing but a delusion that is not scientific and just at all.  

If such a probability had been possible, it would have been in question for Hazrat Aisha, too. As a matter of fact, many marriages took place after the Prophet married Hazrat Aisha. Besides, It is obvious that Hazrat Khadija, who trusted in the Messenger of Allah more than any body else and who believed in him without any hesitation, would never oppose any of his deeds.

There are expressions showing that the marriages of the Prophet took place based on the divine permission in the following verses: 

“O prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; … this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large); We know what We have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their right hands possess in order that there should be no difficulty for Thee. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Thou mayest defer (the turn of) any of them that thou pleasest, and thou mayest receive any thou pleasest: and there is no blame on thee if thou invite one whose (turn) thou hadst set aside….

It is not lawful for thee (to marry more) women after this, nor to change them for (other) wives, even though their beauty attracts thee….” (al-Ahzab, 33/50-52).

The expression “in order that there should be no difficulty for Thee” in the verse shows clearly that those marriages took place for some purposes. Everybody who has a mind and conscious will accept that the word “difficulty” does not express a great desire for women. There is no need to make much effort to understand that they all serve an aim. Then, it is necessary to evaluate them in terms of social, political, economic reasons. Those marriages include reasons like women and children needing protection, and being active in international relations. The marriage to Umm Habiba, the daughter of Abu Sufyan, the chieftain of the Quraysh, is remarkable in terms of foreign policy; on the other hand, the marriages to the daughters of Hazrat Abu Bakr and Umar are significant in terms of internal politics. In his marriage to Zaynab, there exists an important arrangement to abolish gradually the application of the system and state of adopting children that was prevalent in the community.  

To sum up, we may not understand fully the wisdom behind those marriages. However, we know that those marriages include certain wisdoms and that indulgence in women is definitely not one of those wisdoms. 

Another important wisdom behind the marriages of the Prophet along with the ones we have summarized above is that his house was also a school. The students of that school were the mothers of the believers because almost half of the religion is related to the issues of family and privacy. Half of the human beings are women. There had to be more than one student with different characteristics to learn those issues and serve as examples. Those students had to be women and they had to be women in his family. There was only one way to ensure it: marriage.    

Answer 2:

The wives of the Prophet were as follows:

Hazrat Khadija; Hazrat Sawda bint Zam’a; Hazrat Aisha; Hazrat Hafsa bint Umar; Hazrat Zaynab bint Huzayma; Hazrat Zaynab bint Jahsh; Hazrat Umm Salama; Hazrat Umm Habiba (Ramla bint Abi Sufyan); Hazrat Juwayriya bint Harith; Hazrat Safiyya bint Huyayy; Hazrat Mariyatu’l-Qibtiyya (Umm Ibrahim); Maymuna bint Harith.

A definite and silencing answer to the deviant people of today who are like the hypocrites of the past who think that the marriages of the Prophet are based on his desire and lust given by Badiuzzaman Said Nursi is as follows in brief: 

Marriage has two main aims: One of them is the continuation of the generation; the second one is satisfying the sexual desires legitimately. Continuation of the generation is the primary goal of marriage. Satisfying sexual desires is a small gift given by the Creator in order to ensure the continuation of the generation. It is just like the flavor added to the meal for the continuation of the personal life.   

When the marriages of the Prophet are studied both from the point of view of history and human nature, the following situation is seen:

It is unanimously agreed both by his friends and enemies that he lived as a single person until he was 25, the most enthusiastic period of the youth, that he did not have any intercourse with any woman and that he remained chaste. Besides, his tribe called him “Muhammad al-Amin” a person who is trustable in all aspects.  

As a matter of fact, the community in which he lived regarded relationships with more than one woman as normal. He could have married many virgins before he was 25 and after he got married. However, he did not do so; he married a widow, who was 40 years old and 15 years older than him. This marriage lasted 25 years until his wife died. That is, he was married to one woman only until he was fifty years old. 

Another evidence that his marriages were not based on sexual desires lies in the answer he gave to polytheists when they made an offer to him.

The polytheists went to Abu Talib, the Prophet’s uncle, and said to him, “If your nephew wants to be our chief, we will appoint him as our chief; or, we will give him our most beautiful girls and women, if he gives up his cause."

When his uncle conveyed him their message, the Prophet (pbuh) said,

"O my uncle, by Allah, if they put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left in return for my giving up this cause, I would not give it up."

That answer shows what he was trying to do, and it is enough to prove that things like women, leadership that people deemed valuable were worthless in his sight.

His second marriage after the death of Khadija was with Hazrat Sawda, another old widow.

After living with Hazrat Sawda for three years, he lived with only one woman until he was 54 years old. It is interesting that he was married to more than one woman only in the last ten years of his life. To claim that he married several women in order to satisfy his sexual desires despite knowing these facts can only be possible by denying human nature and historical facts. And such an approach cannot be a just and logical one. It can only be defamation.

We see that in the marriages that took place in the last years of his life, the two main aims, continuation of the generation and satisfying sexual desires, are not present. His generation continued through Hazrat Khadija. He did not have children out of his other marriages; he only had one son, Ibrahim, from Mariya of Egypt but he died when he was one and a half years old. 

As it is seen from the historical facts, the continuation of the generation, which is one of the main aims of marriage, is present only in his marriage with Khadija, not in his other marriages.

The secondary aim of marriage is left; that is, satisfying sexual desires. We saw that this aim was not present in the marriages of the Prophet both from the point of view of his nature and the historical facts because a person’s sexual desires are passionate and active the most between the ages of 15 and 45.

If the Prophet had married many beautiful women in that period and then had left them and married other beautiful women, the claims about satisfying his sexual desires could have been true to some extent. However, he did not do so; on the contrary, he married widows with children like Umm Salama in the last ten years of his life (53-63). For instance, Sawda was a widow at the age of 53; Zaynab bint Huzayma was a widow at the age of 50; Umm Salama was a widow at the age of 65 with four children; Umm Habiba was a widow at the age of 55 and Maymuna was a widow with 2 children.

Another historical fact is this: he did not think of divorcing any of them; only those that died left him.

It cannot be denied that it is a natural law and fact that after the period of youth there exists a decrease in the sexual desires.

When we analyze the marriages of the Prophet, we see that exemplary situation.

To sum up, sexual aims can be sought in the marriages between the ages of 15 and 45. However, our Prophet never married virgins or young women in that period. On the contrary, he married Hazrat Khadija, who was a widow at the age of 40. And his marriage with Khadija lasted until she died.

Since his marriages with more than one woman took place after the age of 53, it is necessary to look for other aims in those marriages as a necessity of rational thought. It is the necessity of not only the reason and mind but also human nature and a just evaluation to do so.

Answer 3:

The School of Pure Wives (Azwaj at-Tahirat)

The period of Madinah was a period when Islamic judgments and decrees were sent down intensively and were taught to the ummah by the Prophet. Male Companions could see the Prophet in Masjid an-Nabawi and ask him about their questions and problems. They learnt from him what, why and how to do. However, it was not so easy for women. They also had questions to ask. Therefore, the women asked the Prophet to allocate one day of the week to them in his house. The Messenger of Allah accepted their offer. Thus, the women started to go to the house of the Prophet and ask their questions about the religion and received answers. During such a meeting, an interesting event took place. At a moment, the women started to talk among themselves loudly. They were chatting. Meanwhile, Hazrat Umar who was passing by was disturbed by the women talking loudly in the presence of the Messenger of Allah and knocked on the door. When he opened the door, the women saw him and stopped talking at once. Hazrat Umar was disturbed when he saw the situation. He could not help warning them and said, "Ladies! You are scared of me, but you are not scared of talking loudly in the presence of the Messenger of Allah!” Thereupon, the women said sincerely, “Oh Umar! You are hard-hearted and strict, but the Prophet is not"

Hazrat Umar, who had sacrificed all of his property for the sake of the Messenger of Allah, was not pleased that he was not like the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah noticed it and said,

"Oh Umar! If you walked on a wide street and if the devil saw you coming, he would change his way” to console him. The home of the Prophet was a kind of school for women. Especially the wives of the Prophet were regular students and in a sense teachers of this school. Prof Raşit Küçük, of Marmara University, Faculty of Theology, explains the issue as follows:

"The judgments and decrees of Islam involve both men and women. However, there are some judgments and decrees that involve only men or women. Hazrat Prophet did not have any difficulty in teaching the judgments and decrees that involved both men and women or only men because men were the same gender as him. He had to address women regarding teaching and practicing the issues that involved women and answering the questions of women. The wives of the Prophet, who were at different ages and who had different abilities, acted like teachers for the believing women. That process of teaching continued and even increased after the death of the Prophet." (1993, İzmir, Ebedî Risalet Sempozyumu Tebliği)

As a matter of fact, Allah’s Messenger’s school, which was near Masjid an-Nabawi, consisted of two parts. One of them was the School of Ashab as-Suffa, which consisted of male Companions, and the other was the School of Pure Wives, which consisted of women.

In fact, the rooms of the Pure Wives was like a school and the wives of the Prophet were both like students and teachers of that school because they learned the judgments and decrees of Islam directly from the Messenger of Allah and taught them to the ummah. That duty continued after the death of the Prophet as it was mentioned above. One of the most regular and best students of the School of Ashab as-Suffa was Abu Hurayra, who devoted his life to the preservation of the hadiths of the Prophet and who received the prayer of the Prophet for the strengthening of his memory in order to carry out this duty better; on the other hand, the best student of the School of Pure Wives was Hazrat Aisha, who had superior abilities like intelligence, memory and understanding and who was the unique wife of the Prophet. As a matter of fact, the first one of the "Mukthirun" (people who narrated the most hadiths) was Abu Hurayra, who was the best student of the School of Ashab as-Suffa who narrated 5374 hadiths; Hazrat Aisha, who was the best student of the School of Pure wives was the fourth of the Mukthirun; she narrated 2210 hadiths.

Yes, Islam has brought judgments and decrees involving all levels of life with various levels of importance as the last and perfect religion. The determination, teaching and application of those judgments and decrees was the primary and most important duty of the Era of Bliss because the style and form that Allah would consent to, that is the religion itself, was being determined in every moment and level of life.

When we look at the resources to understand this truth, we see a magnificent treasure of judgments, decrees and secrets. And the duty of presenting this treasure to the ummah becomes manifest as the unerring purpose of those marriages.

We can say that if we excluded those women and especially Hazrat Aisha, who had a special place among them, about half of the decrees and judgments of the religion of Islam would disappear!


28-) Muhammad ( peace be on him)

Mentioning the qualities of sinlessness and pure nature that belong to the prophets, some say that the prophets are created as sinless, are different from normal people, not prone to sins like us, and they are pure from birth so, of course, they don't commit sins, but we are not created this way and commit sins. How can we answer such claims?
The great people who have advanced in spirituality have not advanced because they have pure souls. They each have the same evil commanding soul, too. Moreover, parallel to the saying “The greater the person, the harder his test.”, in comparison to other people, their souls are more rebellious and wild. However, they have always fought with their evil commanding souls and eventually they managed to be spiritual leaders.
Just as every success has its hardships, being a spiritual leader also has its own hardships. People who are at the top currently in the fields of sports and arts have been able to come to this point at the end of serious work. It is not possible to aim at the peak without a certain program, intense work, and continuous discipline.
When we look at the Qur'an, we see that the prophets also experienced hard tests. Let us look at this verse as an example:
“Remember that his Lord tested Abraham with tests and ordeals and he fulfilled them thoroughly. He said: “Indeed I will make you an Imam/leader for all people.” (Al-Baqarah Surah, 2:124)
As is seen, it is the result of his having successfully passed the hard tests that Prophet Abraham was appointed as leader to people. Actually, prophethood is not a result attained through work, but a complete divine blessing. However, this blessing is related to the Prophets' work and deserving. This is because “God knows best upon whom to place His Message.” (Al-An'am Surah, 6:124)
It is obvious that climbing a mount of one thousand meters and climbing up to the peak of Mt Everest are not equal in difficulty. It is necessary to have received professional training and to have speacial qualities in order to climb Everest. It is also historically recorded that not all people who tried to reach the top of Everest were successful. Many of the people who headed for the top changed their minds half way and many died on the way.
Just like the attribute of prophethood is solely a blessing from God, rather than something earned with work; the attribute of sinlessness is also a special blessing of God and an indispensible criterion for prophethood.
As humans, we do not have the right to demand share from prophethood, and in the same way, we do not possess the right of desiring for ourselves their special qualities like sinlessness that their special positions necessitate.
Just as all people can't be a prophet, not all people can be sinless. Indeed, God does not want sinless people, because the existence of angels who are sinless leaves no need for humans to be sinless. The purpose of human's creation is to know and worship God, and to repent and ask for God's forgiveness when s/he commits sins. If everybody were sinless, then how would the names of God that show His forgiveness and forbearance like Al-Afuww (The Effacer of Sins), Al-Ghafur (The All Forgiving), At-Tawwab (The Ever Relenting) reflect themselves? Just as we know one of God's names Ash-Shafii (Bestower of Health) through illnesses, we know His names of forgiveness through our sins.
However, it is a truth that throughout their lives, the Prophets experienced more troubles, ordeals and sufferings than everybody, and they bore these with their own free wills, and they faced God's tests with acceptance. The tests of great people are accordingly hard.
The Prophets are humans, not angels. As humans they also have evil commanding souls and devils. They always  fought with them. For example, in the face of people's disrespect, they got angry but could overcome their anger. In one of his hadiths, the Prophet says: “I also had a devil (trying to lead me to evils) but willingly or not, it surrendered.” (Tirmidhi, Rada 17; Musned, III. 309).
It is a very wrong attitude to account for our sins by saying that we are not sinless, because if we were sinless, we wouldn't have been put to test, like angels.
“Indeed, human will be an eye-witness against himself, even though he puts forth his excuses.” (Al-Qiyamah Surah, 75:14-15).
God assigns prophethood to whom He wills. However, He has given this duty to those capable of undertaking it. If somebody else had had this capacity, he would have given him the duty. Therefore, the people aside from those given prophethood did not have these qualities.
Everybody can bear a burden up to a certain weight. What is the meaning in asking somebody who can only bear 50 kilos to bear 500 kilos? Or why should the load of the plane tree be given to a young shoot? God assigns this duty to whomever He wills. But it is the necessity of His Wisdom to give it to the capable.
Though the duty of prophethood is God's blessing, the Prophets accepted this responsibility with their own free wills, they were not forced.

 

If the devil did not affect the Prophet and if he did not commit sins, how did the black spot on his heart occur? How many times was his heart cleft open?
Prophethood is not a position to be earned by subsequent work.
- Nature cannot be changed. The nature of the prophets cannot be changed, either. There are two aspects of nature: one is the evil-prone animal and vegetal aspect; this can be named as soul. And the other is the aspect of reason and conscience that tends toward the good. As a human, Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, also had these qualities. This is because the test of the great people are accordingly hard, and he was also tested as a prophet. However, as he was created as a candidate for a special position, the evil-commanding soul turned into peaceful soul and then into the soul that God is pleased with. In one of his hadiths, the Prophet says: “Like everybody I also had a devil, but he surrendered to me.” (Tirmidhi, Rada 17; Musned, III. 309)
- One of the greatest scholars of Qur'an, Bediuzzaman Said Nursi says “My evil commanding soul has obeyed my reason, willingly or not...” This shows that not only the prophets but also the people who sincerely follow them and who accept them as the sole guide in their lives may turn their aspects capable of evils into the capacity of goodness.
- Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, is blessed with the special equipments suitable for his misson of prophethood, different from other people. Accordingly, all his qualities, feelings, feelings pertaining to lust and anger and his mental abilities were all precisely balanced. He showed a great and balanced mixture of glory and humility, economicalness and generocity, ease of nature and bravery. When his companions asked him to describe himself, the Prophet replied:
“I am the prayer of my father Abraham, the good news of my brother Jesus, and the dream of my mother. While she was pregnant with me, she saw that a beam of light that illuminated the palaces of Damascus emerged from herself.” And he went on to tell the following story.
“I was suckled and brought up by the family of Sa'd bin Bakr. One day I and my milk-brother were pasturing lambs behind our house. In the meantime, two persons in white clothes came to me. One of them had a golden cup full of snow in his hand. They seized me and cleaved my bosom. They took my heart out and cleaved it, too. They took a black piece of blood out and cast it away. They cleaned my bosom and heart with that snow.” (Sîre, 1/175; Taberî, 2/128)
With that event, the blessed heart of the Prophet was broadened with divine light and peace. At the same time, from that age onward, the Prophet's soul was being purified from any kind of apprehension and doubt by being supported with divine feelings and peace. It is important to point out here that the heart should not be thought only as a piece of meat like a cone of a conifer. It is a divine sense. To clarify the issue, it is beneficial to understand Bediuzzaman Said Nursi's explanation about the heart:
“With heart, we don't mean a piece of meat like a cone. But it is a divine sense that shows its feelings on conscience and that reflects its thoughts on mind. Therefore, naming this piece of meat as heart which includes this divine sense results in this fine point: the service of this divine sense for the spirituality of human is similar to the service dsone by this conical piece for the body. Just as this conical piece, which pumps the water of life to every corner of the body, is a life machine, and the material life continues with its functioning, and when it stops, the body also stops. In the same way, this divine sense revives and illuminates with deeds and feelings; and with the dying down of the light of faith its composition turns into a motionless dead body like a statue.” (Bediüzzaman Said Nursi, Işârâtü'l-Icâz, p. 79)
As is understood, the material heart has a close relation with the spirituality, with faith, knowledge, and conscience. Similarly, the material cleanliness also has a relation with spiritual cleanliness. In this respect, it shouldn't be seen as unreasonable that after the Prophet's heart was cleansed, it was filled with knowledge, divine light and favors.


29-) What could you say about the Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) personality?

The Prophet’s (pbuh) behaviors and attitudes have been widely recounted in the books which tell us about his life and in history books. However, a majority of attributions to those behaviors and attitudes only deal with the Prophet’s (pbuh) humanistic side and the things recounted in those books only deal with the Prophet’s (pbuh) materialistic personality, not his moral and spiritual ways. The Prophet’s moral personality and his holiness is so exalted that his attributions to his materialistic personality recounted in history books are too distant to describe precisely his exaltedness.

In respect to his being a servant to God, as the statement “A person who causes something to happen is as if he has he has done it” suggests, the prayers of all the Muslims every day and even now are being added to his thawabs. As he deserves God’s infinite mercy within infinite quantity with a limitless capability, he is being devoted numberless prayers by his ummah every single day.

As the divine hadith defines “ Lawlaka lawlak, lama khalaktul aflaq” (but for you, I would not have created the heavens), the information is not sufficient in the books to completely describe the sacred personality and exaltedness of the very purpose of creation of this universe, the most perfect human, and the translator  of the Creator of the Universe.

For example, it would be wrong to leave aside His being guarded by Gabriel and Michael during the battle of Badr and His ascending  so high a rank to see God during Miraj, leaving Gabriel behind, and instead, to describe Him only with his human features like putting on armor at war, becoming wounded and ill, suffering hunger, making trade, chatting with his Honored companions like friends, caring for his wives and children and playing with his grandchildren as the father of the family.

So, in order not to make mistakes against the things mentioned about the Prophet’s (pbuh) human side as stated above, it is necessary to consider his real self and his divine spiritual personality, that is, his being the Messenger of God with his duty as a prophet and the translator and interpreter of God’s Book of Guidance. Otherwise, this will lead people to disrespect or into doubt.

For a better understanding of the statements about him, we can give these two examples: Consider a seed of a date fruit. This seed of date fruit becomes a big fruit producing tree in time if it is planted in the soil. Also, it spreads its branches and shoots while it grows. Or let us consider a peacock egg. From that egg, a chicken peacock is born in due time. Then, it will turn out to be a perfectly created peacock which will have feathers, all of which will be embroidered like a piece of art work.

This seed and egg have their simple structures peculiar to them. However, the tree and the bird that come later have wonderful features, compared to the final form of the seed and the egg.

When we show and tell an ordinary person about the relation between the features of the seed or the egg and the features of the tree and the bird he should consider that the tree or egg, by taking into account the phases, a seed becomes a tree or an egg becomes a wonderful peacock. Otherwise, if he is told “ Hundreds of date fruits come out of a single little seed” and “This egg is a peacock which has been created in such a beauty that it might the sultan of all birds”, he is sure to deny and contradict since his mind does not comprehend it.

As in the example, if we compare the necessary situations due to the Prophet (pbuh) being a human to that seed or that egg, his divine personality shining due to his duty as a prophet will resemble a tree in the heaven or a bird of Paradise. Also, this spiritual side of his always continues to rise more and more. As stated above, the worshipping of his ummah, and the deeds they commit and the prayers they send are added to his thawabs and this makes his rank to ascend higher as time passes. For this reason, beside the necessary situations he was in due to being a human, we should also consider his divine spiritual personality that mounted on Rafraf, leaving Gabriel behind, ascending to Qaba Qawsayn and meeting Allah. Otherwise, it would be so disrespectful of us to him or we would deny it with the help of our will and satan. 

The personality and the morality of the Prophet (pbuh) 

The Prophet (pbuh) is the human of all with his personality and morality as much as his material body. Regarding this issue, our Lord states in the Qur’an: “You are surely of a sublime character and do act by a sublime pattern of conduct.” (the Qur’an, al-Qalam, 68:4) The Prophet (pbuh) himself stated : “I have been sent just to complete the high ethics and morals.” (Muwatta’, Husnu’l Khulq, 8) We know that the Prophet (pbuh) was under God’s control and protection since his childhood. For this reason, He stated : “My Lord disciplined me and He disciplined me well.” (Suyuti, al-Jamiu’s Saghir, 1:14) and he never committed a anti-Islamic or anti-humane word or behavior or deed all his life.  Muhammad (pbuh), who was appreciated for his honesty, truthfulness, his respect for the elders, his helpfulness and every sort of high ethics and deserved being called “al-Amin = the trustable one” by the Qurayshi before he became the prophet, held tightly all the moral values his Lord ordered all the believers and all the people in the Qur’an and he fulfilled all of them so properly. For this reason, Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), the mother of the believers, replied “His morality was the Qur’an” when one of the Honored Companions asked her about his morals. (Muslim, Musafirin, 136).

Despite the fact that the Prophet (pbuh) had the authority as the Messenger of Allah and the president of the State of Islam, he was ultimately modest and sincere. He always preferred a simple life. His garments, household, his food and all his living were simple. He used to deal with any person either rich or poor, young or old; he would never return any rightful application and fulfilled all the legal demands. He was ultimately generous and benevolent. He never did any evil to anybody or he wished any evil for anybody and he never said a bad word for anyone, never insulted any person and he would never look down on any people. If he got angry, this was not a personal thing but for Allah. He liked or approved things only for the sake of Allah. Courage and bravery, patience, determination and hope, tolerance and compliment, compassion and mercy were the significant moral values of the Prophet (pbuh). As the basic qualities of the Prophets, He had a sharp comprehension, a unique reasoning and a quick understanding ability. Even in the most dangerous and critical times, he would never fall into despair and do the best thing that could be done and he would leave the rest to God Almighty. 

The Character of the Prophet (pbuh)

  • He was always considerate
  • His silence used to last longer than his speech
  • He would not talk unnecessarily; he neither used extra nor insufficient words when he talked
  • He did not use to get angry due to worldly matters
  • He did not use to utter bad words
  • His forgiveness was natural
  • He would never take revenge
  • He not only forgave the enemies but he also showed respect to them
  • He abstained himself from these three things: He did not conflict against anybody. He did not use to talk much. He would not deal with unnecessary things
  • His belief never let him fall into despair
  • He would remain silent against something he did not like
  • He never condemned or insulted anybody either to their face or behind their backs
  • He did not search for the faults of a person
  • He did not tell anybody any word which could be bad for them
  • He would pay attention to the last speaker as if it were the first
  • When in a community, if people laughed about something, he would laugh as well and if they were surprised by anything, he seemed surprised.
  • He did not accept any unreal compliment
  • He was always dignified
  • He seemed to have surrounded the people around when he talked
  • His words were sweet and serene like glittering pearls
  • He used to walk behind his companions; he used to lift his feet lively; he would not swing side to side; he used to take his steps widely; he used to bend like he descended from a higher place and he used to walk in dignity and tranquility
  • He never returned any person who came to ask for help from him
  • One day, grabbing by the shoulder of one of his friends who was younger than he was, he said: “Be like a poor person or like a passenger in the world”
  • He always appeared somber and smiling
  • He never used any bad words which people used due to their customs
  • He never treated people rudely or yelled at them even at difficult times
  • He used to eat with the poor; it was impossible to distinguish him from them.
  • He used to eat whatever he was served to eat
  • He used to wear simple garments; he did not like showing-off
  • He did not use to turn his face while he was speaking and he would not sit on a privileged place in the community he was in
  • He used to say when he got out of the house in the morning: “O Allah! I turn to you from deviating and being made deviate from the right path, deceiving and being deceived, from committing wrong and being committed wrong and from treating and being treated disrespectfully.”
  • He was not ordinary but he lived like ordinary people
  • He was the Prophet (pbuh). He was our Master.

May thousands of peace and blessings be upon him, the sun of the two worlds… 


30-) What does the Prophet (pbuh) mean by this hadith: "Paradise is surrounded with things that are not pleasant to the soul and Hell is surrounded with things that are pleasant to the soul"? Will you explain it?

Author: Mehmet Paksu

God Almighty placed a pleasure for the soul in each sin and placed troubles and hardships in worshipping due to the necessity of the testing. However, after those small troubles and hardships in the beginning comes ease that satisfies the spirit and the heart.

Due to its nature, the soul tends to commit sins and keeps away from worshipping that necessitates patience with troubles. Despite the pleasures in the beginning, the sins and forbidden things bring about material and spiritual agonies later; despite the small troubles and hardships in the beginning in worshipping, ease and tranquility follow. Therefore, the pleasures in sins are defined as “poisonous honey”. (2)

That issue is indicated in the hadith that you mention.

Imam Nawawi, a hadith scholar, likens this surrounding to a curtain. That is, one can reach Paradise after passing through a curtain consisting of things that the soul hates like worshipping, obedience, hardships, effort and hard work. Similarly, Hell is surrounded with a curtain that consists of the pleasures of the sins that the soul like, and the sins like disobedience, alcohol and gambling. One can reach Hell by committing them and tearing the curtain. (3)

The following hadith is another way of expressing that reality: “The world is a prison for the believer and Paradise for the unbeliever.” (4). It is definite that the world is a prison for the believer compared to his eternal bliss in Paradise and the world is Paradise for the unbeliever compared to his eternal torture in Hell. (5) In fact, the believer takes pleasure from this world more than the unbeliever in terms of his heart and mind. The thought of eternal non-existence that often forces the minds of the believers reduces the pleasures that they take from the bounties of the world to nothing. (6)

The following is stated in Mesnevi-i Nuriye:

The flavors, pleasures and decorations of the world are like Hell if we do not recognize our Creator and Lord. (7)

The grave that is awaiting you and that you move toward rapidly will not accept the decorated and tasty things of the world as gifts because what is regarded as beautiful by the people of the world is regarded as ugly there. (8)

Therefore, we should not pursue the ephemeral beauties that are pleasant to our souls but that our spirit and heart do not like if we want to attain the pleasure of Allah and paradise and be away from Hell.   

References:

1. The hadith mentioned in the question is in Tirmidhi, Jannah, 31.

2. Meyve Risalesi, p. 25; Mesnevi-i Nuriye, p. 118.

3. ibid.

4. Muslim, Jannah, 1.

5. Tirmidhi Zuhd, 56.

6. Lem`alar. p. 201.

7.Mesnevi-i Nuriye p, 98

8. ibid p, 118


31-) What does the sentence "Love your neighbor as you love yourself" mean to you? Can you explain it from the Islamic point of view?

Our neighbors constitute our closest social environment after our family. The conditions on our good and bad days make it necessary to be in contact with our closest environment. Solidarity in hard times and mutual visits in good times are what being good neighbors necessitates.

Hazrat Prophet said, "Jibril (Gabriel) always advised me to treat my neighbors well. I thought Allah would make neighbors inherit each other due to his continuous advice." (Bukhari, Adab, 28; Muslim, Birr wa Sila, 140: 141; Tirmidhi, Birr, 28; Ibn Majah, Adab, 4).

When a Companion asked the Prophet (pbuh) what rights his neighbor had on him, he answered as follows: "If he gets ill, you should visit him; if he dies, you should bury him. If he asks some money from you, you should lend him. If he is in trouble, you should help him. If he suffers a misfortune, you should console him. Do not build the roof of your house higher than his so that you will not prevent the wind. If he knows what you have cooked, you should give some to him, too. “(Y.Kandahlawi, Hayatu`s-Sahaba, III, 1068).

As for the duties that we should fulfill in the light of the hadith above,

1) We should speak softly to and smile at them; we should not neglect to greet them when we meet, to ask about their health and share their joy and grief.  

2) Among the duties of neighborliness are to visit them when they are fine and ill, when they are happy and sorry, and on wedding ceremonies, feast days; to condole with them when someone from their family dies, to support them, to help them in the funeral, to accept their invitation when they invite, to love their children as if they are our own children and to protect them.  

3) The Prophet said, "He who believes in Allah and the Day of Judgment should help his neighbor." (Bukhari, Adab, 31; Muslim, Iman, 74, 76, 77; Ibn Majah, Adab, 4; Darimi, At`ima, 11). "The best friend in the sight of Allah is the one who treats his friend well and the best neighbor in the sight of Allah is the one who treats his neighbor well." (Bukhari, Iman, 31; Tirmidhi, Birr, 28)

4) To give something to eat to our neighbors is one of our moral duties. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, “He who believes in Allah and the Day of Judgment should give something to eat to his neighbors. (Bukhari, Adab, 31; Muslim, Iman, 74, 76, 77; Ibn Majah, Adab, 4) The Prophet also said, "O Abu Zarr! When you make soup, add some more water and give some to your neighbors, too." He said, "He who sleeps on a full stomach while his neighbor is hungry is not one of us." Muslim, Iman, 74, Birr wa Sila, 142; Ahmad b. Hanbal, 1, 55)

5) It is the duty of a Muslim to help the poor and needy neighbors, to give them some money if it is necessary, to lend them money, to find jobs for them if they can work. It is also a nice act to do the chores for lonely and old neighbors. (see Abu Dawud, Zakah, 25; Malik, Muwatta, Zakah, 29; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, III, 31, 40)

6) Among the duties of a neighbor are not to inquire pryingly, not to disclose their sins and faults, to forgive them if they have acted or spoken badly toward us and to guide them in the worldly and otherworldly affairs. It is forbidden in the Quran to spy on others and to disclose the hidden aspects of others. (al-Hujurat, 49/12).

7) It is necessary not to do evil to and to harm neighbors. The Prophet emphasized the importance of the issue by saying, "A person whose neighbor does not feel safe from his evil is not regarded to have believed" (Bukhari, Adab, 29; Muslim, Iman, 73; Tirmidhi, Qiyama, 60) and "A person who believes in Allah and the Day of Judgment should not oppress his neighbor." (Muslim, Iman, 73, 75)


32-) How old was Aisha (PBUH) when she got married to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?

After having become a prophet, ten years later, at the age of 50, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) needed wives to help him do the housework, take care of his children, and help him in inviting people into Islam. He wanted to marry both Sawda, who was old and widow, and the daughter of Abu Bakr, Aisha.

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) made this request ten years after the beginning of the Revelation. Aisha was born 5-6 years before the beginning of revelation. Thus, it appears that the age of Aisha was 17-18 when she got married to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

This point is included in full detail in the book “Asr-? Saadath (The Era of Bliss)” by Mawlana Shibli. (Ist. 1928. 2/ 997)

We can definitely conclude from the biography on Asmaa, Aisha’s elder sister, that Aisha was at a marriageable age when she got married to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The old biography books write about Asmaa as follows: “When Asmaa was 100 years of age, she died in the seventy third year of the Emigration (Hijrah). During the Emigration, she was exactly 27 years old. Since Aisha was 10 years younger than her sister was, she needs to be at her 17. Besides, she had been engaged to Jubair before she married the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). So she was a girl at a marriageable age.” (Hatemu’l Enbiya (The Seal of Prophets) The Prophet Muhammad and His life, Ali Himmet Berki, Osman Keskio?lu, p. 210)


33-) What Does Khatamu´l Anbiya “the Seal of the Prophets” Mean? What are the distinctive characteristics of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)?

Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of God, and the Seal of the Prophets: and God has full knowledge of all things.”(the Surah Confederates (Al-Ahzab), 40)

In the Arabic scripture of that verse, the phrase ‘Khatamu’l-Anbiya,’ is preferred to ‘Khatamu’l-Mursalin’. because the concept “Nabi” has a more general meaning than the concept “Rasul” and it contains the meaning of “Resul” too.

The word “Resul”, in the literal sense, is derived from “Risalah”. It means prophet; its plural forms are rusul and mursalun. On the other hand, the word “Nabi” is derived from the base Naba. It means messenger and its plural forms are Nabiyyun and Anbiya. In the Quran, the words “Rasul” and “Mursalun” mentioned in the verses “We (first) sent to them two messengers”(The Surah Ya-Seen,13-14) and “the messenger came to him (Joseph)” (The Surah Joseph (Yusuf), 50)are also used in the meaning of messenger (in the Arabic scripture). Additionally, in the Quran, the word Messenger is used for indicating the angel of Divine inspiration, the angel of death, the angels recording our deeds and jinn in the same meaning.

We can see the expressions conveying the mentioned meanings above in the following verses:

So verily I call to witness the Planets - that recede, Go straight, or hide; And the Night as it dissipates; And the Dawn as it breathes away the darkness;- Verily this is the word of a most honorable Messenger, Endued with Power, held in honor by the Lord of the Throne, With authority there, (and) faithful to his trust.” (The Folding Up (At-Takwír), 15-21)

“…When death approaches one of you, Our angels (Our Messengers) take his soul.” (The Cattle (Al-Anàam), 61)

Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsels? Indeed (We do), and Our messengers are by them, to record.” (Gold Adornments (Az-Zukhruf), 80)

“O you assembly of Jinn and men! Came there not unto you messengers from amongst you, setting forth unto you My Signs, and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours? ”(Al-Anàam), 130)

In Islam, the concepts of both Rasul and Nabi are used in the meaning of prophet as terms. However, as we can see in the following verse, there is a difference between them.

“Never did We send a messenger or a prophet before you, but, when he framed a desire, Satan threw some (vanity) into his desire: but Allah will cancel anything (vain) that Satan throws in, and God will confirm (and establish) His Signs: for God is full of Knowledge and Wisdom” (The Pilgrimage (Al-Hajj), 52)

Referring to what the scholars of Islam inform us, the difference between them is as follows: The word Rasul is used to indicate a prophet sent with a new book and religion; as for Nabi, it is a term used for the entire prophets whether they introduced a new book and religion or not. Nabi differs from Rasul in that sense. (Razi Tafsir, 23/45)

Accordingly, -as terms used for prophets- every Rasul is a Nabi, but every Nabi is not a Rasul. That is to say, the term Nabi is more common than the term Rasul. That style is a glimmer of the Miraculousness of the Quran; it expresses profound and comprehensive meanings by means of a concise phrase. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) is both a Nabi and a Resul.

Distinctive Characteristics of of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)

He is the last Prophet: the institution of prophethood was completed by his prophethood. Hazrat Abu Hurayra (May God be pleased with him) narrates: Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) said:

“Verily, the situation of other prophets and mine resemble this example: A man built a palace, and completed it perfectly through adorning it, but the place of a brick is empty. Everyone comes to this palace and is fascinated then say:” If this empty brick place did not exist, this palace would be excellent and perfect!” Lo, I am this brick completing that palace.”(Tirmizî, Amthal, 2)

His Prophethood is universal: “We have not sent you but as a (Messenger) to all mankind, giving them glad tidings, and warning them (against sin), but most men know not.” (The City of Sabá (Sabá), 28). Hazrat Abu Hurayra (May God be pleased with him) narrates: Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) commanded:” I was made superior to other prophets by means of six things: The ability of telling many things by few words has been bestowed upon me. By putting fear into the hearts my enemies, I am secured to be victorious over them. The booty acquired from wars became lawful for me. The entire face of the earth has been made a clean place and a mosque for me. I have been sent as a prophet to all mankind. The chain of prophets has been completed by me.” (Muslim, Masajid, 5).

He possesses the greatest miracle: The prophethood documents of the other prophets were visible miracles. Therefore, since those miracles were material, their effects were temporary; they lost importance in the course of time. For example, nobody living in this age has the chance of witnessing Hazrat Musa’s (Moses) stick, which was a dragon once; and people do not have the chance of believing him by means of that supernatural occasion. On the other hand, the greatest miracle of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the Holy Quran, is both an immaterial and a rational miracle. On account of this characteristic, it has a superior importance. As a matter of fact, as time grows older, the Qur’an grows younger; its Miraculous aspect becomes brighter.

Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) explained this aspect of Quran as follows: “Each prophet sent by Allah was bestowed on a miracle which people believed in him by witnessing it. However, the miracle bestowed upon me is different from theirs; it is what Allah inspired me. Therefore, on the Day of Judgement, I hope I will be the one possessing more followers than all of the other prophets.” (Bukhari, I’tisam, 1)

His community is the best of the communities: The following verse mentions that fact: “You are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in God. If only the People of the Book had faith, it was best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors.” (The Family of Imran (Aal-e-Imran), 110)

He (PBUH) is the Master of Adam’s (UWP) descendants: “I am the master of Adam’s (UWP) descendants on the Day of Judgment. I am the one who will be resurrected first. I am the one who will intercede and whose intercession will be accepted first.” (Muslim, Fadail, 3)

He possesses “Maqam al-Mahmud” (the Station of Praise and Glory): This station is the greatest intercession way for him as well as for his community. The only candidate of this enviable station is Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). This verse points out this station, which Allah promised: “And as for the night keep awake a part of it as an additional prayer for you: soon will your Lord raise you to a Station of Praise and Glory!” (The Night Journey (Al-Isra), 79)

He is the owner of “Liwau’l-hamd” (Flag of Praise and Glory): Liwau’l-hamd is a flag which is a proof of the spiritual prophethood and which justifies the immaterial authority of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who praised and glorified God most and that’s why acquired the name Ahmad, also as the verse “Verily you are on a straight path” states he is the one who deserved most the praise of God and on account of it, acquired the name Muhammad.

This glorious Hadith states that issue: “I am the master of Adam’s (UWP) descendants on the Day of Judgment. The Liwau’l-hamd flag is in my hands. However, conceit never exists in my heart. Adam and the other prophets (UWP) are under my flag. I am the one who will be resurrected first. However, no conceit exists.” (Ahmad, III/2)

He is a lamp spreading light (siraj munir): The verse that contains the concept is as follows: “O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and Warner. And as one who invites to God’s (Grace) by His leave, and as a Lamp spreading Light.” (The Confederates (Al-Ahzab), 45-46)

By means of this verse the Prophet is likened to both the moon and the sun. That is to say: — as M. Said Ramazan al-Buti mentioned- in Arabic the word muzi is used to indicate things that are the sources of light and the word munir is used to indicate things that receive light. For instance, if we want to say a bright room we say: ghurfatun muiîratun but not ghurfatun muziatun because the light of the room comes from outside. however, we say qabasun muzi instead of qabasun munir for fire cinder. It is because the fire possesses the light in itself. That is why, in the Holy Quran, the words Nur-munir (divine light- illuminated) are used for the moon and the words ziya- siraj (=light-lamp) are used for sun in order to point out this subtle difference. (Al-Butî, Rawayi', 115-16)

In the verse in question, the phrase sirajan munira (=A lamp spreading light) is used although it is contrary to Arabic grammar rules and different from the style of Quran, In this case, it indicates that the Prophet is likened both to the moon and the sun. We can show the signs indicating the presence of this comparison in the verse as follows:

• Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) is like a moon in terms of prophethood. He receives the light of Divine inspiration from the Pre-Eternal Sun or the sun of the Quran. He is like the sun in terms of messengerhood. Just as the sun spreads its light everywhere, so does the Prophet spread his light of guidance “as being a living and speaking Quran” to the entire mankind. (In the Arabic scripture) The phrase Siraj Munir (Lamp spreading light) illuminates these two aspects.

• Hazrat Prophet is called a Nabi (prophet) because of receiving Divine inspiration from Allah and is called a Rasul, (messenger) because of transmitting the message that he received from Allah to people. In the verse, in the Arabic scripture, the phrase “ya ayyuha'n-Nabiyy= O prophet!” points his prophethood, and the statement “we sent you as the last messenger” signals his messengerhood. The prayer for the prophet in the meaning: “Oh Allah! Grant blessings and peace to the Sun of the Sky of Messengerhood, the Moon of the Constellation of Prophethood.” mentions this truth.

• The phrase Siraj Munir (Lamp spreading light) –as it is explained above- contains two opposite features: The word Siraj conveys the meaning of a lamp having light in itself and is used in the meaning of Sun/lamp in the Quran. The following verse is an example for it: “We placed (therein) a blazing lamp.” (The (Great) News (An-Nabaa), 13)

As for the word Munir, it conveys the meaning of the thing receiving its light from outside and is used in the meaning of the moon in the Quran. This verse is as an example: “Blessed is He Who made constellations in the skies, and placed therein a Lamp and a Moon giving light.” (The Criterion (Al-Furqán), 61)

Blessings and peace as many as the atoms of the universe be upon the Sun of the Sky of Messengerhood, the Moon of the Constellation of Prophethood, and to his Family and Companions. Amen!

Niyazi Beki (Yrd.Doç.Dr.)


34-) Can you give information about tabligh (conveying the message of Islam, propagation of Islam) and the tabligh method of our Prophet (pbuh)?

"Invite (all) to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious." (an-Nahl,125)

Our Prophet guided the believers with knowledge and wisdom and based that guidance on evidence by acting upon that verse and similar verses.

He never showed anger or violence while conveying the message of Islam. He welcomed people in an atmosphere of sincerity and gave them advice with compassion and mercy. He always preferred sweet talk and soft words when he told people about the truth and reality. He eliminated the doubts and hesitations that occurred in people’s minds with great patience and understanding. He always showed respect to the people he talked to and spoke to them clearly with eloquence. Even when the questions were irrelevant, he smiled and took them seriously. One of the most important reasons why his preaching and advice were influential was that he forgave the mistakes of the people and pardoned them. He even pardoned the people who martyred his beloved uncle and many other relatives and companions after the conquest of Makkah. As a matter of fact, he had all the power then. He could have punished them as he wished.  

He influenced the spirits of the people around him with such high characteristics; he aroused and developed their talents and abilities that were in the form of core. He made each one a star in the sky of humanity. He removed the fog of ignorance that veiled that century. He changed the form of the world. He realized high characteristics like justice, love and solidarity among people. He introduced curative remedies for the diseases that threatened personal and social life and cured the world of humanity by the permission of Allah. 

The way of tabligh is the way of “weakness, poverty, compassion and contemplation”. That cause is the cause saving belief. It is the cause of protecting people from the terrifying mischiefs of the end of time and directing them towards lofty aims. It is the cause of saving humanity from the effects of the soul, devil and the unbelievably corrupt sociological atmosphere and making man attain the pleasure of being a slave. If a person can attain that high ideal as a divine grace, the first thing he should do is to confess his weakness and poverty to accomplish that difficult task and rely on the power and mercy of his Lord.

Weakness and poverty are two apparent characteristics of the slave and the most important properties of man. As a matter of fact, when we recite Chapter al-Fatiha we take refuge in our Lord, the Lord of the Worlds, and ask help from him for our works whether they are related to this world or the hereafter by saying, “Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek”. Thus, the soldiers of the service of belief and the Quran work hard in order to make the guidance flourish in the hearts of people but they know that they cannot accomplish that great outcome with their strength and power so they take refuge in Allah with weakness and poverty. 

The third step is to feel sorry for disobedient sinners and rush to help them with the sensitivity of a doctor and compassion of a mother. And the fourth step is to fulfill that duty with wisdom. 

The great ideal put forward by our national poet, the late, Mehmet Akif in the following couplet:

We should take inspiration directly from the Quran, we should make the century pronounce Islam.

has been realized fully in the Risale-i Nur Collection. In the market of this century, which is full of ‘why’s, only a collection that could address both the mind and the heart, that could have its cause loved and could prove it could have been accepted by a lot of people and it was.

The first one of those determinations teaches us that the biggest condition to convey the message of Islam to both our own citizens and to the whole world of humanity is to have the high ethics of the Quran. The other one determines that it is necessary to develop economically in order to convey the truths of belief and the Quran to the needy. 

We should try to cure those two wounds by accepting them. If we ignore them and base ourselves on temporary and uncertain formulas, we will go on crawling and we will be responsible for blocking and preventing Islam from reaching the needy hearts.

Every Muslim is responsible for fulfilling the duty incumbent on him. The rank of a person in a society lays some responsibilities on him. Every Muslim becomes responsible in accordance with his rank. We can see the issue under the light of the following hadith: “When you see something bad, correct it with your hand; if you cannot, correct it with your tongue; if you cannot, hate it in your heart.”

Not everybody can interpret that hadith in every situation on his own. For instance, if we see something bad on the way and try to correct it and harm somebody while doing it and if that person files a lawsuit against us, we will be punished. Then, how should we understand the meaning of the hadith?

To correct with the hand, is the duty of the authorities, that is, the state and the security forces; to correct with the tongue is the duty of the scholars; to hate it in the heart is the duty of the others.

Therefore, at first, a Muslim should practice Islam properly. Then, if there is no danger of harming Islam, he should tell people about Islam with sweet talk. He should leave the rest to Allah.

A person who wants to grow trees gives importance to the following: The seeds should be improved; the field should be appropriate for sowing; the season should be appropriate for sowing and the person to sow should be an expert. Therefore, if inappropriate seeds are sown into a hard and inadequate field in an inadequate season by a person who is not good at sowing will cause everything to come to nothing. After fulfilling his duty, a gardener who has those properties will not try to go into the field in order to make the flowers and roses to blossom and to turn it into a tree. He does his duty and leaves the result to Allah. 

Similarly, it is necessary to practice the true Islam properly and to convey the message of Islam. To tell people the thoughts and ideas that are not in compliance with Islam as Islam will harm both Islam and the people who propagate it as Islam.

The needy hearts into which the seeds of Islam and belief to be thrown should be ready for it. Sometimes, it may become harmful to tell people who are not ready yet about Islam.

In addition, the season of the tabligh is also important. The states like the environment, the psychological mood and the expectations of the person are important. Every seed that is not sown in its season may be lost.

On the other hand, the person who conveys the message of Islam should have the skills and properties to know how to convey it and how to transmit it to the minds and hearts with an appropriate style. He should be qualified like a specialist doctor.

After fulfilling his duty, a Muslim who has those properties leaves the guidance to Allah. He does not interfere with the duty of Allah.


35-) Muhammad ( peace be on him)

The religion which has long been existed since the beginning of human race and surrounded the whole societies cannot be considered merely as a simplified concept of social life. It’s present in all the societies and human souls the need of being exalted and inclination turning the face towards the Divine Realm. This case is an indication of the truth that religion is a natural necessity. Besides this, the religion has long been said as being very crucial tool for social control and uniting the society and consolidating its harmony.  Because of its relation with both social organizations, institutions and religious schools and communions which are self oriented, the religion has persisted its importance in order to take under control the societies in all eras and societies.
In this aspect, the religion has been very important in forming the social cases as a result of reflection of the moral values that constitute its essence to the public. More familiarity and illumination with many institutions and cases is also possible by understanding the impact of religion. Considering that behind the many practices and traditions of the societies in the age of ignorance lies the perception that they inherited from their ancestors, the place of religion in that age will be worked out better. It is possible to find out more data concerning the practices of religion in this age both in their poems, sayings, sects and eyyamu’l-arab2 telling their battles amongst themselves and in the commentaries of Quran, hadiths, Prophet's biographies and in the works belonging to Mecca and Medina.
In Islamic technical term the word religion was employed in the age of ignorance as well. It was found out in the inscriptions from the tribe of Thamud that the religion was used in the same sense.
The Arabic People in the age of ignorance had the belief of one, glorious and all-powerful divine being. This notion was stated by the word “Allah” having neither plural nor feminine form. This conception was observed in the pagans as well. They regarded the tin gods as just intercessor.   After all, we can understand from the verses by Quran that they used to have the belief in a divine being named Allah.
It seems that the thoughts and habits left by the previous divine religions was still present in the societies, despite their being little, and continued some of its beauties. The belief in one God was one of them.
Also, it is known that amongst the Arabic people, there used to be belief of Compassionate and they used this name to mean Allah. Some of the expressions that “we submitted to you; you are all compassionate”, “for the consent of the compassionate… we make pilgrimage” and that unlike the names of Sustainer and God, the name Compassionate had no plural form proves that this name was intended to use for Allah who is One God.  
The Arabic people in the age of ignorance are observed to have used the articulations “Oh My God” and “Allahumme” particularly in their prayers. We see plenty of examples that they knew the God and even the non-believers attributed more superior names to Him than to their gods, and they took oath in His name. According to Quran they knew that it is Allah that sends down rain from the sky, and gives life therewith to the earth after its death, (Qur’an (29: 61-63;  31: 25; 39: 38; 43: 9) they pray to Allah when a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, (10: 22; 25: 13; 25: 65) they swear their strongest oaths by Allah. (5: 53; 6: 109; 16: 38; 24: 53) Furthermore, that unlike the rest of the gods, they saved some of their commodities for the sake of Him, considered the angels as being His daughters and attributed Him some sons and daughters all indicate their knowing Him even if they were mistaken with His attributes.  
Mevdudi stated that at the very beginning, the Arabic people had true belief but later they went astray by attributing some partners to Him. Some Arabs giving up deep contemplation and research thought they could only get close to Him by some means and therefore they made use of some gods as means such as “esnam, evsan, ensab” and objects like steles and sculptures.  
As a natural outcome of paganism, the number of chapels in the form of idol houses increased. As stated by Ebnu’l-Kelbi there used to be plenty of idols in many houses. If a pagan cannot afford to an idol, he would put a stone he liked in front of an idol and turn around it. Worship for the idol had been so common among the community that some tribes were associated with some idols.  
Though the Arabs gave  more importance to Kaabe, preferred it to other sacred places, they knew that it was the home of Hadrath Abraham, they had more than one hundred chapels in various districts of the Hejaz. Some of the main chapels were Zu’l-Hulasa, Uzza, Lat, Menat, Fels, Riam, Ruda, Zu’l-Kabat.
It is understood that the main feature marking the pre-Islamic ignorance age is the idea of paganism. This notion can be said to have affected more or less the other principles of belief and worships and resulting in emergence of lots of wrong doings.
The Arabic people attributed the spiritual beings such as angels, jinn, Satan to God and they many times worshiped for them. Assuming the jinn as being capable of performing positive and evil actions and hiding themselves inside the trees and idols, they prayed and did seek help out of them.
We think the commentaries by some of the researches that the Arabic people performed the pilgrimage, fast and circumcises under the influence of the Christians and Jewish as a mistaken expression. Considering the customs of them, it was so common to keep fast and circumcise the boys. Having the big ablution, and washing and enshrouding the death persons was also practiced by them. For this reason, it is more reasonable to think of internal impact rather than exterior one.
Quran defines the prayers by the people in the age of ignorance as asking for help from the cinns and being certain of their wrath and outrage.
Sacrificing animals for God was also present in their customs. Like the other prayers, sacrificing an animal for god lost its true essence since it was practiced in the name of the idols so as to make them intercessors to them to reach Allah.   
Pilgrimage, one of the most important worships, visiting the Kaaba, and going around it were both religious obligation and means of making money on the grounds that they started in the forbidden months just following the fairs. In addition to this, they used to go around the other chapels that contained the idols. These visits were just like festivals.
Including the women, they went around the Kaaba naked in order to symbolize they had been cleared from the sins.
Some Arabs did not perform pilgrimage and going around the Kaaba since they considered themselves as elevated and superior to others. The Quran blamed them and ordered to those people to move with the other people and perform the pilgrimage and turning around the Kaaba together with them.
Despite of the fact that the people in the age of ignorance were so bigoted and attached to their traditions, it is possible to observe some samples of tolerance. Members of the same family could have different religions. It was permitted to put the various idols belonging to different tribes around the Kaaba, also it was possible to draw the portraits of Abraham, Ishmael, Jesus and The Virgin on the inside walls of Kaaba.
The reason why this tolerance was not showed to Islam can be explained by the fact that Islam enclosed all religious and social areas that the others did not, and besides this, Islam is such that it could shudder the bases of the ignorance age community.
As can be worked out from these explanations, the paganism became so widespread as a religion in the ignorance age public and had impact in every aspect of life. This wrong belief affected the other principles of belief and made life unbearable for some. Moral, courage, generosity and honor all became a means for showing off, and brutal force. Alcohol, gambles and adultery prevailed the whole community. Paganism dominating the domain of religion also had tremendous effect in forming the religious ceremonies and prayers.

2.1.3. The Religion of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) in the Era of Ignorance.
Though the people of ignorance age were mostly pagan, they continued many of the beauties regarding belief and practices that Islam also approved. During the birth of Islam, there were plenty of people displaying these positive lifestyles. This issue will be important in making explanations to the questions how did our prophet himself, his mother and father perform their worships; did they have any faith and prayer?
There are many diverse opinions about the origin of the word HANEF. It is seen that there are many different ideas that it derived from Arabic, Hebraic, Syriac and Ethiopian language.
Mesudi asserted it as Arabic-Hebraic word and Sabiis were meant through it, as for Yakubi, he stated that the word was employed in order to mean Palestinians with which Psalmist combated and they worshipped to the stars. Although there is no data about the origin of this word in Arabic dictionaries, it can be understood that the word HANEF stems from the word HANEFE “ showing inclination”. The tribe of Abraham was called as HANIF since they didn’t show any tendency towards paganism but turned their faces to Islam the true religion of Allah.  Regarding Abu Amr, he accounted for the word as inclination from positive to evil or from evil to positive and yet in the dictionary meaning and Islamic literature, it is not an absolute inclination but returning to true path from wrong way and coming back to true religion from other religions. Here the conception HANEF described the true way and became the name of tribe of Abraham and was used for muwahhid refraining from wrong religions and following the principles of true religion of Allah.
In the age of ignorance the person visiting the Kaaba after he is circumcised is called as HANIF (Upright and true to faith in the Unity of Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. Worshipping Allah Ta’ala alone, without associating anything or anyone with Him). And this is one of the good deeds left behind the Hadrath Abraham. In Quran, the word HANIF is mentioned within 10 separate places and its plural form HUNEFA is discussed at two different points. Nine out of twelve places, it is stressed out that HANIF RELIGION is different from being idolator and it is just opposite to idolatory, at the same time at eight points it is pointed out the faith of Abraham Prophet, one out of these eight places the word nation meaning religion is employed and at one point Hadrath Abraham is himself described as HANIF.
The word HANIF is, on one hand, used to emphasize the faith of Abraham and his being contrary to idolators and on the other hand it is brought into play to highlight the fact that he was neither Christian nor a Jewish person but the People of the Scripture were ordered as being HANIFS to comply with the rules of God.
It is no use looking for the HANIF RELIGION in Christianity or Judaism since they are all the religions of one God. Some deterioration happened as the time passed. Islam cleaned up all relapses and maintained all beauties, corrected the all wrong doings. Otherwise it would be a great mistake to think of HANIF RELIGION as the continuation of Judaism or Christianity. Thus, the Quran with certainty gives voice to the fact that HANIF RELIGION was before the Judaism and Christianity and appoints the position of Hadrath Abraham by the verses that,
65. Ye People of the Book! Why dispute ye about Abraham, when the Torah and the Gospel Were not revealed till after him? Have ye no understanding?
66. Ah! Ye are those who fell to disputing (even) in matters of which ye had some knowledge! But why dispute ye in matters of which ye have no knowledge? It is Allah Who knows, and ye who know not!
67. Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian; but he was true in Faith, and bowed his will to Allah's (which is Islám), and he joined not gods with Allah. (Qur’an 3: 65-67)
We can easily say that being true in faith that is synonym of the Islam and continual religion refers to a community who is not worshipping to idols but having faith in and being servitude to one God. These are known as HUNEFA or AHNEF. They themselves express they are neither Christian nor Jew but they follow the footsteps of religion of Abraham and they don’t attribute partners to God.
We observe that the phrase being true in faith is discussed in the hadiths of our prophet with the same meaning in the Quran. When questioned which religion is more acceptable in the throne of God, our Prophet replied “simplified HANIF RELIGION”.  According to another narration related by Bukhari: Zeyd b. Amr b. Nufayl set off for Damascus in order to seek the true religion, asked the religions of the Jewish and  Christian scholars whom he came across. When he was not satisfied with the answers he expected, he requested them what religion they could advise to him. And they recommended him the true in faith (HANIF RELIGION). They also indicated that being true in faith was the religion of Abraham who was not Christian nor Jew but one only following the rules of God.
When taken together into consideration the hadith “God decreed: I created my servants upon the religion of Being True in Faith and the other hadith I was sent neither upon the religion of Christianity nor Judaism but upon the simplified HANIF RELIGION, we can get into conclusion that all the common principles that each prophet used to convey the messages of Allah are embedded in HANIF RELIGION, and Islam is a religion that keeps on these tenets and Mohammed (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) conveyed the same religion with Hadrath Abraham.   
As a result, even if different opinions have been put forward regarding the HANIF RELIGION so far, under the light of the narrations and expressions stated above, it is understood that this is a general word employed for the people striving to live some of the beauties left behind Prophet Abraham not for those muwahhid, Christians or Jewish who lived in the age of ignorance.
We find the faith principles of HANIF RELIGION mostly in religious sources. In the eyes of the Arabic people in ignorance age, whomever is circumcised and goes around the Kaaba is HANIF. However, Taberi holds the opinion that these two features were not sufficient since some idolators practiced them also. And yet, Quran shows HANIF RELIGION as contrary to idolators. Then, it says that first condition of HANIF RELIGION is to believe in one God. Some other sources add to these requirements staying away from the idols and having big ablution.
HANEFS are said not to have eaten the meats of animals sacrificed for idols, in other and more general terms, the animals sacrificed for anything apart from God. Generally, the main characters of being HANEF are making pilgrimage, obeying the truth, and the rules brought by Abraham (peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) and being servitude merely to God.
One of basic features of HANEFS in this age is not to show any inclination towards Judaism or Christianity, turn their faces from the idols, to worship only to Allah, the creator of Hadrath Abraham. Some people like Zeyd b. Amr b. Nufeyl headed to look for the true religion of Abraham, and some of them tried to keep the people away from idols, and some retired into seclusion for deep contemplation. According to historians, some of these people were literate, could speak more than two languages and were considered cultured as they traveled a lot.
In that age, there are many people who are said to be HANIF. Some of them are Kus b. Saide el-Eyadi, Zeyd b. Amr b. Nufayl, Umayya b. Ebi’s-Salt, Erbab b. Riab, Suvayd b. Amr el-Mustalaki, Abu Karb Es’ad el-Himyeri, Vaki’ b. Seleme el-Eyadi, Umayr b. Cundeb el-Cuhani, Adi b. Zayd el Ebadi, Abu Kays Sirme b. Abu Enes, Sayf b. Zuyazan, Varaka b. Navfal el-Kureshi, Amir b. Zarb el-Udvani, Abduttabiha b. Sa’leb, Elaf b. Shihab et-Temimi, Mutelemmis b. Umayya el-Kenani, Zuhayr b. Abu Sulma, Khalid b. Sinan el-Absi, Abdullah el-Kudai, Abid b. Ebras el-Esedi, Ka’b b. Luey.
And the most remarkable HANIFS in the ignorance age were Varaka b. Navfal, Osman b. Huvayris, Ubaydullah b. Jahsh. They are important for illustrating the circumstances of those times.
Varaka b. Navfal was a scholar person who used to read old books. When our prophet was directed a question about his situation, he is reported to have said “I saw him wandering in the paradise in the silk clothes” informing us the good outcome of his good deeds.
Suvayd b. Amir is understood to be muwahhid thanks to his poems and he showed tendency to the religion of Abraham (peace and blessing be upon him), regarding Abu Kerb b. Es’ad el-Himyeri, he foretold about the coming of our Prophet many years ago and he told he had faith in God. Veki’ b. Seleme is known as faithful. As for Umeyr b. Cundeb who had died many years ago before Islam was declared was one of those having faith in one God. Also, Adi b. Zeyd el-Ebad avoided idols and was among those worshipped to one God. He later converted into Islam in Medina.  Seyf b. Zuyezen told the good news that is the upcoming of our Prophet just like Varaka b. Navfal and announced he would immigrate to Medina with Him.
We can summarize the common qualities of this age’s people as follows:
Rejecting all types of polytheisms and idols, challenging all misconducts and beliefs of their tribes, struggling to clear away ignorance, returning to seclusion so that they can be certain of their pressures, and thinking of the Creator.  Historians report that some HANIFS read holy books, pages and Psalm, many lived upon the religion of Hadrath Abraham, and some investigated His words and had to put up with many challenges for this sake. They traveled and asked some bishops and rabbis he encountered and because of not being satisfied with their answers, they didn’t accept their religions, and passed away upon the religion of Abraham (pbuh).


36-) Can't Qur'an be the words of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)? If not, how can it be proven?

One who accepts that the Quran is the words of Allah cannot say that some parts of it are the words of a human being. Allah does not allow it: “And if the messenger were to invent any sayings in Our name, We should certainly seize him by his right hand, and We should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart. Nor could any of you withhold him (from Our wrath).” (al-Haaqqah, 44-47).

Answer 1:

Hira is the name of a mountain three miles to the northeast of Makkah and a cave in this mountain has become famous in Islamic history since the first revelation was sent to the Prophet therein. This mountain is also called Jabal-an Noor (The Mountain of Divine Light) because it is the place where the first revelation was sent down.

Before the duty of delivering Allah’s messages was given to him and especially after the age of 35, The Prophet often went up to the cave in the Hira Mountain for seclusion in order to run away from Makkah’s atmosphere full of immorality, injustice and cruelty. There he used to worship Allah by pondering about His existence, His oneness, might and greatness; and people’s disobedience, immorality and perversity against Him although they are weak and in need of Allah. Then when he was worshipping Allah in that cave at the age of forty, the first revelation was sent to him and he was given prophethood.

The Messenger continued visiting the Hira Mountain after he was given prophethood as well. For instance, one day he climbed the peak of the Hira Mountain with a group from his companions and at that time the mountain started to tremble. Then the Prophet said to it: “Calm down, O Hira! Who stands on you now is either a prophet or a loyal follower of Prophet or a martyr” (Muslim, Fadailu’s Sahaba, 50)

Can’t Qur’an be the words of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)? If not, how can it be proven?

Answer 2:

The claim that the Noble Qur’an is the word of the Prophet or another person has been frequently put forth by few people of the age of ignorance who were consumed with rage and by some Western or Eastern scientists who are enemy against Qur’an. The aim here is to confuse the minds of ignorant and rude people. We think that just like the idolaters of past, the idolaters of today also behave intentionally and without thinking in this issue and speak maliciously. For, if Qur’an is viewed with justice, no matter by whom, it will be seen that it is too superior and too divine to be attributed to a human.

Now, we will just remind the outline, referring the deep analysis of this serious matter to the great books of great men:

1) In the first place, the style of Qur’an and that of hadiths were so different that Arabs would find the sayings of the Prophet aside from Qur’an suited to their conversations and ways of speaking, but before Qur’an they could not but be conquered by amazement and astonishment.

2) While reading hadiths, the image of a person who thinks, speaks and who is bent double with the fear of God can be felt behind. However, in the voice of Quran, a great power, an awesome air and an imposing accent can be felt. In the address and words of a person, it is neither reasonable nor possible to feel two very different styles together.

3) It is before else a situation contrary to the truths of mind and reason for an illiterate man-may souls be sacrificed for this illiterate-who did not attend any school or whatever to bring about and establish a flawless, individual, domestic, social, economic and judicial system; especially if this system is so wonderful as to be practiced by many a nation, no matter friend or enemy for centuries, and if it retained its freshness up to this day.

4) In Quran, such issues as existence, life and concerned with these; worship, justice and economy are handled in such a balanced and proper way that it is in a way not recognizing a person conveying it to overlook these facts and to deem it a word of a human being; because even a single one of the above issues, with its peculiarities like eternity and being above time, is beyond the capacity of the greatest geniuses. It is a groundless claim to attribute a book with a rich content- each one of hundreds of its issues is far beyond the capacity of several geniuses-to an illiterate person who attended no school whatsoever.

5) Quran is also wonderful in respect to the news it gave concerning the past and the future and thus it cannot be a human saying. Today, the living styles of the former tribes, their good or bad end, which have been discovered lately, are the same as is narrated by Quran word for word. Here are prophets, like Saleh, Lot and Moses, here are their tribes, and here are their places, each a source of lesson on its own.

Just as the tidings of the past given by Quran are definite and correct, the tidings Quran gives us about the future are as important and each a miracle on its own. For instance, as Quran announced that Mecca would be conquered and that the Kaba would be visited safely many years before it happened in the verse: “you will certainly enter the Sacred Mosque, if God wills, in full security, with your heads shaven or your hair cut short” (Al-Fath Surah, 48:27); Quran declared that Islam would be victorious over all fake systems in the verse: “He it is Who has sent His Messenger with the Divine guidance and the Religion of truth that He may make it prevail over all religions. God suffices for a witness (for the truth of His promise and the mission of His Messenger).” (Al-Fath Surah, 48:28). Likewise, Quran proclaimed that the Sasanids, who were seemingly victorious over Romans that day, would be defeated and that at the same time Muslims would rejoice over the victory of Badr, with the good tidings: “The Byzantine Romans have been defeated; In the lands close-by, but they, after their defeat, will be victorious; within a few (nine) years – to God belongs the command (the absolute judgment and authority) both before and after (any event) – and at the time (when the Romans are victorious), the believers will rejoice.” (Ar-Rum Surah, 30:2-4), and when the time came, it turned out just as Quran said. In the same way, with the verse: “O Messenger (you who convey and embody the Message in the best way)! Convey and make known in the clearest way all that has been sent down to you from your Lord. For, if you do not, you have not conveyed His Message and fulfilled the task of His Messengership. And God will certainly protect you from the people. God will surely not guide the disbelieving people (to attain their goal of harming or defeating you).” (Al-Ma’idah Surah, 5:67), the Prophet was promised a secure life although he was surrounded by enmities from his closest uncle to enemy nations and states, and it happened as was promised.

Quran expressed that with the discovery of diverse branches of science, the space and the self would be turned upside down and examined carefully, that scientific discoveries and new findings would force people to believe with the miraculous announcement: “We will show them Our manifest signs (proofs) in the horizons of the universe and within their own selves, until it will become manifest to them that it (the Qur’an) is indeed the truth. Is it not sufficient (as proof) that your Lord is a witness over all things (just as He is witnessed to by all things)?” (Fussilat Surah, 41:53); and today we are rapidly drawing close to that point.

Besides, although Quran has been challenging and irritating its enemies since it was revealed saying “Say: Surely, if humankind and jinn were to come together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they will never be able to produce the like of it, though they backed one another up with help and support.” (Al-Isra’ Surah, 17:88), it confirms its declarations and shows that it is a miracle that no one ever attempted and could attempt to produce the like of it, except for a couple of unfortunate.

In the first years Quran was being revealed, Muslims were poor, weak, and powerless and they had no idea about the future. They had neither a state nor the dynamics to gain sovereignty and to turn systems upon earth upside down and knew nothing of the power source of the new religion. However, with the verse: “God has promised those of you who believe and do good, righteous deeds that He will most certainly empower them as vicegerents on the earth (in the place of those who are in power at present), even as He empowered those (of the same qualities) that preceded them, and that, assuredly, He will firmly establish for them their Religion, which He has (chosen and) approved of for them, and He will replace their present state of fear with security (so that they can practice their Religion freely and fully and in peace).” (An-Nur Surah, 24:55), Quran showed them these great aims and gave them the good news of becoming the ruler over earth.

There are so many verses like these about the future, victories and defeats, progresses and regresses of Islam and Muslims that it is not possible to mention all of them here.

Most of the news about future given by Quran is comprised by the verses about the final limits various branches of science will reach. The news given by Quran in short signs about scientific findings is so wonderful and so superior that as it is not possible to overlook these expressions of it about this issue, it is not also possible to call it words a person.

As many works have been written about the wonders expressed by hundreds of verses directly, with proofs and as a sign, by referring the extensive explanation of this matter to them, we will record the points indicated by some exemplary verses.

1. The Creation of the Universe
The elevated truth explained by the verse: “Do those who disbelieve ever consider that the heavens and the earth were at first one piece, and then We parted them as separate entities; and that We have made every living thing from water? Will they still not come to believe?” (Al-Anbiya Surah, 21:30) is the most fixed and unchangeable principle about the creation, although different views about its details have been put forward. The result would not change whether the unity and the separation explained in the verse are in the fashion of whether the separation of bodies composed of gases into nebulas or its being separated into systems like the Solar System and then forming and its turning into systems perfectly in order with orbits, or the separation, diffusion and holding in control of a smoke. In respect to its content and style, the verse has always been a source of light for scientific researches; it retained its freshness although all claims, theories and hypotheses became worn out and were finally cast away; it reached this day and seems a candidate to rule over the future.

2. Astronomy
There are so many verses in Quran that would function as a base for Astronomy that it would require volumes of books to gather them together and analyze each one. We will suffice with the indications of a few verses.

God it is Who has raised the heavens without pillars you can see, then He established Himself on the Supreme Throne; and He made the sun and the moon subservient to His command, each running its course for a term appointed by Him.” (Ar-Ra’d Surah, 13:2)

Just as the verse reminds the rising, extending and expanding of the heavens, it also expresses that everything is in order and face to face and side by side with the expression ‘without pillars you can see.’ Yes, it is true that there is no visible pillar that prevents the heavens from falling apart; however, it is not completely without a pillar. For, in order for bodies not to fall apart and not to collide with each other, the existence of such a pillar, in terms of principle and rule that would form the basis for the present order, is vital, whether it is visible or not.

With this expression, Quran makes us think the principle of centrifugal force between masses; and it makes no difference whether this matches the principle of pull by Newton or the relativity by Einstein.
It is especially interesting that the verse expresses that the Sun and the Moon run its course and it is worth pondering on. Quran makes it clear that the Sun, the Moon and other planets were created according to an order, represent a harmony and are based on a set truth with the verses: “The sun and the moon are by an exact calculation (of the All-Merciful).” (Ar-Rahman Surah, 55:5); “It is He Who has created the night and the day and the sun and the moon. Every one (of such celestial bodies) floats in its orbit.” (Al-Anbiya Surah, 21:33); “And the sun runs the course appointed for it for a term to its resting-place for the stability of it(s system); All (the celestial bodies and systems) float in an orbit (determined for each).” (Ya-Sin Surah, 36:38-40)

The Roundness of the Earth
The verse “He wraps the night around the day and He wraps the day around the night (until one covers the other completely)” (Az-Zumar Surah, 39:5) explains the day and the night following one another with the word ‘wrap’; as light and darkness wrap the earth like a turban. In another verse, the furthest point is shown to researchers with the expression: “And after that He has spread out the earth in the egg-shape (for habitability).” (An-Nazi’aat Surah, 79:30)

About the Expansion of Space:
And the heaven, We have constructed it mightily, and it is surely We Who have vast power, and keep expanding it.” (Adh-Dhariyat Surah, 51:47). It would make no difference whether this expansion happens the way Einstein explains it or the way Edwin Hubble explains as the distancing of nebulas from the galaxy which contains the sun. What is important is that Quran points out the main subject and then reaches the peaks far above the sciences based on discoveries and from there sheds light on their ways.

3. Meteorology
Weather currents, intensification of clouds, polarization of the weather, flashing of lightening and the formation of thunderbolts are among the mostly mentioned subjects in Quran sometimes in reminding the favors of God and sometimes in warning people. For example, “Do you not see that God gently drives the clouds, then joins them together, (completing the formation of a circuit between them,) and then turns them into a thick mass, and consequently you see rain-drops issue out of their midst. He sends down hail out of snow-laden mountains (of clouds) from the sky, and smites with it whom He wills and averts it from whom He wills.” (An-Nur Surah, 24:43)

By reminding the peak of rain, as in every part of it, here also Quran explains the way rain and hail form and then their falling down in relation to certain disciplines, in order to show the bestowing hand behind the phenomena that set the heavens in uproar and that inspire awe and frighten like clouds, rain, lightning and thunderbolts and in order to call souls into wakefulness in the face of all these and it does this in such a way that nearly everyone understands the way rain and hail form without contradicting with what is known today and admires the style of Quran. It does not occupy itself with such details as two electric currents different in kind pulling one another, with two electric charges identical in kind pushing one another, with winds coming into action and uniting these clouds that push one another, with the occurrence of electrification as a result of the unification of positive charged currents with the electric present in the air hole and at this point the descent of vapor as drops of water. It handles the main event and the essential subject; and leaves it to the explanation of time to disclose and name the details.

The verse in the Al-Hijr Surah: “And We send the winds to fertilize, and so We send down water from the sky, and give it to you to drink (and use in other ways); it is not you who are the keepers of its stores (under earth).” (Al-Hijr Surah, 15:22) adds a new dimension to the issue and not only points out the function of winds in the pollination of trees and flowers, but also reminds especially their function of fertilizing clouds. However, when Quran was revealed, the needs of neither the grass, the tree, the flower nor the clouds were known; and no one was aware that winds fulfilled this important duty, either.

4. Physics
The material, which is the main component of existence, and its properties of being either single or in pairs are among the subjects Quran deals with.

For example; from the verse: “And all things We have created in pairs, so that you may reflect and be mindful.” (Adh-Dhariyat Surah, 51:49), it is understood that everything is created in pairs and that this is an important principle addressing all times in respect to the content Quran makes use of. In another verse in Ash-Shu’ara Surah it is said: “Have they not considered the earth, how many of every noble kind We have caused to grow therein in pairs?” (Ash-Shu’ara Surah, 26:7) and thus hundreds of thousands of pairs that are re-created every year before our eyes are pointed out and the favors of God are reminded. The verse in Ya-Sin Surah is more general and more interesting: “All-Glorified is He (in that He is absolutely exalted above having any peer or partner), Who has created the pairs all together out of what the earth produces, as well as out of themselves, and out of what they do not know.” (Ya-Sin Surah, 36:36) and it is made clear that as well as the creatures in pairs we know of and have discovered, there are many other pairs we have yet to know.

God invites us to contemplate by reminding us that everything is in pairs except Him, whether alive or lifeless, whether in the heavens or on the earth, with whatever properties they are equipped with, from humans as male and female, to the pairs of grasses and trees; from the duality of electron and nucleus in atoms to the opposite pairs of material and anti-material, which serves as a reminder of all his favors.

There are so many other divine declarations aside from the verse we mentioned above just to give an idea that owing to the fact that they are each a miracle on their own, they clearly prove both that Quran is the utterance of God and that Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) is His messenger.

With its peculiar style and in such a pithy and supreme way, Quran handles its content from the start of life upon earth to the pollination and reproduction of plants, from the creation of groups of animals to certain principles with which they continue their lives, from the mysterious worlds of the honey bee and the ant to the bird’s joys of flying, from the ways how the animal milk is formed to the phases the human undergoes in the mother’s womb; that leaving aside our interpretations, whenever they are applied to, it will be seen that Quran stays always fresh and young and that it shows the furthest goals the sciences can reach.

Now that a book shows even the points further than the point thousands of people could reach after the working and trials of I don’t know how many centuries, that gives the outline and basis of the issue in a commanding manner; it is not possible to attribute this book even to the efforts of hundreds and thousands of geniuses dealing with different branches of science, let alone to a person fourteen centuries before. Especially if this book is rich in content, remarkable in expressions, supreme in style and divine in accent, like Quran…

Let us turn back and ask our addressee: From whom did this person, renowned for his illiteracy, learn the way milk is formed in living beings, in that age of ignorance when no school or book was known? How could he know that winds act as fertilizers, that they fertilize plants and clouds, and the points at which rain and hail form? Who taught him that the earth is in an elliptical shape? In which observatory and with which great telescopes did he discover the expansion of the universe? In which laboratory did he learn the elements of atmosphere and that the more we ascend upward, the less oxygen there remains? With which instruments of X-ray did he find out the phases the embryo goes through in the mother’s womb in the exactly correct way? And then he told all these and many others to his addressees with the air of a scientist who knows the details of all this knowledge and who is expert in his field and in an unwavering, doubtless and confident manner?

Just as Quran guides Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) explaining his duties, responsibilities and authorities; it here and there warns him according to his level and thus leads him, as well.

For instance; since he permitted the hypocrites though he should not have, Quran warned him: “May God give you grace! Why did you give them leave to stay behind until it became clear to you who was speaking the truth and you came to know the liars.” (At-Taubah Surah, 9:43). And it also warned him about his application in the issue of the slaves of the Badr War: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has widely exhausted the enemies in the land. You (O believers) seek the fleeting gains of the present, worldly life, but God wills that the Hereafter will be yours. God is All-Glorious with irresistible might, All-Wise.” (Al-Anfal Surah, 8:67) and; “Had there not been a previous decree from God (concerning that gains of war are lawful and captives can be released in return for ransom), a tremendous punishment would surely have touched you because of what you took (the gains of war, and the captives taken in expectation of ransom, before the enemies’ power in the land had been sufficiently suppressed and exhausted).” (Al-Anfal Surah, 8:68)

Once, because he said ‘I will do this tomorrow’ without referring it to the ordaining of God, Quran issued the commandment and the warning: “And do not say about anything (you intend), "I will do it tomorrow," Without (adding) "If God wills." And remember and mention Him (straightaway) should you forget (to do so when expressing an intention for the future). And say: "I hope that my Lord will guide me to what is nearer to right conduct than this (forgetfulness of mine)."” (Al-Kahf Surah, 18:23-24); and another time it made the warning that it is God who should be feared: “…you were feeling apprehensive of people (that they might react in a way harmful to their faith), while God has a greater right that you should fear Him…” (Al-Ahzab Surah, 33:37)

When he swore not to drink honey sherbet due to the behaviors of his wives in an issue, Quran warned him harshly: “O Prophet (you who are the greatest representative of Prophethood)! Why do you forbid (yourself) what God has made lawful to you? You seek to please your wives. And God is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate.” (At-Tahrim Surah, 66:1)

In many more verses like these, while, on the one hand, the limits of his duty, responsibility and authorities are set; on the other, at the times-though few-when these limits are not complied with and the duty and the responsibility were not carried out as it should be, he was warned and here and there harsh warnings were made.

Now, is it possible that a person publishes a book and then puts expressions of warning and of condemnation in its certain places. Of course not! This book is the book of God and this person is its honorable conveyer.

The Noble Quran is a miracle of eloquence and has no equal in this field. In this respect, it is not possible to ascribe it to a human.

There were a great many poets and authors who could attract crowds when Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) came up with prophethood. The majority of them were enemy against him. From time to time, they would come together and try to devise a way to put forth the like of Quran and at any cost to defeat it. Furthermore, they would sometimes consult with the learned from Jews and Christians. They resolved to do anything that occurred to them to stop the waterfall of Quran. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), who continued his upright way for all these obstructions and obstacles and for all the oppositions that escape imagination, would answer back every kind of unbelief only with Quran and completed his struggle with victory, especially for all these enemies.

In such a time that the great representatives of eloquence together with the learned from Christians and Jews united as a single front and thus set everywhere in uproar, Quran entered the hearts of its addresses with its supreme eloquence, with its charming utterance, dazzling style and with its awe-inspiring depth of meaning and spirituality; it became a voice so great as to echo from atom to the universe. It ceaselessly warned and challenged its enemies: Although it calls out: ‘You, too, put forth a book like Quran, at least something equivalent to one of its surahs, or at least a similar verse; otherwise scatter and clear off!’ and although it has been repeating the same challenges with the verses: “If you are in doubt about the Divine authorship of what We have been sending down on Our servant (Muhammad) (and claim that it is the work of a human being like Muhammad who is illiterate), then produce just a surah like it and call for help to all your supporters, all those (to whom you apply for help apart from God), if you are truthful in your doubt and claim.” (Al-Baqarah Surah, 2:23); “Say: "Surely, if humankind and jinn were to come together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they will never be able to produce the like of it, though they backed one another up with help and support.” (Al-Isra’ Surah, 17:88); “Or they say (about the Messenger): "He fabricates it (the Qur’an)"? Say (to them): "Then produce ten invented surahs like it (in eloquence, meaningfulness and truth), and call to your aid whomever you can, apart from God, if you are truthful (in your claim, not deluded or just making up excuses to justify your unbelief).” (Hud Surah, 11:13); there have been no answer to the challenge of Quran except by some unfortunates, which shows that it is not of human origin. As is recorded in history, even though the enemies of Quran tried to do every evil against it and its conveyer Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), they did not even imagine producing the like of Quran. If they could, they would have deadened the voice of Quran and would not have chosen the way of war which is full of dangers.

It is the clearest evidence to the fact that the like of Quran cannot be produced that these great masters of eloquence chose the way of war putting their most valuables like honor and even chastity in jeopardy. If it were possible to produce the like of it, they would have preferred to resist this way rather than to fight and would never have put their lives in danger.

When it was understood that Arabian poets and authors could not produce the like of Quran, it is an expression of despair to search a source for it among Jews and Christians. Moreover, if Christians and Jews had the capacity to prepare a book with such a content and richness in expression, why would they ascribe it to someone else? They would have said all the better: ‘We made it’ and would have thus taken pride in it.

Furthermore; in spite of a couple of careless or malicious Western scientists and idolaters, a good many scientists, researchers and intellectuals could not hide their admiration for Quran’s richness of content and power of expression and applauded it.

Charles Milles; In terms of the richness in its style, Quran has an air so supreme that the like of it cannot be produced, nor can it be translated…

Victor Imberdes; Quran possesses such a rich content as to be a source for all the principles of law…

Ernest Renan; Quran made not only a religious revolution, but also a literary one…

Gustave Le Bon; Sent through Quran, Islam issues the purest creed of oneness to the world…

CI. Huart; Quran is the word of God and it was conveyed to Prophet Mohammad via revelation…

H. Holman; Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) is the last one of God’s prophets, and Islam is the last one of the revealed religions...

Emile Dermenyhem; Quran is the prominent miracle of the Prophet (PBUH), and it is an impenetrable mystery in respect to its literary beauty…

Arthur Bellegri; Quran conveyed by Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) is the work of God Himself…

Jean Paul Roux; The biggest miracle of the Prophet is the Noble Quran sent by the angel…

Raymond Charles; Quran is the still valid and the most lively one of the scriptures God revealed to believers…

Dr. Maurice; Quran is a wonder and a miracle high above any kind of opposition and criticism; moreover, it is a literary source for the people interested in literature, a treasure of expressions for linguists and a source of inspiration for poets…

Manuel King; Quran is the sum of the commandments the Prophet received from God in the course of his prophethood…

Mr. Rodwell; One is amazed as long as he reads Quran…

Answer 3:

Virtually, Allah’s Word does not resemble the way men talk by any means. Firstly, while we are talking, we use our tongues, mouths, teeth, vocal cords and lungs which Allah bestowed us. In the meantime, the brain organizes the coordination between those organs and our feelings through a mechanism the mystery of which we have not discovered yet. Then, with Allah’s permission, we load, in the way Allah taught us, our words and expressions to the air, which is His creation too, and send them to listening ears. Our ears, which are designed like private stereophonic studios for each of us, collect the voices and transmit them to the brain. Codes are deciphered in the brain and we comprehend the meaning of what we hear in the limits of our knowledge.

We need particular organs and equipments for both talking and listening. Moreover, our talking and listening has limits. We can talk in the rate of our knowledge and as much as we can express ourselves. We use our voice as much as our vocal cords permit. Our ears cannot hear the voices which are under or over certain levels. Additionally, we make sense of the voices we hear in comparison to our knowledge and comprehension.

Allah who taught us to talk can surely talk. He who bestowed us the ability of hearing can hear definitely. However, his speech and listening do not resemble ours. If they resembled, He would need what we needed. However, He is the One who creates all what we need. Would the Creator need what He created?

After distinguishing Allah’s Word from men’s talk with exact boundaries, we find ourselves being addressed the following question:

As human beings who need many things for talking and hearing, how can we hear and how can we comprehend the speech of Allah Who needs nothing?

We cannot exceed the bestowed abilities no matter how much we want. Our eyes recognize light but cannot see radio waves, which indeed have similar nature. In addition, our eyes have an endurance limit for light. Trying to exceed this limit could yield being deprived of our eyes forever: for example, looking at the sun for a long time during the day!

Consequently, there are two ways in order to be able to hear Allah’s speech: either Allah will bestow us such abilities to provide hearing His Divine speech, or He will talk in the form which we can listen and understand.

The first way, as we learned from the Quran, is an extremely exceptional incidence which was bestowed as a miracle upon Hazrat Musa (Moses). Since not every individual human being can be a Moses, the second way is chosen lest entire human being should be deprived of Allah’s words. Actually, the second way was preferred. The Quran was revealed as a book in the form of which we can comprehend by reading, we can make as the point of reference for every stage of this world and the Hereafter and we can learn and teach one another. If it were not in the form of human speech, how could we hear it? Even if we heard it, how would we recite and repeat it? If we did not read it, how would we benefit from it? If we did not benefit from it, what wisdom (reason) would exist in its revelation?

Apart from his miracles and special attributes, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a human being in all his actions, conducts, and behaviors. He submitted to and complied with the Divine laws and commands manifested in creation. He too suffered from the cold, experienced pain, and so on. His deeds and attributes were not all made out of the ordinary so that he could be the leader of his community through his actions, its guide through his conduct, and instruct it through all his behaviors. If he had been out of the ordinary in all his conduct, he could not himself have been the leader in every respect, the total guide of everyone, the 'Mercy to All the Worlds' through all his attributes.

Similarly, the All-Wise Qur'an is the leader for people having mind and consciousness, the guide for the believers of jinn and men. He is the teacher of those attaining perfection, and instructor of those seeking reality. Therefore, it is the necessity of the wisdom that it should be in the same form as man's talking and understanding style. Men and jinn learn their worshipping their prayers from it; they express their concerns in its language, and learn from it the rules of social behavior, the laws and the secrets of the universe. Everyone has recourse to it. If, therefore, it had been in the form of the Divine speech which the Prophet Moses heard on the Mount Sinai, man could not have endured listening to it and hearing it, nor could man made it the point of reference and recourse. Hazrat Moses, one of the five greatest prophets, could only endure to hear a few words.

The goal of the devil or the ones who ask such questions under the leadership of devil is to represent a resemblance as the sameness and by this way, to cheat man. Actually, they refer to a nonsensical way known as “paralogia” in psychology. Assume a patient saying, “a table has for legs, so does a cat. Therefore they are the same.” Similarly, the devil says “Men talk by means of words and sentences and the Quran is written by using words and sentences. Therefore, the Quran is a word of man.” and he attempts to deceit people. As a matter of fact, every for legged thing is not a cat; similarly, expressing oneself by means of words does not only pertain to man . The devil himself, deceived Musaylama by means of fabricating many irrational stuff resembling human talk and asserting them to be Allah’s words. As for The Lord of all worlds, He, more than anyone, has the power required for revealing the most beautiful exposition of all expositions with the words and expressions which He taught us.

Quoted from the author’s article “A debate with Satan” released by Zafer Publishing.

Ümit Şimşek


37-) What are the exclusive qualities (hasais) of our Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh)?

The word “hasais” is the plural form of the word “hassiyyat” which stems from the root “hass” that means “attributing superiority to someone or to something because of a characteristic that is exclusive only to that person or to that thing.” In this sense, “hasais” means “virtues and superior qualities.” (Lisanu’l Arab, “hss” ). There are many proofs of the Prophet’s exclusive qualities in Quran and Sunnah. Especially, the half of the chapter al-Ahzab narrates these qualities exclusive to the Honorable Messenger (pbuh) (al-Ahzab, 28-59). The statement “And as for the night keep awake a part of it an additional prayer for thee: soon will thy Lord raise thee to a Station of Praise and Glory!” (al-Isra, 79) also points out to it. It is seen in hadiths that some practices of the Prophet are just exclusive to him. For instance, while he was listing the prohibited acts in the Harem area of Mecca, he stated that only he was permitted for these acts for a short time by Allah only on the day of conquest and then Harem was given its former status after that. (Bukhari, Knowledge, 37). Ibn Hajar, while explaining the judgments deduced from this hadith, recorded that this act was one of the Prophet’s exclusive qualities and that this hadith proved that the Prophet had some concessions only exclusive to him. (Fethu’l Bari, I, 199). 

Authors of hasais generally evaluated divine judgments and gifts which are only exclusive to the Prophet in four categories as fards, harams, mubahs and superiorities which are endowed upon him only. 

Fards which are exclusive to the Prophet only are as follows: 

Mid-morning prayer, vitr prayer and tahajjud prayer, sacrificing (al-adha), using miswaq, negotiating with mild peope, fighting against enemy even though they may be superior in number, paying the debts of Muslims who die before they pay their debts back, not leaving a nawafil prayer before it is finished, abolishing negativity in the most convenient way. There are, although recommended for all Muslims as well, were fards exclusively for the Honorable Messenger only. 

The matters which are haram exclusively for the Prophet are as follows: 

Accepting alms, avoiding fight in war although it is compulsory to fight, being eager for worldly materials, (al-Hijr, 88), ordering that a criminal be punished secretly without his crime has been proved and declared and overestimating his favor and boasting about it. (Muddassir, 6). Although being eager for worldly materials and boasting about a favor are not favorable also for all Muslims, these are prohibited as harams exclusively for the Prophet in Quran. 

Some mubahs (neither enjoined nor prohibited) which are exclusive for the Prophet are as follows: 

Fasting for a few days following each other, without giving a break to fast (sawm-i wisal), taking whatever he likes from the captured properties before they are shared, using one fifth of captured properties and taxes taken from non-Muslims as he likes (al-Anfal, 41, al-Hashr, 7), entering Mecca without ihram, not bequeathing his property to any of his inheritors after his death, deciding (judging) in cases which are related to himself and his children according to a widely accepted view (actually, as prophets are innocent and pure, they can not be thought to take sides), his ablution is not invalidated by sleep. 

Some other mubahs exclusive to the Prophet are related to marriage. Marrying more that four women, marrying a woman who dedicated herself to the Messenger of Allah, without giving her mahr (see al-Ahzab, 50), and marrying while in the state of ihram are amongst concessions exclusive to him. According to those who interpret the verse (al-Azhab, 51), which allows him to take anyone of his wives whom he likes to his side, as he can visit them one by one in turns, the Honorable Prophet is rightful to spend more time with anyone of his wives whom he prefers more than others. Notwithstanding, the Prophet treated all his wives equally during his life. The reason why some matters have been made mubah exclusively to the Prophet only is to show how widely authorized he was by Allah and to point out to that these mubahs did not prevent the Prophet from obeying and worshipping, unlike it would prevent other people. 

Superiorities endowed upon the Prophet: 

Some of the works written on superiorities endowed upon the Prophet and which are so many in number that can constitute a literature of “virtues of the Prophet” discuss the superiority of the Messenger over other prophets and some of them discuss his superiority over other human beings, the jinn, angels and all other beings. Authors primarily put forward proofs deduced from the verses in order to prove the superiorities of the Prophet. It has been deduced from the verses which stated that some prophets were made superior to others and they were elevated as stated in Quran (al-Baqarah, 253; al-Isra, 55) that prophets have got different degrees in the eyes of Allah. And from the verses stating that the Messenger of Allah was sent down as mercy for all realms (Anbiya, 107) and that Allah would not send his wrath over his tribe as long as he lived amongst them (al-Anfal, 33), it was deduced that he was superior to all other prophets. 

There are many verses that point out to the Prophet’s virtues in Quran: 

Al-i Imran, 81: “Behold! God took the covenant of the prophets, saying: "I give you a Book and Wisdom; then comes to you an apostle, confirming what is with you; do ye believe in him and render him help." God said: "Do ye agree, and take this my Covenant as binding on you?" They said: "We agree." He said: "Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses.”

Al-Hujurat, 2: “O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet.”

In addition to these, although Allah addressed to other prophets by their names (al-Baqara, 35; al-Maidah, 110; Hud, 32, Maryam, 12) He addressed to the Prophet Mohammad as “O Prophet” (al-Anfal, 64; al-Ahzab, 33/1) or as “O Messenger” (al-Maidah, 67; at-Talaq, 1). Moreover, it is sworn only on the Prophet Muhammad’s life in Quran (al-Hijr, 72) and the companions were not allowed to call the Prophet by his name (al-Nur, 63). All of these verses indicated his virtuousness. The fact that the Prophet Muhammad was sent to all humankind as prophet although other prophets were sent only to their own people (al-Araf, 158; Anbiya, 107; Saba, 28) proves that he is more virtuous that other prophets. Almost all ahl-i sunnah scholars agree that the Prophet is superior to all angels. (see Nebhani, al-Fezailu’l-Muhammadiyya, p.68-70). 

Although almost all verses which are related to the Prophet was taken into consideration in works written on the virtues of the Prophet, it is hard to tell that all these verses over 100 which were considered to be related to the topic are actually on the superiority of The Prophet. However, the fact that it is prohibited to give him hardships, it is ordered that people send salat-u salam to him, it is stated that he was sent as a supervisor, harbinger and warning to people and it is stated how he should treat his followers and how followers should treat him in those verse can be seen as indicators of his superiority. (For these verses see Nebhani, p.45-73). 

The fact that the Prophet’s qualities are mentioned in former holy books and “people of the book culture” formed around them is another proof of his superiority. It is possible to see what these qualities are in narrations by companions from the Muslim amongst people of the book. They describe the Honorable Messenger as someone who does not act rudely and harshly, who does not speak aloud or shout out in public places; who does not respond to negativity by negativity and who is forgiving and a servant who has submitted himself to Allah. (see Ahmad Hijazi as-Sakka, Cairo, 1977).

It is possible to divide hadiths related to the Prophet’s superiorities into two categories as the ones related to worldly superiorities and the ones related to otherworldly superiorities. 

The ones related to his worldly superiorities are not many. The most well-known of them is the one that says he was given five qualities which had not been given to former prophets. (Bukhari, Tayammum 3, Salat 56; Muslim, Masajid 3). Accordingly, Prophet Muhammad was given the power of placing fear in enemy’s hearts from a distance of one month. Earth was made a place of worship, clean and means of cleanliness for him. Captured properties were made halal to him. Although all other prophets were sent only to their own peoples, he was sent to all humankind and he was given the right of intercession. According to another narration, it is stated that he was given the gift of telling so many things with few words (jawamiu’l kelim) (gnomic and concession) and that the keys to the treasures of the world were brought and put in front of him in his dreams. Another worldly superiority of the Prophet is that he came from a purest and a most honorable family. The Prophet who mentioned this in various statements stated that all marriages in his lineage were lawful. (Suyuti, Hasais, I, 37). This superiority of his has continued with his descendants. When the fact that Allah wished to make the Prophet’s family all pure by purifying them from all dirtiness (al-Ahzab, 33), that the Messenger of Allah was prohibited to accept zakat and alms and yet was allowed to take one fifth of captured property (al-Anfal 41; al-Hashr 7) is taken into consideration, it is comprehended that the Prophet is at the zenith of nobility and purity. The religion of Islam which Prophet Muhammad brought to continue until the Day of Judgment is necessarily the most perfect religion. Moreover, the Messenger of Allah expressed that he was sent in order to complete the good and high moral values which all religions tried to earn people and that he was sent in order to represent this cause with his words and behaviors. (Musned, II, 381; Muwatta, Husnu’l-Hukuk, 8). 

Doubtlessly, one needs to be at the zenith of high moral in order to fulfill this supreme duty. For this reason, the Messenger of Allah was adorned with the highest moral values and virtues (Kalem 4). In addition, it is stated in Quran that the Prophet is closer and merciful to believers more that their own selves, and thus than their fathers are and that the Prophet’s wives are the mothers of all Muslims. (al-Ahzab, 6, 53). 

The superiorities endowed upon the Honorable Messenger in otherworldly life are many. Some companions found it astonishing that Allah took Abraham for a friend for Himself (al-Nisa, 125), that He talked to Moses in person (al-Nisa, 164), that Jesus is Allah’s words and spirit (al-Nisa, 171) and that Adam is a chosen servant in the eyes of Allah and the Prophet Muhammad said that this all is true. However, he also stated that he is the dearest for Allah, that Adam and all other prophets were going to be on a level lower than him, that he was going to bear the vexillum of gratefulness, that he was going to be the first one to intercede, that he was going to be the first one to move the knobs of the doors of heaven, that Allah was going to let him firstly in together with the poor believers and that he was the most precious of all people to came and left and to come. And after each of these sentences, he added that he had not told them in order to boast. (Darimi, Mukaddima 8; Tirmidhi, Menakib 1). 

Moreover, he stated that he was going to be the first one to stand up from grave and he was going to speak in the name of everyone on that violent day when nobody could dare to speak and going to tell their problems in the Divine Presence. He also stated that he was going to intercede so that the accounting would begin when the queue in the Gathering Place would go on and on and people would be so tired; and that he was going to give the good news of that his intercession was accepted when people would be hopeless. The Prophet and his followers, being the last prophet and last believers on earth, are going to be at the front on the Day of Judgment. (Bukhari, Juma 1, 12; Muslim, Juma 19, 21). The right of intercession is an important one amongst The Messenger of Allah’s virtues related to the otherworld. The messenger of Allah, having said that each prophet has got a supplication which was accepted, stated that he saves his supplication for the Day of Judgment in order to intercede for his followers. (Muslim, Faith 335). 

Source: Ahatlı, Erdinç, Hasasiu’n-Nebi, TDİA, Hasasiu’n-Nedi Maddesi.


38-) Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) explains that the education of children

It is neither religiously nor scientifically proper to think that genetic codes have an impact on life that nullifies the importance of education. It is an indicator of the truth that education systems that exist all over the world regards certain knowledge criteria without considering a student’s genetic codes. So many children of low-income families become scientists whereas so many children of scientists remain uneducated; so, this shows that the effect of genes is limited.

It is contrary to Allah’s infinite justice, wisdom and compassion to test humans perfunctorily by limiting them to their genetic codes. This is also contrary for such a creature that can go either to an uppermost level or a lowermost level by working and that is different from angels.

Medical science gives information about the genetic factors in humans; however, it does not, cannot and shall not say that genes bind human beings and make them like robots.

As the realities of life prove that such a hindrance by genes cannot be true and there are also many explanations in the Qur’an and Sunnah that it is not possible. Emphasis of some hadiths on “the role of parents, and environment on children” indicates the effect of improper education rather than genetic factors.

Let us know whether there is a medicine student that graduates as an engineer, a vet student becoming a qualified dentist or a student studying civil engineering becoming a judge or a lawyer after graduation. That is to say, genetic codes do not have much effect on humans. A person who works in a specific area with great effort has a proper profession related to his work later on.

How can we accept the existence of genetic compulsion since the following verse is present in the Qur’an; “There is no compulsion in religion” (Surah al-Baqara 2/256) and since the freedom is clearly stated in another verse; “let him who will, believe, and let him who will, reject” (Surah al-Kahf 18/29), who can limit the freedom of man?


39-) Could you please define the characteristics of the interpretation methodology of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)? What are the characteristics, content and activities on the subject of interpretation of His ummah (Community of Muslim Believers)?

The religion of Islam is based on revelation. It has the capacity to solve all kinds of problems and make judgments about them. It is capable of solving the problems that were not present in the first resources and that can arise as the human conditions change, in different periods and places, and as the technology and equipment change. Islam has brought the general principles (methodology) that can be used to solve those problems. Each problem that is dealt with that methodology, which is based on the Quran and the Sunnah in essence, has the divine and heavenly qualities. However, the solutions that are found without referring to those principles are worldly and humanly not divine or humanly.1

The Quran, the First Fundamental Source of the Religion

There are two fundamental sources that are used in understanding and interpreting Islam, the last religion sent by Allah: the Quran and the Sunnah. The Quran is the guide for our life. Everything that is related to our material and spiritual life exists in the Quran in the form of rules, quintessence and nuclei that can be understood by specialists. Allah states that He has not omitted anything in the Quran (al-An’am, 38). It is like the fundamental principles laid by a constitution regarding the individual, social and international issues. There exists a constitution in a country but separate rules, legislations and laws are enacted for each issue; similarly, the fundamental principles of the Quran are certain but branches like fiqh, kalam and tafsir (interpretation) explain and interpret those principles.  

On the other hand, every issue that man is interested in might not be mentioned clearly because the Quran is a book that arranges the relationships of servitude between Allah and His servant.  An issue is mentioned in the Quran depending on whether it deals with the relationship between Allah and His servant and based on the degree of importance.    

The Interpretation of the Quran at First Hand: The Sunnah

The Sunnah is the way of the Prophet. It becomes known through the narrations that reach us. His words, deeds and states are the Sunnah.

To refer to the Sunnah is the order of the Quran. There are many verses regarding the issue. In those verses, obeying the Prophet is regarded the same as obeying Allah, and sincerely acting in accordance with the judgment given by the Prophet is regarded as a sign of belief.3 The sound sunnah is based on revelation as it is expressed by the Quran: “Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him.”4 Some parts of the Sunnah explains the Quran and some parts introduce new judgments. Worshipping like prayer (salah) and hajj have been explained by the Sunnah. It is not possible to understand and to apply most of the religious judgments without taking the Sunnah into consideration. All of the scholars of ahl as-Sunnah from the Companions to the present day point out that excluding the Sunnah originates from a secret intention that aims to rock Islam to its foundations. In order to interpret the Quran in the way that they want, they aim to eliminate the Sunnah, which is the primary interpretation of the Quran.   

Today, they call it as, “the pure Islam in the Quran, Islam of the Quran” or “Reading the translation of the Quran”.  The ultimate goal of those currents, which seem to be reflecting the truth, is to abolish the trust in Salaf, which consists of the Companions, Tabiun and Atbauttabiin, by subjecting the Quran, which is the first source of the religion, to humanly and worldly interpretation; thus, making it a secular religion. In fact, in a mutawatir hadith, the people of the Companions and Tabiin, who lived after the Prophet and whom the ummah regarded as a great reference, were defined as “the best generation”, and the Quran praised the Companions. 6

The other references for understanding the Quran and Islam are also defined as “mental resources”. They are ijma (consensus), qiyas (comparison; analogy) and ijtihad (deducing).

Ijma: the Opinion that All Believers Agree on

As religious evidence, after the Quran and the Sunnah comes ijma. As a religious term, ijma means the consensus of the mujtahids of Islam on the religious judgment of an issue regarding the deeds at a period after Hazrat Prophet. Islamic scholars have agreed that consensus is evidence.  

The following hadiths of Hazrat Prophet: “What Muslims regard as nice is nice in the eye of Allah, too.” and “My ummah will not agree on something wrong.” 8 and the following verse: “If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men to Faith, We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell,-what an evil refuge!”9  are used as evidence for the legitimacy of ijma. In the verse above, ” following a path other than that becoming to men to Faith” is defined as “contending with the Messenger”. Since it is haram to follow a path other than the path of the believers, it is wajib to follow the path of the believers.10

The views of the Companions have the priority in understanding and interpreting Islam. The scholars accept the fatwas of the Companions as religious evidence in the third place after the Quran and the Sunnah. There is rational (aqli) and reported (naqli) evidence about it. As reported evidence, the Quran states that Allah is pleased with the Companions. “The vanguard (of Islam)― the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds― well― pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him.”11 In that verse, Allah praises the Companions. Following their way will bring about praise. Accepting their views is regarded as following them.  

The Companions were the closest people to the Prophet (pbuh), to whom the revelation of Allah was sent. It is impossible to reach their level of sincerity, loyalty and understanding the aims of the religion because they saw the circumstances under which the verses were sent down. It is possible that the words of the Companions are also the Sunnah of the Prophet. When they narrated the judgments that the Prophet explained, they did not refer to him. Even if their views are based on qiyas and ijtihad, they deserve to be followed more than others. The Messenger of Allah said, “The best of my ummah are those who lived in the same age as me.”12

Qiyas as a Rational Method

One of the religious evidences that is used in explaining the judgments of the Quran and interpreting Islam is qiyas. As a religious term, qiyas means to explain the judgment regarding an issue about which there is not a verse or hadith based on an issue that is known by verses and hadiths. In other words, qiyas is to make a judgment regarding an issue about which there is not a verse or hadith comparing and attributing it to an issue about which there are verses and/or hadiths due to a common relation or reason between them.

Accordingly, the judgments made by mujtahids through ijtihad are based on the Book and the Sunnah because the religious judgments are attributed to the Book and the Sunnah either directly or indirectly. Qiyas in the law of Islam is a reality that the human mind accepts naturally. The law of the equality of the mind is carried out in the best way in the Quran. It is stated that similar things are given similar judgments and different things are given different judgments.13 The following verses are two examples regarding the issue:

“Do they not travel through the earth, and see what was the End of those before them (who did evil)? Allah brought utter destruction on them and similar (fates await) those who reject Allah.”

“What! Do those who seek after evil ways think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous deeds― that equal will be their Life and their death? Ill is the judgment that they make!”14

The reason why Hazrat Prophet married Zaynab, who was divorced by Zayd bin Haritha, whom he had adopted, is explained as follows in the Quran: “Then when Zayd had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary (formality), We joined her in marriage to thee: in order that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the Believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons”15 God Almighty also explained that the wisdom behind why the booty needed to be distributed to the poor, the orphans and the wayfarers was to prevent wealth from being a capital that makes a circuit between the rich, and the wisdom behind why certain halal food was made haram for them was the wrong-doing of the Jews, and the wisdom behind why alcohol and gambling were prohibited was the fact that they caused enmity among believers.16 The fact that the reasons for the judgments are stated in those verses indicates the necessity of qiyas. Then, judgments regarding the issues about which there is no verse or hadith can be made by comparing them to similar verses or hadiths.  The scholars who gave examples from the life of Hazrat Prophet explained the fact that qiyas is a religious evidence in detail.

There are some exceptions about qiyas, which is regarded as a legitimate and reasonable method in making religious judgments. The first one of them is the judgments that are taabbudi (whose reasons are not known); for instance, the fact that the evening prayer has three rakat, the form of hajj, etc.

Ijtihad: a Term that is Misunderstood

As a matter of fact, ijtihad comes before ijma and qiyas. Ijtihad, which is often on the agenda of the public, is confused with reform. Reform means to repair or restore something whose originality was distorted or destroyed. Islam does not have a problem like that. We have its original sources. The problem lies in understanding them and applying them in the daily life as time changes. 

To establish a relationship between ijtihad and reform is a different analogy. It is like bringing the opposites together in imagination. Unfortunately, some people who have no knowledge about the compilation and parts of the Islamic sciences present some interpretations, fatwas and ijtihads made about some issues that are not related to the principles of the religion as “reform in religion” due to their ignorance. To attribute a role like that especially to ijtihad means to be unaware of the principles of fiqh, which came into being in order to understand the secondary judgments related to the practical and legal aspects of Islam and to apply them.

The judgments of the Shariah about worshipping and interactions are limited but the incidents and happenings are unlimited. Therefore, it is a definite reality that it is necessary to make ijtihad and qiyas in order to be able to apply those limited principles and judgments for unlimited happenings.  Therefore, ijtihad is fard al-kifayah. It is possible to state something about a scientific and religious issue about which there is no judgment only by making ijtihad. However, ijtihad can be made within the framework of some principles. First of all, ijtihad is not possible for issues about which there is a verse or hadith. No ijtihad is possible about the definite issues, the essentials of the religion like salah, zakah and hajj. The issue is formulated as “there is no place for ijtihad regarding an issue stated by a verse or hadith” in item 14 of Majallah. Therefore, ijtihad can only be made about the issues about which there is not a definite verse or hadith.  

Points of Objection about ijtihad

We have stated that Islam is a religion of evidence. However, today, there is a great neglect regarding the issues of the religion that are necessary to be known. For instance, young people of our country have many doubts and questions about belief in Allah. The percentage of those who have doubts in believing in Allah is not small. (According to survey published in the newspapers, it was stated to be about %40.) Issues of ijtihad are controversial and they are not about the essentials of the religion. Ninety per cent of the Shari'a consists of the incontestable matters and essentials of religion, each of which is a diamond pillar. Only ten per cent are matters open to interpretation, controversial, and secondary, as said Nursi stated. Ninety diamond pillars may not be put in the purse of someone with ten gold coins, nor be made follow him. The source of the diamond pillars is the Qur'an and hadiths.”22 It means we should not ignore the ninety diamonds for the sake of the ten gold coins. People need to learn the essential principles of the religion more than the theoretical and controversial issues because since they do not usually know about the subtleties of the controversial issues, they lose their thoughts about and respect to the holiness and majesty of the religion while thinking about the issues that are opposite each other due their ignorance. Therefore, the issues that are necessary to pay attention to are the essentials of the religion. However, the discussions of ijtihad about the secondary issues of the religion sometimes overshadow the essential issues of the religion that need to known and taught. Moreover, some of the people who appear with the desire of ijtihad are not people who are scholars but are people who dare to talk about the religion although they are unaware of it. For this reason, the ijtihads that aim to change some of the principles of Islam are not ijtihads but acts of treachery. The offers of reading the translations of the Quran in salah, reciting the translations of the adhan, abolishing tasattur are examples to those kinds of ijtihads.  

Noticing that ijtihad, which needs to be a living and active institution as a source of Islamic knowledge due to scientific mentality, was drifted to a channel aiming at decaying the main body of Islam by some vicious people, Badiuzzaman Said Nursi states, regarding the issue, in his book, which he wrote in order to show them their place, that the gate of ijtihad is open but today there are some obstacles to entering it. We can summarize some of his views as follows:     

1- Islam is like a citadel. Many evils that are not accepted by the Quran have expanded rapidly among Muslims in our age. During the assault of the evils (all kinds of habits, lifestyles and ideas that are contrary to Islam) that are like a storm, it is necessary to close the windows tightly, let alone leaving the doors open because people who want to destroy Islam are seeking opportunities.

2- To make judgments about some secondary issues in order to satisfy the desires of the soul when the essentials of the religion are ignored is an innovation (bid’ah) and betrayal of Islam because the evidence and support of those who intend to change the Islamic essentials is – as it is the case in every evil thing – to imitate Europe blindly. It is not possible to reach the truth through a wrong method. The ijtihads and ease that those people who do not even fulfill the obligations of Islam want are frivolity in religion. Frivolous people should not be patted tolerantly but should be warned severely! 

Here, an issue that can only be noticed by religious prudence is the interest of the people who desire ijtihad in the religion. Do those people who favor ijtihad in any issue try to fulfill the obligatory orders of the religion? Do they act in accordance with taqwa or do they prefer the life in the world to the hereafter or do they try to expand the area of permissibility?  If the answer to the question related to their taqwa, religious perfection, preferring the hereafter and closeness to the consent of Allah is not positive, the ijtihad that they favor means to make a breach in the walls of Islam by someone outside Islam. Badiuzzaman resembles the person trying to do such a thing to a person who tries to grow the trunk of a tree through external forces instead of using the internal force of the tree. Everything has a tendency to develop but it is useful if the tendency comes from inside. If it comes from outside, it causes the destruction of the living being.23

3- At the present time, the goods of politics and securing the life of this world and the demand of philosophy are sought after. And in the age of the mujtahid imams, Tabiin and the Companions, the aim of the people like the scholars was to  learn the order and prohibitions  of the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth from His Word. Since the talks in the society occurred in accordance with those wishes, whoever had the ability for ijtihad made use of the atmosphere very well. At this time, however, due to the domination of European civilization and the supremacy of natural philosophy and the preponderance of the conditions of worldly life, minds and hearts have become scattered. Sufyan ibn Uyayna, who memorized the Qur'an at the age of four, had reached a level that could give fatwas at the age of ten. However, a student of our age needs to study one hundred years to reach the same level because the minds are submerged in philosophy and they plunge in politics, and the hearts are giddy at the life of this world, and have grown distant from ijtihad. The psycho-social factor mentioned above is of great significance. A scholar of today cannot resemble himself to the scholars who lived at a time close to the period of the Prophet and say, "I am intelligent, too; I can make ijtihad like them."24 It is very difficult for scholars who regard themselves capable of making ijtihad to be free from those risks. It is obvious that especially the ijtihads that aim to make use of the worldly bounties and to strengthen political currents will have worldly and humanly qualities , not religious ones.   

In another book, Badiuzzaman states that the ijtihad that an individual makes will bind only that person and that he cannot present it as religious evidence for others. He states that in order to meet the need for ijtihad and to organize and apply the religious orders and to eliminate the spiritual anarchy, it is necessary to establish a committee of investigative scholars who will work with a complete freedom of thought. Such a committee should consist of scholars that are trusted by the ummah and the majority of the scholars. The judgments given by that committee can be regarded as a religious decree by having the power of ijma and it can satisfy everybody.25

Footnotes

1. Canan, İbrahim, Soruşturma 2 - Kur’an ve Sünnet. p. 155-156, İstanbul 1987; Canan, Kütüb-ü Sitte Muhtasarı 2/74 vd., Ankara, 1988.

2. Kılıç, Yusuf, İslam Fıkıh Mezheplerinin Doğuşunu Hazırlayan Sebepler, p. 9, 10, 12, İstanbul 1997.

3. an-Nisa; 59, 64, 65, 80.

4. an-Najm; 3, 4.

5. Soruşturma-2, Canan, ibid. p. 188.

6. Canan, ibid. p. 197; for the verse, see: at-Tawbah; 100.

7. Nursi, Bediüzzaman Said, Lem’alar, (11. Lem’a) Klt. 1/612.

8. Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, 1/379; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Fitan: 8.

9. an-Nisa, 115.

10. Ebu Zehra, Muhammed, İslam Hukuku Metodolojisi (Fıkıh Usulü), trns. Abdülkadir Şener. Ankara 1981, p. 171-174.

11. at-Tawbah; 100.

12. Muslim, Sahih, Fadailu’s- Sahaba: 213, 215; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Sunnah: 9.

13. Abu Zahra, ibiid., p. 190 -191.

14. Muhammed, (al-Qital), 10; al-Jathiya, 21,

15. al-Ahzab; 37.

16. For the verses, see: al-Hashr; 7; an-Nisa; 160; al-Maida; 91.

17. al-Baqara; 185; for the hadith see: Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, v . 5, p. 32.

18. Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, v. 1, p. 379; the verse, al-Hajj; 78.

19. al-An’am; 108.

20. Karaman, Hayreddin, İslam’ın Işığında Günün Meseleleri-1, p, 171-176, İstanbul 1982.

21. Abu Zahra, ibid. p. 325-332; Kılıç, Yusuf, ibid., p. 175 ff.

22. Nursi, Bediüzzaman Said, Lemeat, Klt. 1/322; Sünühat, Klt. 2/2047.

23. Nursi, Hakikat, Çekirdekleri, Klt. 1/574; Sözler, 27. Söz.

24. Nursi, Sözler, 27. Söz.

25. Nursi, Emirdağ Lahikası, Klt. 2/1847.

Veysel Kasar


40-) Can you give information about the hijra (Migration) that Our Prophet (pbuh) made?

What is the Risale-i Nur?

The Risale-i Nur collection is a six-thousand-page commentary on the Quran written by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi in accordance with the mentality of the age. Since in our age faith and Islam have been the objects of the attacks launched in the name of so called science and logic, Bediuzaman Said Nursi therefore concentrated in the Risale-i Nur on proving the truths of faith in conformity with modern science through rational proofs and evidence, and by decribing the miraculous aspects of the Quran that relate primarily to our century. This collection now has millions of readers both in and outside of Turkey. Thanks to the Risale-i Nur, the Turks managed to maintain their religion despite the most despotic regimes of the past decades. Although its author faced unbearable persecution, imprisonment, and exile, while no effort was spared to put an end to his service to faith, he was able to complete his writings compromising the Risale-i Nur and raise a vast group of believers who courageously opposed the oppression and preserved the dominance of Islam in the country. Bediuzzaman understood an essential cause of the decline of the Islamic world to be weakening of the very foundations of belief. This weakening, together with the unprecedented attacks on those foundations in the 19th and 20th centuries carried out by materialists, atheists and others in the name of science and progress, led him to realize that the urgent and over-riding need was to strengthen, and even to save, belief. What was needed was to expend all efforts to reconstruct the edifice of Islam from its foundations, belief, and to answer at that level those attacks with a 'manevi jihad' or 'jihad of the of the word.' Thus, in exile, Bediuzzaman wrote a body of work, the Risale-i Nur, that would explain and expound the basic tenets of belief, the truths of the Quran, to modern man. His method was to analyse both belief and unbelief and to demonstrate through clearly reasoned arguments that not only is it possible, by following the method of the Quran, to prove rationally all the truths are the only rational explanation of existance, man and the universe. Bediuzzaman thus demonstrated in the form of easily understood stories, comparisons, explanations, and reasoned proofs that, rather than the truth of religion being incompatible with the findings of modern science, the materialist interpretation of those findings is irrational and absurd. Indeed, Bediuzzaman proved in the Risale-i Nur that science's breathtaking discoveries of the universe's functioning corroborate and reinforce the truths of religion. The imortance of the Risale-i Nur cannot be overestimated, for through it Bediuzzaman Said Nursi played a major role in preserving and revitalizing the Islamic faith in Turkey in the very darkest days of her history. And indeed its role has continued to increase in importance to the present day. But further to this, the Risale-i Nur is uniquely fitted to address not only all Muslims but indeed all mankind for several reasons. First it is written in accordance with modern man's mentality, a mentality that, whether Muslim or not, has been deeply inbued by materialist philosophy: it specifically answers all the questions, doubts and confusions that this causes. It answers too all the 'why's' that mark the questioning mind of modern man. Also, it explains the most profound matters of belief, which formerly only advanced scholars studied in detail, in such a way that everyone, even those to whom the subject is new, may understand and gain something without it causing any difficulties or harm. A further reason is that in explaning the true nature and purposes of man and the universe, the Risale-i Nur shows that true happiness is only to be found in belief and knowledge of God, both in this world and the Hereafter. And it also points out the grevious pain and unhappiness that unbelief causes man's spirit and conscience, which generally the misguided attempt to block out through heedlessness and escapism, so that anyone with any sense may take refuge in belief. To conclude The Holy Quran addresses the intellect as well as man's other inner faculties. It directs man to consider the universe and functioning in order to learn its true nature and purposes as the creation and thus to learn the attributes of its Single Creator and his own duties as a creature. This, then, is the method that Bediuzzaman employed in the Risale-i Nur. He explained the true nature of the universe as signs of its Creator and demonstrated through clear arguments that when it is read as such all the fundamentals of beliefs may be proved rationally. When this method is followed, a person attains a true belief that will be sound and firm enough to be withstand any doubts that may arise in the face of the subtle attacks of Materialism, Naturalism and atheism, or the materialist approach to scientific advances. For all scientific and technological advances are merely the uncovering of the workings of the cosmos. When the cosmos is seen to be a vast and infinately complex and meaningful unified book describing its Single Author, rather that causing doubt and bewilderment, all these discoveries and advances reinforce belief, they deepen and expand it. Man's most fundamental need is the need for religion, the need to recognize and worship Almighty God with all His Most Beautiful Names and attributes, and to obey His laws; those manifest in the universe and those revealed through his prophets. In explaining the message of the Quran, Almighty God's final Revealed Book, brought and perfectly expounded by His final Prophet, Muhammad (PBUH), and Islam, the complete and perfected religion for mankind, Bediuzzaman Said Nursi demonstrated in the Risale-i Nur that there is no contradiction or dichotomy between science and religion; rather, true progress and happiness for mankind can, and will, only be achieved in this way, the way of the Quran.


41-) The character of Muhammed pbuh and his attitudes

Was Islam spread at the point of sword? Was the Muslim emblem “The Qur’an or the sword?”Were the Muslims imperialist and after mundane power or loot? Some people like to think about that in affirmative terms; some others in the negative and some are undecided, perplexed and reluctant. But where does the Qur’an stand? What does the history of Muhammad reveal in this connection? It is certainly imperative on every honest person who has respect for truth and human dignity to find out for himself, and to reveal his findings to others The Qur’an makes it clear that, whether we want it or not, war is a necessity of existence, a fact of life, so long as there exist in the world injustice, oppression, capricious ambitions, and arbitrary claims. This may sound strange. But is it not a matter of historical record that humanity – from the early dawn of history up till now – has suffered from local, civil and global wars? And is it not also a fact that, more often than not, victorious allies settle their disputes over their gains and the status of heir defeated enemies through wars and threats of war? Even today humanity lives under constant fear and buzzes of war over many hot spots in the world. Could God overlook these facts of life? Or could the Qur’an fail to deal with the matter in a realistic and effective manner? Certainly not! And that is why Islam has recognized war as a lawful and justifiable course for self- defense and restoration of justice, freedom and peace. The Qur’an says:

Fighting is prescribed for you, and you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing, which is good for you, and that you love a thing, which is bad for you. God knows, and you know not (2:216).

And did not God check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed by full of mischief: But God is Full of bounty to all the worlds (2:251). And did not God check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques in which the name of God is commemorated in abundant measure (22:40).
Although realistic in its approach, Islam never tolerates aggression from its own side or from any other side, nor does it entertain aggressive wars or the initiation of aggressive wars. Muslims are commanded by God not to begin hostilities, or embark on any act of aggression, or violate any rights of others. In addition to what has been already said in the previous chapter, some particular verses of the Qur’an are of significant bearing. God says:
Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, and do not transgress limits (begin not hostility): For God loves not transgressors. And slay them wherever you catch them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith. But if they cease, God is Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them on until there is no more persecution or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God; but if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression (2:190-193).
War is not an objective of Islam nor is it the normal course of Muslims. It is only the last resort and is used under the most extraordinary circumstances when all other measures fail. This is the actual status of war in Islam. Islam is the religion of peace: its meaning is peace; one of God’s names is peace; the daily greetings of Muslims and angels are peace; paradise is the house of peace, the adjective ‘Muslim’ means Peaceful. Peace is the nature, the meaning, the emblem and the objective of Islam. Every being is entitled to enjoy the peace of Islam and the kindness of the peaceful Muslims, regardless of religious or geographical or racial considerations, so long as there is no aggression against Islam or the Muslims. If non-Muslims are peaceful with the Muslims or even indifferent to Islam, there can be no ground or justification to declare war on them. There is no such thing as religious war to force Islam on non-Muslims, because if Islam does not emerge from deep convictions, from within, it is not acceptable to God, nor can it help its professor. If there is any religion or constitution to guarantee peaceful freedom of religion and forbid compulsion in religion, it is Islam and Islam alone. To this point the Qur’an refers as follows: Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error; Whoever rejects Evil and believes in God has grasped the most trustworthy handhold, that never breaks, And God hears and knows all things (2:256).
Even in the propagation of Islam a Muslim is not only forbidden to employ force but is also commanded to use the most peaceful methods. To Muhammad God says: Invite (all) to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious: For your Lord knows best who have strayed from His path and who receive guidance (16:125).
And dispute you not with the people of the Book (Jews and Christians) except with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury): But say: ’We believe in the Revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; our God and your God is one; and it is to Him we bow (in Islam) (29:46).
Now if Islam is so designated for peace, and if the Muslims are so dedicated to peace, and if the Qur’an is favorable to peace, why then did Muhammad launch wars and command battles? Why does the Qur’an say ‘slay them’ and fight them? To examine this seemingly innocent inquiry, it is indispensable to mention some historical facts that accompanied and anticipated the Muslim wars against the infidels.
After receiving the Charge from God, Muhammad called a public meeting and told the assembly of what he had received, appealing to them to give up their idol-worship and believe in the One True God. His first peaceful and logical appeal was met not only with resistance but also with jeers, mockery and laughter. He tried continually to present his people with the blessed call but had little success. Because he was not left free to propagate Islam in the open, he had to resort to private preaching for some years to save the lives of his few followers and mitigate their hardships. When instructions from God came to him to preach in the open, persecutions and torture increased and were brutally inflicted on the Muslims. But the more the persecutions increased, the higher the number of Muslims arose. The infidels tried all kinds of pressure and temptation to silence the Call of God. But the more they tried, the firmer Muhammad and the Muslims stood. When the infidels failed to shake the Faith of the Believers by threats, pressure, confiscation of property, jeers, etc., they organized a harsh boycott, a fierce campaign of ostracism, against the Muslims. For some years the Muslims were forced to remain within a very tight circle of association, unable to preach or sell or buy or marry or contact any of their fellow Meccans. Even this did not shake the Muslims’ Faith. The boycott went on until the infidels themselves were tired of its observance and had to call it off.
Bringing the severe boycott to an end was no indication of peace or anticipation of tranquility on the part of the infidels. On the contrary, pressure and persecution continued with a rapid increase, but it was all in vain as far as the Muslims were concerned. Finally, the infidels convened a summit conference behind closed doors to discuss what to do next to eliminate Islam and get rid of Muhammad once and for all.
A unanimous resolution was adopted to select a strong man from every tribe and murder Muhammad in his bed. The mission of Muhammad was not destined to end at that level. So, God instructed him to leave Mecca, his dear hometown, and migrate to Medina to reunite with the native Muslims and the earlier emigrants who had fled from Mecca to Medina (see Qur’an 8:30; 9:40). This was the Great Event of Hijrah or Emigration with which the history of Islam began and by which the Muslim Calendar goes.
Fleeing from Mecca, the Muslims were forced by a variety of circumstances to leave behind practically all their properties, belongings and even families. As soon as they settled in Medina, Muhammad resumed his peaceful preaching and his gracious invitation to Islam. Some natives responded favorably to the Call of God and immediately became full-fledged members of the Muslim community. Others did not embrace Islam but maintained their traditional beliefs. And because Muhammad was dedicated to dignified peace and reform, he concluded treaties with the non-Muslims assuring them of freedom and security, and creating in their hearts, for the first time, a socio-national conscience instead of the narrow tribal allegiance.
While Muhammad was engaged in these reforms, trying to organize the Muslim community at Medina and lay down the foundations of a stable and peaceful society wherein Muslims and non- Muslims could live side by side, the enemies at Mecca were restless. Their hatred of the Muslims was burning, and their determination to eliminate Islam was getting stronger and stronger every day. They reviewed their tactics and as soon as they completed their new plans, they started to implement them.
They decided to make trouble for the Muslims from within and from without. Plundering and fighting raids were organized to attack Medina and get back to Mecca with whatever loot they could lay their hands on. The non-Muslims at Medina were getting increasingly envious of the popularity of Islam and the novel spirit of brotherhood among the Muslims, something which they themselves did not experience or particularly like to see experienced. So, the enemies at Mecca hastened to exploit the situation and stir internal troubles for the Muslims. The response of the envious non-Muslims of Medina to the instigation of the Meccans was quick and manifest, and serious troubles were arising all over Medina.
Now the Muslims were being constantly threatened from within by the disenchanted at Medina as well as by the raids organized from Mecca. They were driven to a point where they could not stand any more persecution and threats. Their families were separated from them by force. Their properties were confiscated. Their blood was shed. They were forced to leave their dear hometown in three waves of migration: two to Abyssinia and one to Medina. They endured for over thirteen years. With the new tactics of the Meccan enemies there was no course for the Muslims except to await their final annihilation in a plural massacre or defend themselves against oppression and persecution.
It must have been a paradox. Islam came to assure them of dignity and strength, freedom and security, and to ally them with God the Supreme Source of goodness and help, power and peace. Yet here they were helpless and anxious, threatened and terrified. Islam commissioned them to establish peace, to enjoin the right and forbid the wrong, to support the oppressed and emancipate the subjugated, and to prove how reliable and helpful to His servants God is. But how could they do that, if they themselves were oppressed, subjugated to terror and projected to helplessness? What perplexed them most of all was that the Qur’an had been silent on the matter, and had given them no specific instructions as to what to do. Their perplexity did not last long, and God relieved their grief by a Divine resolution to solve their problems and those of any who might find themselves in a similar situation. Here is how God words His resolution:
Verily God will defend those who believe: Verily God loves not any that is a traitor to faith or shows ingratitude. To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; and verily, God is Most Powerful for their aid; (they are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right, (for no cause) except that they say: ‘Our Lord is God’. Did not God check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of God is commemorated in abundant measure. God will certainly aid those who aid His (cause); for verily God is Full of strength, Exalted in Might, (Able to enforce His Will). (They are) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid the wrong. With God rests the end (and decision) of all affairs (22:38-41).
With this permission from God there was no more persecution or oppression to be inflicted on the Muslims. There was resistance from their side to restore tranquility, to regain their peace and freedom, to reunite with their families and take back their belongings. There were battles and wars with the malicious infidels who flagrantly denied the Muslims peace and freedom. But never was there any aggression from the Muslim side, or any destruction of homes, crops, supplies, etc., or any killing of nonfighting children, women, elders and disabled people. The Muslims observed these rules and remained within the limits of God. That was something which had never been experienced before nor has been experienced after. It was under these circumstances that the Muslims had to fight, and it was with these principles and instructions of God that they in the end achieved decisive victories.
So much has been said or written about the “ruthless”Muslims, who emerged from the burning and dry deserts of dark Arabia to conquer the Roman and Persian protectorates, and even to venture around the walls of Europe. Many have expressed the opinion that those Muslims were motivated by religious zeal to spread Islam by force as far as they could reach. Many others consider this opinion silly and naive, because Islam - by its nature - cannot be forced; and even if it were supposedly forced on the conquered people, it could not have lasted there for long, and non-Muslims would have been liquidated from the conquered regions. History bears witness to the fact that wherever Islam reached it survived – with the exception of Spain on account of certain reasons, and that wherever the Muslim conquerors went, they lived side by side with non-Muslim natives. Moreover, they argue, one cannot force a religion like Islam on anyone and find him so sincere and honest about his faith as were those Muslim converts of the new lands. It needs more than compulsion to develop such good Muslims out of a defeated people, and it requires much more than suppression to make them uphold and cherish the “forced”religion.
Another trend of thought is adopted by some who like to call themselves intellectuals or enlightened critics and authorities. They are not satisfied with that silly and naïve opinion about the spread of Islam by force. They attribute the expansion of Islam to the aggressive wars launched by Muslims who suffocated in the heat and drought of Arabia, and were simply motivated by economic needs and circumstances. Those wars and adventures were not religious or spiritual but merely the outcome of pressing wants. This may indicate that the Arabs had not arisen to such a high level of sacrifice and devotion, or that after the death of Muhammad, his successors and their successors lost interest in religion altogether and took off to satisfy their immediate wants. It may also indicate that Islam itself is incapable of generating such fervor and zeal in those Muslim Arab warriors. The indication here is manifold, and the “intellectuals”of this opinion are uncertain as to which probability should have preference over others.
There is still one more trend adopted by some people who ascribe the Muslim wars out of Arabia to passionate lust for plunder and raiding. They cannot see any motive or appreciate any appeal in the Muslims except hunger for blood and desire for loot. They refuse to see any virtue in Islam and to associate the Muslims with any high motives.
The dispute between these various sections is quite serious and sometimes takes the shape of academic discussion. But be that as it may. The fact of the matter is that none of these critics has made any serious attempt to understand the whole question and present the truth in any honest manner. None of them has had the needed insight and the moral courage to come out with the true version of the entire case. How heavy their burden will be when they discover some day that they have misled and misinformed millions of people! How serious their responsibility will be when they know that they have committed grave offenses against the truth, against the Muslims and against their own followers!
It will be impossible to present here the viewpoint of Islam in detail concerning each war or battle. However, there are certain main points which will, when mentioned, give a fair idea of the whole Matter.
1. It should be remembered that Muhammad, who was commissioned by God as a mercy for all mankind, tried to approach the rulers of the neighboring territories, inviting them to embrace Islam and share in the mercy of God. It should also be remembered that they did not only reject his gracious invitation but also derided him and declared open wars against the Muslims. In his lifetime the Roman and Persian soldiers crossed the Muslim borders in various raids. So by the time of his death the Muslims were involuntarily at war with their neighbors.
That state of affairs continued, and whatever happened later in the following generations has to be seen in the context of those first incidents. This meant at the time that all Christendom, including Spain and France, was at war with the emerging world of Islam. The adventure of the Muslims in Europe has also to be seen in the light of these circumstances. The fact that all Christendom was operating as one power is proven by the unquestionable authority of the Roman papacy over Christians. It is also proven by the general mobilization of Christian powers against Islam during the Crusades of the Middle Ages and even of the first quarter of this twentieth century So, when Rome sanctioned war against Islam, the Muslims could not be denied the full right to fight back on any battleground – whether in Palestine or in the Fertile Crescent, Italy or Hungary. This is what took them to Spain and Southern France. They could not afford to be encircled from all around by the mighty power of Rome and Persia. Nor could they just wait to be wiped out from the face of the earth. Orders were issued from Rome to slay Muhammad and present the Royal Court with his cut head, something which the pagan Romans had done to the early Christian pioneers. However, it must be admitted that some wars of later centuries had no relation to Islam, although they were fought by Muslims. They were not for the spread of Islam. Rather, they were motivated by certain local and, perhaps, personal reasons.
Aggression is aggression, whether it be from or against the Muslims, and the attitude of Islam toward aggression is known and unchangeable. So, if there was aggression in those later wars, it could not be justified by Islam or acceptable to God.
2. None of the said critics tries to understand the nature and circumstances of those early centuries. The media of mass communication did not exist. There was no press or radio or television or even regular mail service. There was no way of public information or preaching except by personal contacts. There was no respect for life or property or honor or treaties of the individuals and of the weak nations. There was no security or freedom of expression. Whoever stood for a noble cause or came out with unpopular beliefs was menaced. This is revealed from the history of Socrates the Greek philosopher, of the Christian pioneers, and of the early Muslims. Many emissaries commissioned to deliver special messages to rulers and governors never came back alive. They were cold-bloodedly murdered or captured by their very hosts.
With all these hardships the Muslims of Arabia had to cope, and under all these circumstances they had to work. They had a message to deliver to mankind, a contribution to make to humanity, and a formula of salvation to offer. The Qur’an says; invite to the Way of God by wisdom and beautiful preaching, and argue in the most gracious manner. But who was there prepared to listen to the peaceful Call of God? It is a fact that many disbelievers used to avoid hearing the Prophet lest they might be affected by his peaceful preaching. They even resisted by force the peaceful Call of Islam. The early experience of Arabia taught the Muslims that it is more effective to be peaceful and at the same time stand on guard; that you can move in peace only when you are strong enough to guard your peace; that your voice of peace would echo better when you are able to resist pressure and eliminate oppression Now they had, by the order of God, to make Islam known to the outside world, but there was no telecommunication system or press or any other mass medium of communication. There was only one course to take, namely, personal and direct contacts, which meant that they had to cross the borders. But they could not do that in small or unarmed groups. So they had to move in large protected groups which must have appeared like an army, but was not an army in the real sense. They crossed the borders in various directions at different times. What took place then deserves consideration. In some areas they were warmly welcomed by the natives, who had long been oppressed and subjugated by the foreign powers of Rome and Persia. In some other areas they were first to offer Islam to those who were prepared to accept it, and there were many. Those who did not embrace Islam were asked to pay tributes equivalent to the Islamic tax (Zakah). The reasons for demanding the kind of tax were (i) that they wanted to be sure this taxpayer knew what he was doing, and that Islam was presented to him but he rejected it with his own free will and choice; (ii) that they undertook to protect the taxpayer and guarantee his security and freedom in a way equal to that of the Muslim himself, because any danger to him was a danger to his Muslim compatriot – and, to defend the Muslim, they had to defend the non-Muslim and insure his security; (iii) that the new state of affairs demanded the support and cooperation of all sectors, Muslims and non-Muslims alike: the former by Zakah, the latter by tributes, which were all spent in the public interest; and (iv) that they wanted to be certain he was not hostile to them and their new brethren, or inclined to make troubles for his Muslim compatriots.
Those who rejected Islam and refused to pay tributes in collaboration with other sectors to support their state made it hard for themselves. They resorted to a hostile course from the beginning, and meant to create trouble, not so much for the new Muslim comers as for the new Muslim converts and their compatriots, the tributepayers. In a national sense, that attitude was treacherous; in a human sense, mean; in a social sense, careless; and in a military sense, pro- vocative. But in a practical sense it needed suppression, not so much for the comfort of the newcomers as for the sake of the state in which these very traitors were living. This is the only time force was applied to bring such people to their senses and make them realize their responsibilities: either as Muslims by accepting Islam freely, or as loyal citizens by being tributepayers, capable of living with their Muslim compatriots and sharing with them equal rights and duties.
3. It may be wise for these critics to study the Qur’an with honest intentions to see what it ordains with regard to war and peace. It may be wiser still for them to investigate the status of the “conquered”people, and the conditions under which they lived before and after their contact with the Muslims. What will they say, if they find out that urgent appeals were made to the Muslims by natives of the Persian and Roman protectorates to come and deliver them from the oppressing foreign rule? What will they think, if they happen to discover that the Muslim “conquerors”were joyfully welcomed by common people as well as by the religious patriarchs, who were longing for Muslim protection and Muslim justice of administration? How would they explain the phenomenon that some of the “conquered”people not only welcomed the “invading”Muslims but also fought on their side against the oppressors? How would they conceive the prosperity, freedom and progress of the “invaded”regions under Islam, in comparison to what had prevailed therein before? We are not ascertaining any particular point of view on the matter or making any hasty conclusions. We simply believe that the question is worth reconsidering and deserves serious investigation. The findings will certainly by interesting and significant. Perhaps a Western mind can understand better, if the whole matter is considered in the light of the prevailing conditions in today’s world. The deep concern of the Western Allies over Berlin, the appeals of the oppressed everywhere, the anxiety of the South Koreans, the fears of the Laotians, the NATO business, the SEATO affairs, the Instability of the Communist Satellites - all that may help the
Western mind to understand the events of those remote centuries and the actual policies of the Muslims of those days.
4. The idea that Muslim wars in the outside world were motivated by economic needs of the Arabs is worth considering too. Although seemingly certain of their own assumptions, the upholders of such an idea have not really studied the case seriously. Do they honestly think that the economic needs were the reasons to urge the Muslims to cross their Arabian borders? On what ground do they assume that Arabia – with its ancient centers of business, valleys and oases–was no longer capable of producing enough for the Muslims? Have they made any serious inquiry as to how much the “invading” Muslims made for themselves, how much they distributed among the people under their rule, and how much they sent back to the Central Administration in Medina or Damascus or Baghdad or Cairo? Have they compared the revenues of the “invaded” territories before and after Islam, and found out whether or not the “invaders” were simply self-interested business adventurers? Have they any reasons to believe that those Muslims took more than what they gave, or drew more than what they had deposited, or made more than what they had invested? Have they come across any evidence to prove if the Central Government in Arabia had at any time received tributes or taxes from its “conquered” protectorates which were needed for the development of these very protectorates, and if so how much was received, and was it worth the adventure in the unknown world? Have they collected any reliable information to show that Arabia was privileged or given preference, in expenditures or development programs over the “invaded” areas? Finally, did Arabia, all of a sudden feel the threat of a “population explosion” which forced the Muslims to carry out adventurous wars and / or economic explorations?
The attempt to interpret the Muslim contacts with non- Muslims in terms of economic needs may sound novel and worthy of sympathy, but it does not seem to have much truth in it or carry much bearing on serious scholarship. The least reservation that can be made as regards this attempt is that it is so far from being satisfactory and complete. There is so much yet to be done in terms of research, investigation, analysis and comparison. Until this is done, no critic has any moral right to pass his own theoretical assumptions as valid or binding. This presents another gracious invitation of Islam to all critics to make more serious attempts to search for the truth.
5. There is not much need to take as serious the opinions of those who consider the Muslim wars in terms of plunder and loot. What can be more casual or more stereotyped than such an opinion? It is a short cut in the field of scholarship and an easy way out of some Intellectual and moral problems, but it is so far from being the truth. The same questions of points 3 and 4 above can be asked again, just to find out how much loot the Muslim adventurers took or sent back to Arabia, and how many of their men returned home with spoils. This is not to mention the flourishing, the renaissance and prosperity of the “looted” territories under these very “looters”. It is not even to mention the harsh persecutions and heavy losses of lives and properties inflicted on Muslims, or the provocation and threats hurled at them. It is simply an appeal to those of such an opinion to make more careful studies of the case and present more responsible conclusions. However, they have to remember that whatever loot collected by the Muslims was very little compared to what they had lost by confiscation, usurpation, persecution and other provocative action inflicted on them from the hostile camps.
Whether or not the critics of these various grades accept the point of view of this survey, the fact remains that Islam is the religion of peace in the fullest sense of the term; that unjust war was never among its teachings; that aggression was never in its tenets or tolerated by it; that force was never employed to impose it on anyone; that the expansion of Islam was never due to compulsion or oppression; that misappropriation was never forgivable by God or acceptable to Islam; and that whoever distorts or misrepresents the Islamic teachings will do more harm to his own self and his associates than to Islam. Because it is the religion of God and the straight path to Him, it survived under the most difficult conditions, and it will survive to be the safe bridge to happy eternity. Should these critics have any doubt about this fact, they would be wise to study Islam, re-read the Qur’an, and refresh their memory of history.
The fact that economic prosperity and cultural renaissance followed the spread of Islam into the “conquered” regions does not necessarily mean that the Muslims were after economic gains and military spoils. Even if such alleged gain and spoils became incentives in later periods of Islamic history, it still does not follow that Islam prefers war to peace and the Muslims relish war spoils. There are better explanations. One of these should be very clear to those who are familiar with the classical discussion of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism where Protestantism, along with other factors, led to the rise of modern capitalism. No serious mind would contend that the Protestants developed their ethic to become economically prosperous or that modern capitalism still depends on the Protestant Ethic.
6. Finally, the word “Jihad” when associated with the word “Terrorism” become an abused term; the common meaning of Jihad is the action of a Muslim to defend his Muslim country when attacked, but it will never be a Jihad if you break the Muslims rules of engagement. It is a fact that Islam is both a faith and a set of rules of conduct, even in times of war Muslims are not allowed to kill anybody except the one who is engaged in face to face confrontation with them. The Muslims rules of engagement insist that children, women, the infirm, the aged, the men of religion and all those who are not engaged directly in battle should not be harmed. Moreover, Muslims in times of war are not allowed to destroy buildings housing innocent people or to destroy lands or to cut trees or to poison wells or to endanger the environment. Also Islam forbids haphazard killing where innocent people are killed along with wrongdoers.
At the same time the wide meaning of the word Jihad is ‘striving to do good’. So if you educate your family correctly your action is a Jihad, if you do your job properly your action is a Jihad, if you control your anger continuously your action is a Jihad, and the greatest Jihad is to restrain your soul from impure evil lower desires and lusts.
It should be stated that Islam, the religion of tolerance and forgiveness, holds the human soul in high esteem, and considers the killing of innocent human beings a grave sin and a terrible crime; This is backed by the Qur’anic verse which reads: “… that if any one slew a person – unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land – it would be as if he slew the whole people, and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people… “(Qur’an 5: 32).
The Prophet is reported to have stated that: ‘a woman would go to Hell because she locked up a cat that died as a result’; If such is the ruling on protecting animals, no doubt aggression against human beings deserves greater prohibition, for human beings are honored by God.
Also Islam teaches justice: “O you who believe, stand out firmly for God as witnesses to fair dealing; and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just; that is next to piety, and fear God.”(Qur’an 5:8) The Prophet said God had revealed to him: “O my servants, I have prohibited myself from doing anything unjust and have forbidden you from doing anything unjust as well. So don’t do anything unjust”.
Muslims who are aware of the teachings of Islam, the directives of the Holy Qur’an and the teachings of the Prophet will never involve themselves in any kind of terrorist acts of aggression against innocent civilians. Such acts are considered an injustice to innocent people who are terrorized without any reasons.

If any terrorist attacks were carried out against innocent civilians then Islam reject the act and incriminate the perpetrator, and the aggressor deserves the punishment irrespective of religion, race or gender. It is unfair to hold a whole nation accountable for a crime carried out by a limited number of fanatic extremists, or to characterize a certain religion as a faith giving support to violence and terrorism.

Hammudah Abdalati


42-) How can I understand that Mohammad (pbuh) is really the prophet of God?

THE EVIDENCES OF OUR PROPHET’S (PEACE BE UPON HIM) PROPHETHOOD
a- News About His Coming In the Previous Divine Books
In the previous divine books, there are expressions that give us some information about our Prophet’s (pbuh) coming as good news and that he will be sent to humankind as a prophet. Even if they were exposed to many changes, there are many signs about him in the Old Testament and New Testament copies that are present today.     
We will present only four of them from the Old Testament:
“…Moses says: “God will create a prophet like me among your brothers; you are going to listen to whatever he says. And all the prophets, Ishmael (Samuel) and the others coming in a row have always declared these days that are mentioned.”
“…And your Lord… did not create a prophet like Moses in Israel.”
“I will create a prophet like you for them among their brothers and I will put my words in his mouth and I will command him; he will tell everything to them.”
“The Lord came from Sinai and appeared to them from Sair; He shone upon Paran Mountains and ten thousands holy people came out of it. For them there was a fire decree on the right.”
We can conclude the following from the extracts taken from the Old Testament (Torah):
Moses’ address as “your brothers” to Israelites that come from the blood of Ibrahim’s son, Isaac is a symbol of Isaac’s brother Ishmael’s blood, namely to Ishmaelites. A prophet who will come from Ishmaelites can only be our Prophet; because only our Prophet (pbuh) has come from Ishmael’s blood. Here, it comes to mind that Jesus and Joshua as being prophets come after, but in fact, both of them come from Israelites not Ishmaelites. In fact, Moses has obviously told in the second verse that there will not be a prophet like him from Israelites.
Moses means our Prophet by saying “like me” because it was our Prophet who was like Moses; neither Jesus nor Joshua in many matters such as jihad, decrees that he brought, punishments he imposed, being someone who is highly obeyed by majority and so on.
The expression “I will put my words in his mouth” is our Prophet’s ability to read the Quran by heart even if he is illiterate. Allah, the Exalted, sent His revelation to His prophet and he orally told humankind about it. In this matter, He is in a position of intercessor. This verse of the Quran points to it: “Verily this is a Revelation from the Lord of the Worlds: With it came down the Spirit of Faith and Truth― To thy heart and mind, that thou mayest admonish. In the perspicuous Arabic tongue. Without doubt it is (announced) in the revealed Books of former peoples. Is it not a Sign to them that the learned of the Children of Israel knew it (as true)? (ash-Shuara, 26/192-197.)                
The expression “coming from Sina” symbolizes the divine decrees given on Mount Sinai. The expression “appearing from Sair” symbolizes the Bible given to Jesus. And the expression “shining on Paran mountains” represents our Prophet’s leaving from Mecca. Paran –with its spelling in Arabic, Faran- is one of the old names of Mecca and it is told in the genesis part of the Bible that Ishmael lives in Paran desert. In this verse, through the expression ‘holy’, is the character of our Prophet, who is away from every kind of faults and the people in his family and his companions. Similarly, the expression “fire decree on the right” indicates Jihad in Islam.
It is also possible to see some signs in some texts of the present day Bible:
“The corner stone became the head of corner…it is marvelous in our eyes… God’s property will be taken away from you and it will be given to a nation that will bring up His fruits and anyone who falls onto that stone will break into pieces; and that stone will cause anyone that it falls onto break into pieces and turn to powder.”
“Lord will you give you another prophet; and let him be with you till the end.”
“He will teach you everything and will bring into your mind whatever I have told you before.”
“…If I don’t go, the prophet will not come… and when He comes, He will bind all the world for sin, improvement and decrees.”
The “corner stone” in first verse cannot be Jesus; because there occurred no events like breaking into pieces and turning into pieces like powder during the period of Jesus and what he brought with him. However, it happened when our Prophet came. Besides, it was not Jesus who ruled but our Prophet. As a matter of fact, it was Jesus himself who told us that He did not come to rule. On the other hand, in hadiths, our Prophet himself tells us that he is the corner stone of prophethood construction, that is, the propethood was brought into perfection and completed with our Prophet.   
In the verses that followed, the origin of the word appearing as Prophet in Greek is “Piriklitos” and “Ahmad” in Arabic. Besides, in the Quran, it is mentioned that our Prophet’s name is “Ahmad” in the Bible. In fact, we do not have many Bibles today that tell us about our Prophet’s coming and his characteristics.
b- His Excellent and Unique Ethics
It is a fact confirmed by all resources that deal with history that our Prophet (pbuh) helped everybody, supported people who were in need, lived a plain life, never lied, forgave people who behaved adversely towards him, was a reliable person in all matters  and was a perfect man having “Excellent and Great Ethics” every period of his life before and after his prophethood. The Quran mentions our Prophet’s unique ethics as follows:
“And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character.” (al-Qalam, 68/4.)       
It can only be possible for a prophet who undergoes direct divine upbringing to live all moral values, and to give us examples of these values as a human against all kinds of detention, condition and situation in every phase of life.
He has combined all kind of excellent characteristics to form the greatest personality. He was absolutely brave and doughty but he was also excessively humble, meek and mild. Furthermore, the most importantly, his bravery and doughtiness never went ahead to break hearts and his humility and forgiving characteristic never fell down to an equal level of contempt and cowardice. Together with his solemnity and earnestness, our Prophet was a smiling and restful person. In addition, as well as his strong and austere characteristics, he was a person who loved everybody and showed mercy to them. In spite of being in a spiritual position that his lovers directed toward him with their deepest feelings, he was humble enough to talk to a child. Yet, he was extremely generous but he was also very economical; he would not to go beyond a point where extravagance started. The fact that he had all these characteristics, ethical values and many more like these and that he served as an example in accordance with them can only be explained by being a special human being and a person of duty (prophethood).
Our Prophet (pbuh), who preferred to live a plain life during his life, always refused the worldly promises offered to him again and again such as ranks and fortune in the period of Makkah. He also had an important role for his family and children to keep away from such things which he always kept himself away from. His sensitivity will be understood better about these matters if we look at his family where receiving charities and alms are forbidden and if we look at his daughter Fatimah for whom there was even no permission to wear a necklace. The fact that he did not change after all kinds of achievements, victories and financial possibilities acquired in the period of Madinah shows us the honesty degree of his great and unique ethics. The fact that he did not get confused and that he did not feel conceited and that he finished his duty as he started even after the greatest victories and conquests is a brilliant evidence of his prophethood.
In short, if there had been a lie or a sign of insincerity in his words and behaviors, he would certainly have been unable to hide it in his prophethood period or before the prophethood, and as a result, his opponents seeking for an opportunity would have reached their targets by benefiting from this situation without needing to grab their swords. 
Then, we can easily say that even if he had not shown any miracles, He, himself is a great evidence and witness for his honesty and prophethood.    
c- Revolutions He realized in the history of Humanity
It is impossible to show anybody else who comprehended and raised human beings that are complex creatures and who turned them into exemplary people in history who became pathfinders and teachers for civilized nations.
He is a rightful Prophet sent by God with true messages. The immaculate life that he led and the unique revolution that he realized are sound evidences that he speaks in the name of Allah.
We find it useful to make some remarks about the issue.
How can one suspect of him being a true Prophet? He embraced life at every point and built up a flawless universal system which he commenced with a man, a child, a slave and a woman integrating it into life in a period of twenty-three years, which is actually a really short time. How can one explain the fact that he speaks as an expert at every field gives straight answers and says immortal words despite the fact that he had no pedagogic education, did not graduate from any military school, never got in contact with a telescope or microscope in his life and he was illiterate?
Our Prophet extracted the most valuable guides of humanity out of a society that consisted of stubborn, oppressing and conceited people of the desert where the weak and the poor were kept down and where people were valued by their lineage and tribes. In this very society, interest, black-marketeering and power ruled. How can this situation be explained by anything except for the fact that he is a Prophet.
It is obvious that it is very hard to alter beliefs and habits, especially obsessions rooted in the brain and heart; it is even harder to make people who are over a certain age quit faulty and superstitious beliefs. In our modern world, making someone give up smoking is considered a great success let alone making people quit practices like taking alcohol, prostitution, bribing, defrauding and theft. Although scientist keep telling harms of alcohol, smoking and gambling, people still cannot be persuaded to quit them.
Let us have a look at the century which was completely changed by our Prophet. We witness that although he was not a ruler, which means he did not conduct his mission by force and as a matter of fact he did not have the possibility to do it by forcing people, he removed not one or ten but hundreds of habits and customs in a very short time with very little resources from various tribes and communities that consisted of stubborn, conservative and tradition-addicted people with deeply rooted customs. Moreover, not only did he remove those habits and customs but also he replaced them with features that make a man a real human. Is it not the duty of every single person that knows all of the facts mentioned above to say ’You are the Messenger of Allah’?
While doing all of  these, he did not benefit from intimidating or forcing; instead, he followed a way to conquer their hearts and minds; he persuaded them kindly that actually led them to love this religion. If he had used intimidation and brutal force, it would not have been possible for the religion he brought to reach today. He not only gained the love of his friends with his behavior which consists of tolerance, tenderness and being merciful but he also earned the love of his enemies who fought against him with their swords such as Khalid bin Walid, Wahshi, Abu Sufyan, Hind, Ikrimah and  Safwan.
He is the model for a quarter of the population of the world with the Quran he conveyed to people and with its living interpretation, his Sunnah. Besides, if it is not possible, and it is not possible, to show a second person whose name is heard all over the world five times a day, then, should not one think that this very person can only be a Prophet getting his power from Allah?
d- The news he gave about the past and the future
Only Allah can now ghaib (the unknown, the unseen). The Quran attracts attention to this truth in its many verses. In this respect, our Prophet would not have known about the future events as he was a human being but he knew about the future to the extent that Allah told him. The issue is expressed in a verse as follows;
“He (alone) knows the Unseen, nor does He make any one acquainted with His Mysteries― Except a messenger whom He has chosen”. (Jinn, 72/26-27.)
He did not say anything by himself; what He said was only what God informed him. So, we will assess the news of our Prophet about ghaib in two categories as the future and the past.
a- None of the news he gave using the Quran both about a single person and past nations like Ad, Thamud and Iram has been denied by the archeological and scientific researches carried out for fourteen centuries; on the contrary, they have been confirmed as new discoveries have been made every day. In addition, he not only told us these events as stories of the past but also as exemplary scenes that need to be taken lessons from. How can it be explained that our prophet (pbuh), who was illiterate, assuredly criticized the books of divine origin like the Torah and the Gospel in the presence of the scholars living at that time and the future scholars and confirmed the correct parts of them and corrected the mistakes in them? Only by the fact that he was a prophet.
b- We can mention some of his news about the future here except for those in the Quran: Just before the Battle of Badr, the Prophet showed people the exact death locations of the idolaters such as Abu Jahl, Utba, and Shayba and they died in the exact places that the Prophet showed. He told people that it would be her daughter, Fatima, who would die first after his death in his family and she died six month after the death of the Prophet. When Hassan was a small boy he pointed to him and said, ”This is my son, Hasan; He is a Sayyid and Allah will restore peace between two large groups through him and also it happened exactly. He said that Ammar Bin Yasir was going to be killed during a mischief.  He also said that Ummu Haram who was a relative of him would attend to an expedition and it happened during Cyprus expedition…
There is news of distant future from our Prophet. Since such news require comments and deep thought, this surpasses the capacity of this work.
As a result, There is no way but kneel down in front of this illiterate person once again and say that” You are the Messenger of Allah” as he miraculously narrated it with a perfect style and precision the events that happened centuries ago before his time and also events that will take place in the future.
Miracles That He Showed
Miracle can be defined as a situation or event shown by Allah through His Prophets to support the accuracy of inspiration, strengthen the faith of believers and to break the pertinacity of deniers. We can classify the miracles of our Prophet within two separate groups. The Quran itself and the miracles about those who are created:
a. The Eternal Miracle: The Quran
There is no suspicion that his greatest miracle is the Quran. The Quran, with its ultra modern reality, stands in front of us as evidence that supports the prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh).
The Quran came out in the hands of an illiterate person and the truths it includes do not conflict with each other. As it includes news from the future and the past and refers to some issues about creation, which are some of the miraculous features of the Quran, the things in the Quran are clear evidences of the fact that the Quran is the word of Allah and Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) is a prophet.
Every Prophet showed miracles associated with things which were popular at their time. For instance, during the time of Moses, magic was popular and he came up with a staff that wiped out all other magical things. Around the time of Jesus Christ, medical appliances and medicine were popular. Therefore,he was granted the miracle of healing incurable illnesses and reviving dead people. In the time of our Prophet poetry and being articulate in speech were highly important so he came up with the miraculous Quran as rhetoric would be the most effective and powerful instrument of his time and future. Therefore, our Prophet came with the miracle of the Quran, which silenced all poets, literary men and speech-makers.
b. Other miracles and the issues that should be emphasized about those miracles
Naturally, the miracles associated with our Prophet are not only limited to our Holy Book, the Quran. As he was sent as mercy to all worlds, he showed various miracles about all kinds of creatures and beings. When a sovereign sends his messenger to a country where different nations and communities reside, everyone welcomes this messenger in the name of their nation, tribe or community. In the same way, Our Prophet came to the humanity as a representative and an official. In addition, he was sent to other beings and creatures as a sign of mercy and forgiveness of Allah. That is, all beings gained their true meaning of existence when our Prophet taught humanity that there is only one God. So, all of the beings from angels to jinn, from stars to trees and stones, from animals to plants presented their thanks to him and became tools for the miracles that came out of his hand. Thus, everything became witnesses for the truthfulness of this messenger and declared it to the universe.
The point we are trying to emphasize may be regarded to include exaggerated expressions. At this point, it will be sufficient for us to remind this: it must not be forgotten that the message our Prophet brought, the mercy and forgiveness sent through him are associated with all other universes or dimensions. Based on this, it is reasonable that every dimension of the universe become a scene for those miracles that confirm his prophethood.
One cannot deny a miracle in terms of its probability. Although miracles are shown by prophets, it is Allah who creates them. Nothing is hard or easy for Him. The Quran says “It is Allah who does whatever He wishes to do”. God does things based on laws and reasons as it is a necessity of His Divine Justice. However, He does not have to do things based on reasons. Actually, it is out of question for Allah. So, He shows miracles both to show that He does not have to act based on the laws and  to prevent minds from being caught up by webs of reasons and laws. Thus, He reminds us that His power  is beyond cause and effect and that it is infinite.
All the miracles did not occur in public where everyone could clearly see them. If it had happened this way, there would be no wisdom for the existence of the human mind. In such a situation, human beings would not have their free will and they would be forced to believe, which would not be compatible with the test and trial that they underwent.
Most of the miracles were reported by a community that would not come together to tell lies. Some of the miracles were not reported by a group like the one mentioned above but they are as reliable as those since the other witnesses/sahabas (companions of the Prophet) did not object to them.


43-) Muhammad ( peace be on him)

The salvation according to Our Prophet (pbuh) is winning the pleasure of Allah, fearing of Him, performing the religious obligations, giving up sins. And it is especially to perform the prescribed prayers correctly and with attention and doing his duty. That is to say, acting in accordance with what Allah wanted Him to be like.


44-) What does “The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is a mercy for all beings” mean?

The Holy Qur’an announces that The Prophet Muhammad came as a mercy for all beings. (Al-Anbiyaa Surah, 107) Just as rain is a bounty and is a reason for earth’s revival, likewise, The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) became and still becoming a reason for humanity’s spiritual revival. With the religion he brought, a majority of people became saved from idolatry, savagery, and primitiveness.

Let us have a look at a few events, which show his vast compassion and infinite mercy. For example:

Tufeyl Bin Amr came to the Prophet (PBUH) and said that his tribe rejected to convert to Islam and asked for a curse for his tribe. (The companions of the Prophet (PBUH) knew that if he cursed they would be perished eventually) The Prophet (PBUH) raised his hands and prayed for them as follows:

“O my Lord! Give them guidance, bring them to faith.”

A similar event happened for the tribe of Sakif. In the war, the archers of Sakif tribe caused great casualties for Muslims. Some of the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) said: “O The Prophet of Allah! We are overwhelmed by the arrows of the Sakif tribe.” They asked for a curse for them. Again, The Prophet (PBUH) raised his hands and prayed for them: “O my Lord! Give guidance to Sakif.”

Someone named Himar was an incorrigible alcoholic. He had been punished several times before. When there was a new punishment for him again, someone from the crowd cursed him. The Prophet (PBUH) intervened right away and said “Don’t you say so.” Instead cursing you must say “O Allah Almighty! Pity him, pardon his sins.” Verily what I know about him is he loves both Allah and His Messenger.”

Even those desirous to kill him enjoyed his vast compassion. For example:

While returning after an expedition, The Prophet Muhammad was having some rest under a tree; a primitive polytheist came near him with a sword in his hand. At that moment he would hit him, The Prophet (PBUH) opened his eyes. The polytheist said: “Now who will save you from me?” The Prophet (PBUH) quietly said, “Allah!” Then the polytheist stumbled as if he received a blow from the unseen and had his sword dropped. The Prophet (PBUH) got the sword and asked, “Who now will save you?” The polytheist said, “Nobody.” The Prophet (PBUH) said, “You can go, I forgive you,” then this person became Muslim.

Even animals enjoyed the fact that he is a prophet of mercy. For example:

While The Prophet (PBUH) and his companions were on their way on a campaign, they came across with a gazelle sleeping under a tree. The Prophet warned his companions about not to wake him up, they silently went on their way.

The Prophet announces that a woman will be inflicted upon Divine punishment. This woman locked a cat up somewhere. Neither did she herself give any food to it nor did she let it look for its own food. The cat finally died. The woman will be punished for that.

Some will be admitted into Paradise for a goodness he did for a dog. The Prophet (PBUH) stated that a person going through a desert was rather thirsty. He then came across a well. He went down and drank water to repletion. When he got out of the well, he saw a dog about to die whose tongue was hanging out of its mouth because of thirstiness. He took pity on it. He went down to the well again and brought water in his shoe and had the dog drink it. With this deed, he gained the pleasure of Allah Almighty.

Sadi Eren (Doç.Dr.), 03-4-2006


45-) Why do the calamities that visited on the former communities not happen now?

One of the reasons why this community is not destroyed as a whole and why they are not punished with various severe punishments is that it is the community of the Last Prophet, Muhammad, peace and blessings upon him.

In the verse translated as But God would not punish them so long as you were among them; and God is not to punish them (or other people) while they implore Him for forgiveness for their sins.” (The Qur’an, Al-Anfal 8:33), it is emphasized that Prophet Muhammad is a prophet of mercy.

Allah sent Islam as the last call for all the humanity until the Final Hour. He wants people to believe in Him not out of fear of destruction if they do not believe but because they find it reasonable and because it satisfies their needs.

This Divine Will was contrary to the desires of the idolaters and their wishes could not be accepted quickly. Other than this general principle, there were two other factors which prevented partial or overall destruction and calamity:

  1. The Prophet (PBUH) was among them, in the same community and city.
  2. The idolaters abandoned obstinacy and repented, and they asked for forgiveness by accepting the rightful religion.

 

After the Prophet passed away, as there is always the possibility that either the unbelievers or their offspring can repent and accept belief, “imploring for forgiveness” in the verse has been understood as “the continuous possibility of imploring for forgiveness” as well as the actual one, and based on certain narrations that mention the same issue,  it has accordingly been asserted that punishing with calamities will never take place. (Ibn Kathir, Elmalılı, explanation of the related verse)

However, it is not contrary to this verse, nor to the Divine Will and Justice that the idolaters are punished with partially destructive calamities and in other ways, except for rains of stone or other calamities which would destroy them as a whole. When the Prophet migrated to Madinah, the idolaters lost the first reason for security. What remained was belief and repentance; whoever held onto that, was saved; but those who persisted in unbelief were punished in the world, being defeated, captured, wounded and killed; and they will be punished in the Hereafter, cast into the Hell.

These explanations lead those whose minds are not veiled with prejudice to this conclusion: The Qur’an came from God; there is no need for rains of stone to prove it. However, the disorder of the End of Time, which is an exception, may bring about quite different events.


46-) How is the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) mentioned in Indian holy scriptures? What are the implications for Him (PBUH) in Indian holy scriptures?

The implications in Indian holy scriptures:

In Indian Holy Scriptures such as Paru 8, Khand 8, Adhya 8 and Shalok 5-8, the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned as follows:

“A soul discipliner mellacha (an alien language speaking and an inhabitant of an alien country) named Muhammad will come along with his companions. After his arrival, he washes himself in Raja, Punjab, and Ganges rivers. They say, ‘O you! The pride of mankind, the inhabitant of the land of Arabia, you have gathered a great power to kill the Satan.’ “(Prof. Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah, The interpretation of The Holy Quran)

It is quite striking that the name of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is stated exactly in the statement above. The words ‘the pride of mankind’, which are mentioned in the same line are of the same meaning as the name of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), which is fakhr al-alam (the pride of realms).

Gautama Buddha speaks of an elevated person who will honor the world after his death. The name of this person is matteya in Palice language, maitreya in the Sanskrit language, armidia in the Burmese language and this person will be mild-tempered and kind-hearted and call people to the right path. The meaning of the names that are mentioned in the news given by Buddha a long time ago is “mercy”. As it is known, the Quran states the following for the Prophet Muhammad in verse 107 of the chapter al-Anbiya: “We sent thee not save as a mercy for the peoples.

The following is stated in one of the manuscripts:

“Buddha said: ‘I am not the first buddha (guide) to come to the world, and will not be the last either. At a certain time, another person will come to the world. He is also blessed, enlightened and someone extremely able in management. He will teach you the same eternal truths as I taught you.’ Ananda asked, ‘How will he be known?’ Buddha answered: ‘He will be known as maitreya (mercy).’”

In Pali and Sanskrit manuscripts, the name of this blessed person is mentioned as Maho, Maha, and Metta. The first two mean “great illuminator” and the last “gracious”, all of which are the attributes of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). If it is examined carefully, it will be seen that the names Mohamet and Mahamet, which indicate the original name of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), are derived from the words maha and metta.

Let us carry on our research on the Torah (Old Testament), the Gospel (New Testament), and the Psalms. The most extensive research ever conducted on this point belongs to Husayn al-Jisri. This Syrian scholar, who lived between 1261-1327 H and whose parents were descendants from the family of the Prophet Muhammad, took out 114 signs from the holy books in question in relation to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and published them in his book entitled Risala al-Hamidiyya.

Even in the Torah, which has the property of being the most distorted one of the old Holy Scriptures, the following signs with regard to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) are present:

“When he sees riders, horsemen in pairs, riders on donkeys, riders on camels, let him listen diligently, very diligently.”(Isaiah xxı, 7)

One of the two riders announced by the Prophet Isaiah (pbuh), who was riding a donkey here, is Jesus (pbuh) because Jesus (pbuh) entered Jerusalem on the back of a donkey. It is clear that the one on the back of a camel is the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). He entered Madinah on the back of a camel.

By the way, let us state here that in Bible translations, the words faraklit or pharaklit (perikletos) have been kept as they are whereas in recent translations, in Arabic translations, this word is translated as muazzi (comforter).

In the scripture of Shuayb (Jethro), the name of the Prophet Muhammad is mentioned as Mushaffah, which exactly means “Muhammad”.  Munhamanna, which is mentioned in the Torah, is the literal equivalent of Muhammad. (As it is known, the lexical meaning of Muhammad is the one praised many times) Apart from them, the name of Muhammad is mentioned as Ahyed in the Torah, Ahmad in the Bible.

We finish the issue with a hadith. “My name is Muhammad in the Quran, Ahmad in the Bible, and Ahyed in the Torah.

For information, see Doğu Kutsal Metinlerinde Hz. Muhammed (Zerdüşt, Hindu, Budist), A. H. Vidyarthi; Translated by: Kemal Karataş, İnsan Yayınları; İstanbul, 1997.


47-) How was the Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) way of conveying of the message and summoning men to the truth?

A Muslim is responsible for practicing the right Islam, and live the honesty that is worthy of Islam. Besides, if he lives Islam and acts in accordance with Islam, it is a form of tabligh (conveying Islam). Therefore, it is necessary to live in the community and serve as a good example.

Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation, and argue with them in the best way possible. Your Lord surely knows best who has gone astray from His way, and He knows best who are the rightly guided.” (An-Nahl, 125)

Taking that verse and similar verses as examples, our Prophet guided believers through knowledge and wisdom and based that guidance upon proofs.

He demonstrated no mark of anger and violence in his guidance. He welcomed his addressees and advised them with mercy and compassion. He always preferred being soft-spoken while conveying the truth. With great patience and understanding, he removed doubts and scruples that occurred in people’s minds. He held his addressees in esteem and spoke to them eloquently in order to convince them. He (PBUH) even welcomed questions that were irrelevant to the point with smile and took them seriously. The most important reason for his influence over people was his pardoning people’s faults and forgiving them. During the Conquest of Makkah, he pardoned even the assassin of his own uncle and others who killed or set assassins to kill his companions. On that day, he had the complete power. He could have punished them as he wished.

Thus, with such great and high qualities, he had an influence over the souls of people around him, enabled them to develop themselves spiritually, and aroused their hidden capacities. He made them stars of the space of humanity. He removed the fogs of ignorance that veiled that century. He changed the shape of the world. He had some virtuous qualities such as justice, love, solidarity put into practice. He introduced curing treatments for all ailments that threatened personal and social life and cured all humanity with the permission of Allah.

The way of tabligh is the way of “weakness, poverty, compassion and contemplation”. It is the cause of saving the belief of people. It is the cause of removing people from the terrifying mischiefs of the end of time and directing them towards high ideals. It is the cause of rescuing mankind from the soul, the devil and the influence of the extremely degenerated sociological atmosphere and making mankind aware of the pleasure of being a slave of Allah. If a man can attain that high ideal as a result of divine grace, the first thing he should do is to confess his weakness and poverty in managing that difficult task and to rely on the power and mercy of his Lord.

Weakness and poverty are two personal characteristics of a slave, the most apparent properties of man. As a matter of fact, we take shelter in the Lord of the worlds by saying “Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek” when reciting Chapter al-Fatiha and ask his help in our tasks whether they are related to this world or the hereafter.  Although the soldiers of the service of belief and the Quran do their best to make guidance grow in the hearts of people, they beg Allah with weakness and poverty because they know that they cannot obtain that great outcome through their own effort and power. 

The third step is to feel pity for disobedient and sinning people who prepare themselves for Hell, and to rush to help them with the sensitivity of a doctor and the compassion of a mother. And the fourth step is to carry out those activities with wisdom.  

The great ideal expressed in this couplet by the Turkish national poet, the late Mehmet Akif,

“We should take inspiration directly from the Quran, and make the intellect of the age pronounce Islam.”

is realized in Risale-i Nur Collection. In the market of this age, which is full of questions, only a collection that can appeal both to the mind and the heart, that makes its cause loved by others and that proves it can be in the demand; and it has been in demand.

The first of those determinations teaches us that the most important condition of conveying Islam to both our citizens and to the world is being equipped with the high ethics of the Quran. The other determines that it is necessary to develop economically in order to convey the truths of Islam to the needy. 

We should try to cure those two illnesses by admitting that we have them. If we ignore it and rely on transient and indecisive political formulas, we will continue to drag behind and we will face the responsibility of being a veil and barrier preventing the message of Islam from being conveyed to needy hearts. 

Each Muslim must do his duty. The position of a man in a community imposes him some responsibilities. Each Muslim is responsible in accordance with his position. We can look at the issue in the light of the following hadith:

“If you see an evil, correct it with your hand; if you cannot correct it with your hand, correct it with your tongue (words); if you cannot do it either, feel that it is wrong in your heart.”

Not everybody can interpret that hadith on his own. For instance, if we see an evil on the way and try to correct it and harm a person and if that person files a lawsuit against us, we will be punished. Then, how should we understand the meaning of the hadith?

To correct with the hand is the duty of the people who have the authority, that is the duty of the state and security forces; to correct with the tongue is the duty of scholars; and to feel that it is wrong in the heart is the duty of the rest.

Therefore, first of all, a Muslim must live Islam truly. Then, he should inform others about Islam using a soft and sweet tongue if he does not harm Islam. Then, he should leave the outcome to Allah.

A person who wants to grow trees pays attention to the following: The seed needs to be improved, the field needs to be suitable for seeding, the time should be appropriate and the person to sow the seeds should be an expert. If a person who is not good at sowing sows spoiled seeds in a hard and unsuitable field at an inappropriate time, everything will go down the drain. When an expert gardener does his duty, he does not go into the field in order to grow flowers and roses and turn them into trees. He does his duty and then leaves the outcome to Allah. 

Similarly, it is necessary to live and tell people about the real Islam and the honesty worthy of Islam. To describe the thoughts and ideas that are contrary to Islam as Islam will harm both Islam and the person who describes and the person to whom it is described.

The needy hearts into whom the seeds of Islam will be sowed should be ready for it. Sometimes it becomes harmful to tell people who are not ready yet about Islam.

In addition, the time of tabligh is also important. The environment, the mood of the person, his expectations, etc are also important. The seed that is not sown in its true season may be lost.

On the other hand, the person who conveys the message of Islam should be equipped with the ways and methods of conveying it without offending anyone and by presenting it in a nice way. He should be competent like a specialist.

A Muslim who has those qualities leaves it to Allah to grow the roses of belief and Islam in people’s hearts after fulfilling his duty. He does not intervene in the duty of Allah.


48-) Did the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) know about the future?

Hz. Prophet is a human being like us in terms of humanity. He eats, drinks and is affected by heat and cold. He does not know what will happen tomorrow and in the future. As a matter of fact, the Prophet intervened when female slaves recited the following line during a wedding and prohibited them from reciting things like that: “There is someone among us; he knows what will happen tomorrow.” (Bukhari, Maghazi, 12) The following reminder of Hz. Aisha, the wife of the Prophet, is important:

A person who says, ‘the Prophet informs people about what will happen tomorrow’ will be regarded to have slandered Allah.” (Bukhari, Tawhid, 4)

As a matter of fact, the following sentence of the Prophet mentioned in the Quran expresses this issue clearly: “…Nor do I know what is hidden.” (al-An’am, 50) The following is also uttered by him to confirm the issue:

If I had knowledge of the unseen, I should have multiplied all good, and no evil should have touched me.” (al-Araf, 188)

The tragedies of Bi’r Mauna and Raji prove it. When the Prophet fulfilled the wish of the tribes who said, "Send us some people to teach us Islam", he did not know that many estimable Companions would be killed in those two incidents. (Bukhari, Maghazi, 28)

Acting upon the verse, "I tell you not that with me are the Treasures of Allah, nor do I know what is hidden." (al-Anam, 50), some people claim "Hz. Prophet did not inform people about the unknown. Sentences like 'this and that will happen in the future' claimed to be uttered by him were made up by others in the course of time. However, if they had read the Quran carefully, they would not have claimed something like that. Hz. Prophet himself does not know the unknown but Allah informs him about it and he informs his umma about it.

Qadi Baydawi, whose tafsir was read in religious schools as a textbook for centuries, interpreted the verse, "nor do I know what is hidden" as "nor do I know what is hidden unless I am sent revelation and given some evidence." (Baydawi, I, 380)

We find it useful to attract attention to the two different personalities of Hz. Prophet, which are different from each other.

1. Human aspect
2. Prophetic aspect


Hz. Prophet is a human being like us in terms of human aspect. He eats, drinks and is affected by heat and cold. He does not know what will happen tomorrow and in the future. In terms of his prophetic aspect, he receives revelation. He is like a receiver for the messages coming from Allah. Although he makes small mistakes called "dhalla", he is directed by revelation.

For instance, the Prophet gave permission to the hypocrites (munafiqs) who did not want to take part in the Battle of Tabuk. He is addressed as follows in the verses: "Allah give thee grace! Why didst thou grant them exemption..." (at-Tawba, 43)

Abdullah B. Maktum is a blind person. Once, he heard the Messenger of Allah informing the leading polytheists of Makkah about Islam; he went over to the Messenger of Allah and said to him, "O Messenger of Allah! Teach me some of what Allah taught you." The Prophet did not want to talk to him at that time. He grimaced and turned his face away from Abdullah B. Maktum. He found it more appropriate to talk to the polytheists. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah was informed that what he did was wrong and was warned not to behave like that again by the first verses of the chapter of "Abasa".  

One of the most distinct examples of the human aspect of the Prophet is seen in the following incident:

When Hz. Prophet arrived in Madinah, he saw that the people of Madinah were cross-pollinating the date palms. He said, "In my opinion, you should not do like that." Thereupon, they stopped pollinating but the yield decreased. When the Messenger of Allah was informed about the situation, he said, "I am only a human being. When I command you with something regarding your religion, accept it. When I command you with something from my own opinion, know that I am only a human being. You know worldly affairs better than me." (Muslim, Fadail, 140-141)

By the way, it is necessary to state the following: Being a human is not a deficiency for the Prophet; on the contrary, it is perfection. If he had been an angel and not a human being, he could not have been a leader or a guide for human beings.

For instance, if the Prophet had made a judgment regarding the defendant and the plaintiff that came to him based on his knowledge about the unknown, he would not have set an example for us. However, he stated the following: "You come to meas a plaintiff and a defendant. One of you might explain his cause better and I might make a judgment in favor of him. If I make a judgment in favor of a person like that, he should know that I will give him a piece of fire.” (Bukhari, Shahadat, 27)

The Companions were able to differentiate between the human and prophetic aspect of the Prophet. For instance, before the Battle of Badr, the Messenger of Allah was positioning the army somewhere; Hubab B. Mundhir said, "O Messenger of Allah! Instead of positioning the army here, it would more advantageous to block the waters, if it is not something that has been revealed to you." Hz. Prophet regarded what Hubab said as appropriate and acted accordingly. (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, II, 272)

As it is seen, both the Messenger of Allah and his Companions were able to differentiate between his human and prophetic aspects.

The Prophetic Aspect of Hz. Prophet

The Messenger of Allah receives some secrets about the unknown in terms of his prophetic aspect. The greatest evidence about it is the Quran. We see many examples of it in the Quran. For instance, the Prophet was informed while returning from Hudaybiya what kinds of excuses the hypocrites who did not take part in the Hudaybiya would make up in the chapter of al-Fath: 

"The desert Arabs who lagged behind will say to thee: "We were engaged in (looking after) our flocks and herds, and our families; do thou then ask forgiveness for us." They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts." (al-Fath, 11).


A similar case is seen regarding those who did not take part in the Expedition of Tabuk: "(They will present their excuses to you when ye return to them. Say thou: "Present no excuses: we shall not believe you: Allah hath already informed us of the true state of matters concerning you." (at-Tawba, 94).

Similarly, the Prophet is informed about some states of the hypocrites through revelation: 

"They have "Obedience" on their lips; but when they leave thee, a section of them meditate all night on things very different from what thou tellest them." (an-Nisa, 81).

"There is the type of man whose speech about this world's life may dazzle thee and he calls Allah to witness about what is in his heart; yet is he the most contentious of enemies. When he turns his back his aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and cattle." (al-Baqara, 204-205).

The following event, which is called the incident of Masjid Dirar, confirms the knowledge about the unknown sent to the Prophet:

Abu Amir, was a clergyman who chose Christianity as his religion before the Prophet came to Madinah. When the Messenger of Allah came to Madinah, his leadership and sovereignty ended; so, he became an enemy of the Prophet. He acted together with the polytheists. After the defeat of Hunayn, he fled to Damascus. Then, he sent a message to the hypocrites of Madinah: "Bear arms as much as you can. Build a temple for me. I am going to the Byzantine Kaiser. I will return with a big army and I will drive away Muhammad and his friends." The hypocrites built a mosque and invited the Prophet to open it. While the Messenger of Allah was getting ready to go, the following verses informed the Messenger of Allah about the situation:

"And there are those who put up a mosque by way of mischief and infidelity― to disunite the Believers and in preparation for one who warred against Allah and His Messenger aforetime. They will indeed swear that their intention is nothing but good; but Allah doth declare that they are certainly liars. Never stand thou forth therein.!..." (at-Tawba, 107-108)

The following verse is the clearest evidence that the Prophet receives some unknown knowledge through divine revelation:

"When the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his consorts, and she then divulged it (to another) and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed part thereof and repudiated a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said, "Who told thee this?" He said "He told me who knows and is well-acquainted (with all things)." (at-Tahrim, 3)

We understand from the narration mentioned in Bukhari that these two wives of the Messenger of Allah are Hz. Hafsa and Hz.Aisha. (Bukhari, Tafsir, 66/3)

The reason why the chapter of al-Mumtahina was sent down is an example of an instruction the Messenger of Allah received about the unknown.  

The chapter that starts with the verse "O ye who believe! Take not My enemies and yours as friends (or protectors)" was sent down due to Hatib B. Abi Baltaa:

Hatib, who was one of the warriors at the Battle of Badr, gave a letter to a woman called  Sara, who came from Madinah to Makkah. It is written in the letter that the Prophet is preparing to conquer Makkah. While the woman was going to Makkah, Hz. Jibril (Gabriel) informed the Messenger of Allah about the situation. The Messenger of Allah called some of his Companions and said to them, "You will find a woman going to Makkah in such and such a place. She has the letter of Hatib on her. Take the letter from her and bring it to me; let the woman go on." They went and found the woman. The woman denied having a letter at first but she had to give the letter she had hidden among her hair.

The Messenger of Allah summoned Hatib and asked him why he had done it. Hatib said, "O Messenger of Allah! I did not exit my religion after I became a Muslim. All of the Makkan muhajirs have some people to protect their families in Makkah but I have nobody. My family is among them. I wanted to help my family. I know that Allah will punish the Makkans. My letter will not eliminate this punishment." (Bukhari, Tafsir, 60/1)

Hz. Prophet informs about things that happen at his time

The Messenger of Allah informed about some unknown events like "the creation of the world, stories of the previous ummas and the future of Islam and Muslims" through the Quran. In addition, he mentioned the events that will take place both during his time and after him.

-During a battle, a person called Quzman was fighting bravely among Muslims. When the Messenger of Allah was told about his courage, he said, "This man is a person of Hell." The Companions were astonished to hear it. When the battle ended, Quzman was seriously injured. They said to him, "It is time to rejoin Allah." Quzman said, "I have not fought for Allah."  After a while, he committed suicide because he could not put up with the pains of his wounds. Thus, the sentence of the Messenger of Allah, "This man is a person of Hell" was understood. (Bukhari, Maghazi, 38)

-Huzayfa's mother rebuked her son because he did not invite the Prophet. Her son apologized. He said he would go to the Messenger of Allah and ask for forgiveness. Huzayfa stayed with the Prophet from the evening prayer to the night prayer. He followed the Prophet, who left the mosque after the prayer. When the Messenger of Allah saw Huzayfa, he said, "O Huzayfa! May Allah forgive you and your mother." (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 31)

-One day before the Battle of Badr, Hz. Prophet told his Companions which leader of the unbelievers would die in which place one by one. (Muslim, Jannah, 76)

-When the Negus, the Abyssinian king, died, the Prophet said to his Companions, "One of your brothers died today. Let us perform his prayer." They stood up and performed his janazah prayer. (Bukhari, Janaiz, 55)

-Hz. Prophet told his Companions in Madinah about the battle in a place called Muta between 3000 Companions and the Byzantine army, which consisted of more than one hundred thousand soldiers. The Prophet told his friends in tears that Hz.Zayd, Hz. Jafar, and Hz. Abdullah B. Rawaha were martyred and that Hz. Khalid b. Walid took the standard. (Bukhari, Janaiz,4)

When today's means are considered, it is easier to understand how the Prophet informed about something that happened in another part of the world. An incident that happens in a remote part of the world is broadcast through radios and televisions live. It is not strange that the heart of a great person is informed about these incidents with the permission of Allah. 

The Messenger of Allah attracts attention to his difference through the following words:

"I can see what you cannot see and hear what you do not hear." (Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 19)

 Hz. Prophet informs about what will happen in the future

There are many incidents about which Hz. Prophet mentions related to the future. We will mention some of them especially those that are related to today with short interpretations:

-Hz.Huzayfa narrates: "Once the Messenger of Allah stood up and told us about the things that would happen until Doomsday. Some of our friends memorized them and some of them forgot. I remember the things that I forgot when they happen. It is just like not remembering someone when he is absent and recognizing him when he appears..." (Tirmidhi, Fitan, 23)

-Another narration from Hz. Huzayfa: The Messenger of Allah said, "...There will not be almost anybody left to fulfill the duty. People will say, "There is one reliable person in such and such a tribe." They will say for a person who does not have even the slightest degree of faith, "He is such a clever and graceful person." (Bukhari, Fitan, 13)

Hz. Huzayfa, who narrated the hadiths above, said: "I did not use tocare about whom I did business with because if the person I did business with was a Muslim, I regarded him as reliable. If he was a Christian, his administrator would give me my right. However, today I do business with such and such people only."

-In a hadith, Hz. Prophet attracts attention to the following five things:

1- When prostitution is committed openly in a community, plague (epidemics) and unprecedented diseases will occur.   

2- When they measure and weigh wrongly, they will suffer from famine and financial difficulties; they will be governed by cruel administrators.

3- They will be deprived of rain because they do not pay zakah. If there were no animals, they would not be sent any rain.

4- Allah will send them enemies from outside because they do not fulfill the duty given to them by Allah and His Messenger. Those enemies will capture some of their property.  

5- Allah will cause mischief among them because their administrator do not judge by and prefer what Allah sent down.” (Ibn Majah, Fitan, Hadith No: 4259)

We can see in the first item that diseases like AIDS, which is seen in the Western communities where prostitution is committed openly, will emerge and in the fifth item that our community has internal mischief and troubles for years.

-"Before Doomsday, there will be mischief like the darkness of the night. During the mischief, a person will wake up as a believer but will go to bed as an unbeliever or will go to bed as a believer and wake up as an unbeliever." (Abu Dawud, Malahim, Hadith No:4297) "A person will sell his religion in return for worldly interests." (Tirmidhi, Fitan, 23)

-Once the Messenger of Allah said to the people around him, "The people will soon summon one another to attack you as people when eating invite others to share their dish." A Companion asked: "Will that be because of our small numbers at that time?" The Messenger of Allah replied: "No, you will be numerous at that time: but you will be scum and rubbish like that carried down by a torrent, and Allah will take fear of you from the breasts of your enemy and last enervation into your hearts." A Companion asked: What is wahn (enervation)?" The Messenger of Allah answered: "Love of the world and dislike of death." (Abu Dawud, Malahim, Hadith No: 4297)

Today, the Islamic world with a population of more than one billion is experiencing the state mentioned in the hadith above. The Europeans who were very scared in the past when someone said, "the Ottomans are coming" can direct us as they wish today. 

The following hadith informs us that there will be some people among this umma who will follow the way of non-Muslims and imitate them:

"You will follow and imitate those who lived before you in every detail. Even if they enter a lizard hole, you will enter, too." The Companions asked, "O Messenger of Allah! Will we follow Jews and Christians?" The Prophet said, "Who else will you follow? (You will definitely follow them)." (Ibn Majah, Fitan, Hadith No: 3994)

"The firstsign of Doomsday is a fire that drags people from the east to the west." (Bukhari, Fitan, 24)

This hadith seems to indicate imitating the West. When we say the WEST, we understand Europe and America; similarly, when they say the EAST, they understand the Islamic world. Our nation has not been able to get rid of the admiration and love of the West that started in the last period of the Ottoman State with the Edict of Gülhane yet. There are some people among us who say, "Down with America" but actually shout, "Long live America" with the American jeans and shoes they wear and the American Marlboro they smoke.

As Badiuzzaman Said Nursi said at the beginning of the 20th century, "We do not act on our own; we act indirectly. Europe plays and we sing." This state is still valid. We do not do things on our own; others make us act. Europe directs us as it wishes.


49-) Was the light (nur) of our prophet created before lawh al-mahfuz (the preserved tablet) was created, or was it the light of our prophet that was created first?

We can find the information to shed light on the issue in the following hadith:

Hazrat Jabir narrates: “O Messenger of Allah! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, Will you tell me the first thing that Allah created?  He answered: “O Jabir! The thing that Allah created first is the light of your prophet. Nothing existed then. Lawh did not exist then; nor did the pen, Paradise or fire/Hell.  Angels did not exist then; nor did the sky, the earth, the sun, jinn or people.

When Allah wanted to create the creatures, He divided that light into four parts. He created the pen from the first part, Lawh al-Mahfuz from the second part and the Throne from the third part. He divided the fourth part into four again. He created the carriers of the Throne from the first part, the Chair from the second part and the other angels from the third part. He divided the fourth part into four again. He created the skies from the first part, the earth from the second part and Paradise and Hell from the third part. He divided the fourth part into four again. He created the believers’ light of foresight/consciousness of belief from the first part, the light of the hearts – which consisted of  marifatullah  (the knowledge of Allah) –  from the second part and the light of friendship (the light of La ilaha illallah Muhammadu’rrasulullah), which consisted of oneness from the third part.” (See Imam Ahmad, Musnad IV-127; Hakim, Mustadrak II-600/4175; Ibn Hibban, Al Ihsan XIV-312/6404; Qastalani, Mawahibu'l-Ladunniyya: 1/6; cf Ajluni, I/262-6)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated the following in a sacred hadith: "ALLAH : “I created you from my light and other things from your light.”" . (Imam Ahmad, Musnad IV-127; Hakim, Mustadrak II-600/4175; Ibn Hibban, Al Ihsan XIV-312/6404; Ajluni, Kashfu'l-Khafa I-265/827)

for more information please click on the links given below;

What is the first thing that God Almighty created?

What does Nur al-Muhammadi (Light of Muhammad) mean?

What does the Holy hadith ?But for thee, the dearest, I would not have created the skies (universe)? mean?


50-) Can Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) see his Ummah (community) at the moment? Does He become sad for the bad deeds of his Ummah, and become happy for their good deeds?

It is of course wrong to think that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) can “know or see everything” because, knowing and seeing everything only belongs to Allah (SWT). No prophets have such an authorization or power during their lives or after their deaths.

However, with the permission of Allah, our beloved prophet (PBUH) saw and informed many different things than ordinary people. Hundreds of sound news that are present in true sources about Ghayb (the unknown) is a proof of this.

In this context, we can see that there is information that the deeds of Hz. Muhammad’s Ummah (community) are shown to him. For example;

Narrated by Abdullah b. Masud, our prophet said the following:

It is a true that Allah has angels who wander and bring the Salam (salawat) of my Ummah to me. My life is beneficial for you since you can communicate with me directly and I communicate with you by answering your questions and solving your problems. My death is also beneficial for you too; since your deeds are shown to me; when I see your good deeds, I praise Allah (SWT). When I see your bad deeds, I demand forgiveness from Allah for you (Ajluni, 1/368).

Hafız Haythami, said that the hadith narrated by Bazzar is true. (See. Majmauz-zawaid, 9/24/ h. no: 14250)

The expression, “when I see your good deeds, I praise Allah” shows that our Prophet rejoices when we do good deeds; and the expression, “when I see your bad deeds, I ask for your forgiveness from Allah” shows that he feels sad due to our bad deeds but that he prays Allah for their forgiveness.

The following words of Said Nursi enlighten the issue as follows:

…Thus, it is through this mystery that the Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him), whose essence is light and nature, luminous, in this world hears at the same time all the benedictions recited for him by all his community, and at the resurrection will meet with all the purified at the same time. One will not be an obstacle to another. (The Words/Sixteenth Word/The First Ray)

I f y o u s a y : Since he is God’s Beloved, what need does he have of all these blessings and supplications?

T h e A n s w e r : This Being (PBUH) is connected with the happiness of all his community and shares in every sort of the happiness of each member of it, and he is anxious at every sort of their tribulations. Although in regard to himself the degrees of happiness and perfection are endless, since he desires ardently the numberless kinds of happiness of the numberless members of his community for an unlimited time, and is saddened at the numberless kinds of their wretchedness, he is surely worthy and needy for endless blessings and supplications and mercy. (The Letters)


51-) What are the miracles about the protection of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)?

Traditionists, primarily Bukhari and Muslim, report from Aisha that after the verse, "And Allah will defend you from men." (al-Maeda; 5:70) had been revealed, Allah's Messenger said to those who had guarded him from time to time: "O men, leave me! For Allah, the Great and Mighty, protects me."

Indeed, once Allah's Messenger was appointed by Allah, he challenged all rulers and all religions. With his uncle and his tribe as the greatest enemies, the fact that he was able to take his last breath in his own bed and reach the highest place of the incorporeal abode after twenty-three years with neither guard nor means of protection in the face of numerous plots against him shows how sound a truth the verse "And Allah will defend you from men." indicates.   

 We will relate a few definite events as examples in this connection.

1. When Allah's Messenger, together with Abu Bakr, took shelter in the cave of Hira in order to be safe from the unbelievers who were in pursuit of them, two pigeons stood guard at the entrance like two sentries, and a spider, like a doorkeeper, covered the entrance of the cave with a thick web.

As Ubayy b. Khalaf, one of the heads of the Quraish, who was killed by Allah's Messenger in the Battle of Badr, was examining the cave. His friends said: “Let’s enter the cave” He replied, "How shall we enter? This web seems to have been spun before Muhammad was born, and there are two pigeons standing there. Would they still be there if someone were in the cave?"

2. It is certainly known that as Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr were going towards Madinah after leaving the cave of Hira, the heads of Quraish sent a man named Suraqa to try to assassinate them, paying him a considerable amount of money. Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr saw that Suraqa was coming. As Abu Bakr showed anxiety, Allah's Messenger said, as he had done in the cave, "Do not be sad; Allah is certainly with us." (at-Tawbah; 9:40). He then cast a glance at Suraqa, and his horse's feet became stuck in the sand. Some time later, he slipped out of the sand and began to follow them anew, but he soon became stuck again and saw smoke coming out of where his horse's feet were thrust. Seeing that it was far beyond anyone's ability to lay hands on Allah's Messenger, he had to ask for help. Allah's Messenger freed him, saying, "Go back, and make sure no one else comes."

3. Another certain event is also reported in relation to that incident. When a shepherd saw Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakr, he immediately went to Makkah in order to inform Quraishis, but when he arrived there, he forgot what he had come for. Tried as he might, he could not remember his intention, so he had to turn back. He later realized that he had been made to forget.

4. During the battle of Ghatfan and Anmar, the courageous head of a tribe named Ghuras stealthily approached Allah's Messenger, and holding his sword over the Prophet's head, asked,

"Who will save you from me?" Allah's Messenger replied,

 "Allah!" and prayed, "O Allah, protect me from him with something You know." Suddenly, Ghuras was fallen by a blow he received between his shoulders, and his sword slipped out of his hand. Allah's Messenger took the sword and asked him,

 "Now who will save you from me?" but then he forgave Ghuras and allowed him to return to his tribe. His men were all surprised at such a courageous man having failed to do anything.

They asked, "What happened to you, why couldn't you do anything?" He told them what had happened, and added,

 "I am now coming from the presence of the best of men."

An important inspector appointed by a ruler is recognized by every department of the administration and is connected with each of them, because he has a duty to perform on behalf of the ruler. Similarly, all beings that exist in the departments of this Divine Kingdom, from angels to insects and spiders, know him, recognize him, or have been informed about him. So, he is the Messenger of the Lord of the worlds and the Seal of the Prophets.


52-) Can you give information about whether the Sunnah is binding, it should be accepted as a mode and it is based on revelation or not?

What is the Sunnah?

The Sunnah is what the Prophet did, said and all of his acts and attitude. Then, we can say that what he did during his lifetime is the Sunnah. 

The word sunnah used in fiqh books means “there is reward if we do it but there is no sin if we do not do it.” For instance, eating with the right hand, cleaning the teeth, not to eat while standing, etc.

However, when we consider the word sunnah in its broad sense, it includes everything that our Prophet did. In that case, the wishes and prohibitions of Allah are also included in the Sunnah. For instance, did our Prophet perform prayers? Yes. Then it is sunnah to perform prayers. 

Accordingly, it is necessary to divide sunnah into parts.

Fard: Everything that Allah definitely wants us to do or to avoid. It is our Prophet who carries out the commands and prohibitions of Allah in the best way and who serves as an example. We should follow him in order to carry out the commands and prohibitions of Allah. Such as performing prayers, fasting, avoiding fornication and not eating anything haram (forbidden).

Wajib: The wajibs of our religions: for instance, it is wajib to perform the prayer of witr as three rakats.

Nafilah: The things other than fard and wajib that we carry out while performing prayers. For instance, to read some verses from the Quran while performing prayers is fard but to read subhanaka prayer is nafilah.

Adab: If we do as the Prophet did while doing our daily tasks like eating, sleeping, entering the mosque or toilet, etc, we will have done them in accordance with their procedures. A person who does not act accordingly is not regarded to have committed sins.

It means we can divide sunnah as fard, wajib, nafilah and adab. It is the order of the superiority of the parts of sunnah.

We can think of it like a human body. Man has necessary organs to live: for instance, the brain, heart, head, etc. The principles that we must believe in are like the heart and brain of our spirit.

Our body has sense organs like eyes, ears, hands, feet, etc. Fards are like them. They are the eyes, ears, hands and feet of our spirit. A person who does not perform fards is like a person without hands, feet, eyes and ears. 

We also have some beauties and adornments like fingers, eyebrows and hair in our bodies. We can live without them. However, if we have them, we will be perfect. Similarly, the nafilah and adab parts of sunnah are the adornments and beauties of our spirit. If we perform them, we will receive many rewards; if we do not perform them, we will not receive any sins. 

To sum up, the fard and wajib parts are the sunnahs that are obligatory to be performed. We will receive many rewards if we perform the nafilah and adab parts.

As for harams, we must protect our spirits from killing and poisoning harams as we protect our bodies from killing factors like aids, poison and fire.

Are the Sunnah and hadiths binding?

Does the Sunnah, the life of our Prophet bind Muslims; do they have to follow it?

We will deal with that issue in accordance with hadiths and the views of scholars. 

1. The Quran: There are some verses showing that Hazrat Prophet receives revelation other than the Quran (1) too.

Some of them are as follows:

1- It is understood from the following verses that our Prophet was given wisdom along with the Book: ‘Messenger from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom’, (2) ‘sent down to him the Book and wisdom’, (3).

Those two words have both similarity and difference. Accordingly, since what is meant by the Book is the Quran, wisdom has to be something else. The probability that it is the Sunnah prevails.(4) It is the point of difference. The point of similarity is that both of them originate from revelation.(5)

2- The promise stated in the following verse was given to Muslims but it is not stated in the verse what it was: “Behold! Allah promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours” (6). It proves that it is informed through another kind of revelation.

3- The following verse proves definitely that there exists revelation apart from the Quran:  “When the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his consorts, and she then divulged it (to another) and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed part thereof and repudiated a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said "Who told thee this?" He said "He told me who knows and is well-acquainted (with all things)."”(7) Although there is no explanation about the disclosure of the secret in the Quran, the Prophet knows about it. It becomes clear that there exists revelation which is not included in the Quran since he cannot know it on his own and since it is stated that Allah informed him.    

2. Hadiths:

1- According to the narration of Miqdad b. Ma’dikarib, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said the following: “...I was given the Book and the like of it”.(8)

2- Qudsi Hadiths: (9) The following phrases that are present in those kinds of hadiths: “the Messenger of Allah stated the following in the hadith that he reported from his Lord”, “Allah stated the following in the hadith that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) narrated” and the fact that those hadiths started with the words “O my slaves” prove that Hazrat Prophet received revelation other than the Quran.

3- The famous event that is known as the Jibril (Gabriel) hadith:(10).  Jibril came in the form of a man, asked some questions and received answers; Hazrat Prophet told his companions that it was Jibril and that he had come to teach them the religion.

4- The expressions of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) like ‘certainly my Lord revealed to me, (11) I was ordered, I was forbidden, (12) and the fact that he said Jibril taught him some things (13)  prove that revelation exists other than the Quran too.(14)

The fact that Hazrat Prophet said “actually I did not know about them but Allah informed me about them” when he answered the questions of a Jewish person ”(15) supports that issue.

3. Views of the Scholars:

The Companions of the Prophet knew that our Prophet (pbuh) received revelation other than the Quran from his practices, explanations and words. They expressed it many times. Scholars also expressed their views about the origin of Sunnah based on hadiths and the expressions of the companions; most of them expressed that the source of Sunnah was based on revelation.

Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said that there was revelation about Hazrat Khadija and that she was given a manor in Paradise. 

The expression that is present in narrations: Jibril brought down the Sunnah as he brought down the Quran shows that there exists revelation other than the Quran. (16) In addition, the fact that the Prophet received the information like treating the neighbors well, making wudu (ablution), performing prayers, calling out the talbiya, performing prayers in the sacred Aqiq Valley, the times of the prayers, the gate of paradise through which the umma of Muhammad will enter, the name of Hazrat Hamza (may Allah be pleased with him) being written on a tablet by the beings of the sky  (17) shows that there exists revelation other than the Quran.

Tawus says that he himself has a written text that was sent by revelation about diyah (blood money, ransom) and that decrees about zakat and diyah came by revelation. (18)

By saying, “when a hadith from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) reaches you, never make judgments contrary to it; because the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was a conveyor from Allah, the Exalted” (19), Awzai stated that sunnah was based on revelation.

As we have mentioned before, a person who made important explanations about the issue was Imam Shafi.(20) According to the understanding that he bases on a person whose knowledge he relies on and that he himself also accepts, the Sunnah is either revelation, or the statement of the revelation or something that Allah handed him. It is based on his prophethood that is peculiar to him and the wisdom that Allah inspires him based on it. No matter which one of the above alternatives is accepted, Allah ordered people to obey the Messenger of Allah and act in accordance with Sunnah. The explanation of the Quran by Sunnah takes place either by the prophethood coming from Allah, or by inspiration or by the “command” that was given to him.

Ibn Hazm, who agrees on the same views, defines the sunnah as non-recited (ghayr matluw) revelation and says that it is necessary to obey the sunnah, which is the second revelation as it is necessary to obey the Quran. They are the same in that they are binding and they come from Allah.(21)

Ghazali states that the sunnah is based on revelation and that it is non-recited revelation.(22)

If the whole sunnah is regarded as revelation, it becomes spontaneously clear that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) cannot change the Sunnah as he cannot change the Quran.(23)

There arises an important issue along with the understanding that the whole sunnah is based on revelation just like the Quran. If Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) waited for the revelation of sunnah like the verses of the Quran for every situation and event, how are his ijtihads and consultations to be dealt with?  There were definitely some times when he waited for revelation but to think and accept that he acted like that in every phase of his life will cause problems. 

Due to those situations, some scholars had the view that not all of the sunnah but some of it was based on revelation and some of it was based on situations like ijtihad and consultation.
For instance, Ibn Qutayba says the following, dividing the source of the sunnah into three:

a) the sunnah that Jibril brought from Allah. (24)
b) the sunnah that Allah left to His Messenger (pbuh), that He wanted him to explain his view. (25)
c) the sunnah that the Messenger of Allah practiced for adab; the sunnah that one receives rewards when one performs but does not receive any punishment when one abandons. (26)

Sarakhsi of Hanafis, who adopts the same view, says that the judgments that Hazrat Prophet made based on his opinion and ijtihad are like revelation:

Revelation consists of two parts:

1- Apparent revelation. It is divided into three.
a) The revelation that comes through the tongue of the angel, that is perceived by the ear and that is certainly known to be coming from Allah. That part is the revelation of the Quran.

b) The revelation that is explained to the Prophet by the angel through signs, without any words. (27)

c) Inspiration. It is the divine manifestation in the heart of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) without any doubt. A light arises in his heart and the judgment about the issue becomes clear.

2- Esoteric revelation: Calling it as “ma yushbihu’l-wahy”  (resembling revelation), Sarakhsi says that there are judgments that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) reached through his opinion and ijtihad. The fact that he is not left free to make mistakes and that he is always under the control of revelation makes that kind of judgments like revelation. The ijtihads of other people from his umma are not like the ijtihad of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) since there exists the probability of making mistakes and it is impossible to correct them through revelation. (28)

That explanation of Sarakhsi means all of the acts of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) are beased on and are corrected by revelation. The act or word of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) is either true or wrong. If it remains as it is, it becomes apparent that it is true because Allah will not let a wrong act or word continue. 

Shatibi says the following:
Hadith is either pure revelation coming from Allah or an ijtihad by Hazrat Prophet (pbuh). However, in that case, his ijtihad is either based on a sound revelation in the Book or sunnah or has been checked by it. Even if the view that Hazrat Prophet can make a mistake in his ijtihad is accepted, he will never be left on a mistake; it will be corrected at once. In the end, it will become true. Therefore, there is no probability of mistakes in anything that comes from him. (29)

Acting upon those views, it can be said that those who say all of the sunnah is revelation do not exaggerate because all of the sunnah is checked by revelation; it is either left as it is or corrected. That is, since we cannot accept the existence of an application that is not checked by revelation, we can say as a conclusion that all of the sunnah is based on revelation.  However, when we say that all of the sunnah is based on revelation, we mean the sunnah that was determined during the age of the Messenger of Allah and that reached us as sound.

4. Silently approved (taqrir) revelation
What we defined as taqrir sunnah when we explained sunnah is the silent approval by Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) of some actions or words that he saw or heard. (30) That is, when the companions did or said something based on their Jahiliyya applications or their own opinions, Hazrat Prophet sometimes corrected them, sometimes changed them and sometimes did not say anything. The companions regarded his silence as approval because it would not be appropriate for a prophet to leave a mistake as it was. Therefore, his silence meant that action or word was not wrong. 

The companions were under the control of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh); similarly, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was always under the control of revelation as a necessity of the attribute of ismah (innocence) (31). Therefore, it should be known that his mistake would not be left without correction (32) and that the warning would be made at once, without any delay (33). Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) differs from everybody else and from those who are authorized to make ijtihad.

It is known that he was warned because of some of his actions even before he became a prophet. (34)

Once, when he wanted to take off his izar (outer garment) in order to throw stones but he was prevented. In another occasion, he wanted to take off his izar to help his uncle Abu Talib for the repair of the Zamzam Well but he fainted. He said someone with white clothes told him to cover himself when he came to.(35)

His body was protected to save him from exposing the parts that are not suitable to show to others; he was also protected from some unpleasant applications of that period. According to his own statement, he wanted to watch some games and entertainment in the places where marriage ceremonies were held but he fell asleep and could not watch or hear them; after that, he did not commit any bad things till he was appointed as a prophet.(36)

Can it be thought that a person who was under protection even when he was not a prophet and when he was not appointed as an example for his umma and humanity yet would not be protected in a period when he became an example in all aspects for his umma and humanity and that his errors and mistakes would not be corrected? (37)

As a matter of fact, we see some examples of it in the Quran.
Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) were worried about the protection of the revelation and Allah, the Exalted, eliminated his worry by saying there is no need to worry about it.(38)

He was warned about the issues like the guidance of men, people’s obeying the command of Allah, that his duty was only to convey the message of Allah that guidance depended on Allah’s will and that the result depended on the will of Allah (39); he was warned about Abu Talib, whom he asked for forgiveness and he was forbidden to pray for his uncle.  (40)

On the other hand, he was stopped from cursing his enemies after the Battle of Uhud (41) from his wish of mutilation after what was made to Hazrat Hamza (may Allah be pleased with him) (42).

Furthermore, he was warned about releasing the prisoners of war in return for ransom after the Battle of Badr (43); he was prevented from the application he wanted in order to win the hearts of hypocrites (munafiqs) (44) ; he was also warned when he made himself haram what Allah had made halal due to the wishes of the prisoners of war .(45)

Those verses above and similar verses are clear indications that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) was corrected when what he did was not in compliance with the divine consent. Allah, the Exalted, first leaves him free and wants him to make ijtihad or consultation with his companions. Then, if it was in compatible with Allah’s consent, it was left as it was; if it was not, he was corrected. As a matter of fact, the fact that he first said the children of the polytheists were like their fathers and then he said that they would go to Paradise, that he first said the lizards were cursed Jews and then gave up that idea due to the warning by revelation, that first he said the view about torture in grave was a Jewish mischief and then accepted the existence of torture in grave due to the warning by revelation and he took refuge in Allah from it in his prayers, (46) shows that he was warned and corrected outside the revelation of the Quran too. 

As it is seen, it is impossible for the Messenger of Allah to continue a wrong deed, act or word that he saw or was informed about because that kind of silent approval is followed by umma; it is also impossible for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to continue the wrong acts or words in the presence of Allah; whatever he did during his lifetime is an example and something to be followed for us.

Then, Allah, who is All- Knowing, All-Aware, All-hearing, All-Seeing and Wise, either corrected all kinds of words, deeds and acts of the Prophet or approved them and left them as they were. Whether we call those things that Allah did not change and left as they were as esoteric revelation as Hanafi scholars called them (47) or as silently approved revelation, we can say that the sunnah of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) is based on revelation.

Acting upon that fact, we think that we should accept that the continuation of some of the customs and traditions of the community the Prophet lived in were checked by Allah and since they were silently approved, it is not correct to regard them as only customs and traditions. Besides, we had stated that they were based Hazrat Ibrahim (pbuh) or other prophets.

Then, even if the attitudes and acts of the Prophet had existed in the same form in the period of Jahiliyya, they would have been corrected by revelation if they were wrong. It can be said that those that were not corrected were approved.

Footnotes:
1-  Although it is said that what is meant by the verse: “Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him” is the Quran, there are some scholars who say it includes sunnah too.  For instance, Elmalılı (a Turkish tafsir scholar) interprets that verse as “It, that is, the Quran or his speech, is nothing but revelation. It cannot be expressed in any other way. It can only be sent as revelation.” Thus, he indicates that sunnah is revelation too. (Yazır, Hak Dini VII, 457); Cf Qurtubî, Tafsir, XVII,84-85; Aydınlı, Abdullah, Sünnetin Kaynağı Hakkında, Din Öğretimi dergisi, Issue37, Ank, 1992, p.48; Kırbaşoğlu, Sünnet, 236 et al.
2- al-Baqara, 48; Aal-e-Imran, 164.
3- an-Nisa, 113; al-Jumua, 2.
4- For those who say what is meant by wisdom is sunnah, see Hasan al-Basri, Qatada, Yahya b. Kathir, (Suyuti, Miftahu’l-Janna, s.23); Imam ash-Shaii, ar Risala, 32,78,93.
5- The fact that the Quran and sunnah are revelation brings about the question what the difference between them is. We understand from that verse that there is no difference between them in terms of nature. However, one of them is wahy matluw (recited revelation), the other is wahy ghayr matluw (non-recited revelation). Suyuti explains the issue as follows: The word of Allah has two parts. Allah says to Jibril, “Say to the Prophet Allah commands you to do this and that. Jibril understands the divine wish and conveys it to the Prophet. It can be resembled to a king sending a reliable person as a delegate to his subjects and the conveyance of the message by the delegate through his own words. The other is: Allah says to Jibril, “Go to the Prophet and read this book to him.” Jibril reads the book to the Prophet exactly, word for word. The revelation of the Quran can be resembled to the second from and the sunnah to the first form. Therefore, it is said that it is permissible to report the sunnah with the meaning. Suyuti, al-Itqan, I,45; see Subhi es-Salih, Hadis İlimleri, s.261-262; Karaman, Hadis Usulü, p.9-10.
6- al-Anfal, 7.
7- at-Tahrim, 3.
8- It is important for our issue that it is stated at the beginning of the hadith that there will emerge some people who will say we will accept what is in the Quran but we will reject what is not in it and that the sunnah is given. See Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 6.
9- Those hadith that are called qudsi (sacred) or divine are stated by being attributed to Allah. There are some views that both the words and meanings of them belong to Allah or the meaning belongs to allah and the words belong to the Prophet like the other hadiths. See Al-Hadith, wa’l-Muhaddithun, s.18; Qawaidu’t-Tahdith, p.64 et al.
10- See, Bukhari, Eeman, 37; Muslim, Eeman, 1; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 16; Tirmidhi, Eeman,4.
11- Muslim, Jannah, 63-64; See, Aydınlı, Sünnetin Kaynağı, p.50-51; Toksarı, Sünnet, p.98-99; Abu Dawud, Adab, 48.
12- Muslim, Eeman, 32-36; See, al-Munawi, Fayzu’l-Qadir, VI, 289-290.
13- For examples, see, Muslim, Janaiz, 1; Tirmidhi, Eeman, 18; Jihad, 32.
14- Although some researchers claim that since the hadiths in which the word revelation is mentioned are narrated in terms of meaning, they cannot be accepted as evidence that hadith in general are revelaed (Erul, Bünyamin, İslamiyat, C.1, s.1, p.55 et al), in another article the same person says that it is not possible to say that Allah is not in contact with Hazrat Prophet except the Quran. He also says the Messenger of Allah was appointed with the duty of tabligh (conveying the message), teaching and explaining. However, he also says that it will be better to call it wisdom. (Erul, Bünyamin, İslamiyat, V.III, p.1., p.184.
15- Muslim, Hayd, 34.
16- Bukhari, Nikah, 108.
17- See respectively, Suyuti, Miftah, 29; Musnad, II, 85,160; Bukhari, Adab, 28; Muslim, 1,140; Abu Dawud, Manasik, 24,27; Tirmidhi, Hajj, 14; Abu Dawud, Salat, 2; Bukhari, Badu’l-Khalk, 6; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 9; Musnad, I, 191; Ibn Hisham, Sira, III, 101-102.
18- Suyuti, Miftah, 29.
19- Abdulghani Abdulkhaliq, Hujja, 337; It is said that there is ijma (consensus) that sunnah is based on revelation. See, ibid, p.338; It is reported that Hasan b. Atiyya said sunnah is based on revelation like the Quran. Darimi, Muqaddima, 49.
20- Imam Shafii, who says wahy matluw is the Quran and wahy ghayr matluw is the sunnah, states that the sunnah is the ‘wisdom’ mentioned in the Quran. (ar-Risala, 3-4,10; al-Umm, V, 127,128.)
21- Ibn Hazim, al-Ihkam, 93; cf. Kırbaşoğlu, Sünnet, p.260-261.
22- Ghazali, Mustasfa, I, 83; that Kattabi has the same opinion, see Khattabi, Maalimu’s-Sunan, V, 10.
23- Çakan, İ.Lütfi, Hadislerde Görülen İhtilaflar ve Çözüm Yolları, Ist, 1982, p.96.
24- The hadith that states a woman and her maternal or paternal aunt cannot be married to the same man at the same time is like that. Bukhari, Nikah, 27; Muslim, Nikah, 37-38.
25- He gives the following incident as example: wearing silk clothes is haram for men but Hazrat Prophet lets Abdurrahman b. Awf wear silk clothes due to his illness. See, Bukhari, Jihad, 91; Libas, 29; Muslim, Libas, 24-26.
26- Ibn Qutayba, Abu Muh. Abdullah, Ta’wilu Mukhtalifi’l-Hadith, Beirut, 1972, p.196 et al.
27- Phrases like the holy spirit blew into my heart are revelation of that kind. Ibn Majah, Tijarah, 2; Bayhaqi, Sunan, VII, 76; Suyuti, Miftah, 30.
28- Sarakhsi, Shamsuddin, Usulu’s-Sarakhsi, Beirut, 1973, II, 90-96.
29- Shatibi, Muwafaqat, IV, 19; For similar views, see, Abdulghani, Hujja, p.334 et al.
30- See, Aydınlı, Istılah, 148; Also See, Bukhari, I’tisam, 24.
31-Ismah, one of the attributes of the prophets, means being away from unbelief, not knowing Allah, telling lies, making mistakes, erring, neglecting, not knowing the details of the Shariah. It also means impossibility of continuing to make a mistake. See, Ghazali, Mustasfa, II, 212-214; Sabuni, Maturidiyye Akâidi, trns Bekir Topaloğlu, Ank. 1979, s.212-212; Yazır, Hak Dini, IX, 6357; Abdulghani, Hujja, 108 et al.
32- Sarakhsi, Usul, II, 68.
33- Sabuni, Maturidiyya, 121; Abdulghani, Hujja, p.222; For the view of Ibn Taymiyya that prophets will not be let continue to make a mistake, see Abduljalil Eesa, Ijtihadu’r-Rasul, Egypt, nd. p.33.
34- That Allah protected him (pbuh) from the impurities of Jahiliyya, see Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, I, 121; Abu Nuaym, Dalail, I, 129; Bayhaqi, Dalaîl, I, 313.
35- Abu Nuaym, Dalail, I, 147; See also, Bukhari, I, 96; Muslim, I, 268; Bayhaqi, Dalail, I, 313-314.
36- See. Tabari, Tarikh, II, 196; Abu Nuaym, Dklail, I, 143; Bayhaqi, Dalail, I, 315; Once, they took him (pbuh) to an entertainment by force, but he disappeared; Then, he said; a white-skinned, tall man said to me; ‘O Muhammad! Never touch that idol. Go back!’”. Cf Musnad, II, 68-69; Köksal, İslam Tarihi, II,117-121.
37- For more information, see Sarakhsi, Usul, II, 91; Ghazali, Mustasfa, II,214; Sabuni, Maturidiyya, s.121; Abdülghani, Hujja, 221-222; Abduljalil Eesa, İjtihad, p.31-33; Çakan, İhtilaflar, p.96,113; Erdoğan, Sünnet, 192 et al.
38- Qiyamah, 16-17.
39- See respectively al-Ghashiya, 21-22; Hud, 12; al-Kahf, 23; al,-Qasas, 56; Yunus, 99; ash-Shuara, 3.
40- at-Tawba, 113.
41- Tirmidhi, Tafsir, sura 3/12; Aal-e-Imran, 128; Abduljalil Eesa, Ijtihad, p.95.
42- The organs of Hazrat Hamza like his ear and nose had been cut off and his liver had been removed. Ibn Hisham, Sira, III, 101-103. For the verse see an-Nahl, 126-127.
43- al-Anfal, 67-68. See  Abdülghani, Hujja, 185.
44- at-Tawba, 88, 84; See Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, II, 378; Abduljalil Eesa, p.105.
45- at-Tahrim, 1-2.
46- See Abduljalil Eesa, Ijtihad, s.59-66.
47- See, Sarakhsi, II, 90-91; Tahanawi, Muh. Ali b. Ali, Kashshafu Istilahati’l-Funun, Ist, 1984, II, 1523.
Ahmet Çolak (Dr.)


53-) Faith that had to be confirmed by wife

Everything is not restricted to what we know. Our not knowing does not prove they do not exist or they are wrong.

Also, life is an examination. A test, proposed by God so that in the arena of competition elevated spirits and base spirits may be distinguished from one another. Just as materials are plunged in the fire so that diamonds and coal, gold and earth, separate out from one another, so too, religion is a trial concerning the obligations placed on man by God and a driving to competition, which is what this abode of examination consists of, so that the elevated jewels in the mine of man's abilities may become separated out from the dross. Since the Qur'an was revealed in this abode of examination for man to be perfected through trial in an arena of competition, for sure, it will only allude to the hidden events of the future pertaining to this world which everyone will see, and will only open the door to the reason to a degree that proves its argument. If it mentioned them explicitly, the mystery of proposal would be spoilt. Simply, it would become as self-evident as writing There is no god but God clearly with stars on the face of the skies. Then everyone would have to affirm it whether they wanted to or not. There would be no competition, and the examination too would be lost. A spirit like coal would remain together with a spirit like diamonds (Abu Jahl the Accursed and Abu Bakr the Truthful would appear to be equal, and the mystery of the Divine proposal, lost.)

Additionally, Satan corrupts the wholeness of peoples’ thoughts. He destroys sound judgment concerning the truths of belief and damages integrity and correctness of thought. It is like this:

He wants to destroy hundreds of evidences proving the truths of belief through a slight hint refuting them. Whereas it is an established principle that “A single proof is superior to a hundred denials.” The statement of a witness proving a claim is preferable to a hundred people denying it. Consider this truth by means of the following comparison:

 

There is a palace with a hundred doors all closed. On one of its doors being opened, the palace may be entered and the other doors opened. If all the doors are open, and one or two are closed, it may not be said that the palace cannot not be entered.

Thus, the truths of belief are the palace. Each evidence is a key; it proves the truths and opens a door. If one of the doors remains closed, the truths of belief cannot be abandoned and denied. Satan however, as a consequence of certain things or by means of heedlessness or ignorance, points out a door that has remained closed, thus causing a person to disregard all the positive evidences. Saying: “See, this palace cannot be entered. Perhaps it is not a palace, and there is nothing inside it,” he deceives the person.

O wretched man afflicted by the wiles of Satan! If you want the life of religion and of society and personal life all to be healthy, and if you want integrity of thought, a sound view, and a sincere heart, weigh up your actions and thoughts on the scales of the incontestable matters of the Qur’an and the balance of the Practices of the Prophet (PBUH). Always take the Qur’an and the Practices as your guide. Say: I take refuge with God from Satan the Accursed, and seek refuge with God Almighty!

If such explanations given above are taken into consideration we will come to a conclusion like this:
 ·        The evidences of our Prophet Muhammad’s prophethood is not only one, contrarily there are thousand of miracles and evidences proving that. The poorness of a proof is not enough to confute such claim, the prophethood of our Prophet.
 ·        Every field has its specialists. Waraka Bin Nawfel (cousin of Hadrath Khatica, Prophet’s wife) was one of the most popular specialist people about the knowledge of unseen (ghayb). So when the event was told to him he quickly came to conclusion that it was the archangel Gabriel which was appeared to the Prophet (PBUH).
 ·        An idea which was confirmed by other people is more accurate, so the prophethood of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was confirmed directly by the most sophisticated people like Waraka Bin Nawfel and many other clairvoyants, Hadrath Khatica and many other companions.

 ·        Not only his wife but also universe with all things in it proves the prophethood of Him. As a matter of fact, the Owner of the universe, Allah confirms his prophethood.

Note: Our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) never tried to kill himself, it is not true.

 


54-) How should we take the phrase, “unlettered prophet (1)” ?

The word unlettered refers to “someone who has had no worldly education of any sort.”

The Prophet’s (PBUH) community must have understood this subtlety in this unletteredness so well that they recall the Lofty Prophet (PBUH) especially in Tarawih prayers with this quality of his while uttering benedictions on him: The Prophet, the Unlettered.

This Lofty Prophet (PBUH) was involved in no evil deed. He was free from any sort of passions, tricks, traps of the world. Allah (SWT) prepared and trained him as a bright mirror without stain, dust, whatsoever. On this mirror of purity, which is called “unletteredness,” the revelation manifested itself. “This Person, by traversing time and space with his pure soul, which is the reflection of the divine revelation, went into deepest degrees of time and narrated as he saw.”  Isharat al-I’jaz, (The Signs of Miraculousness) by Bediuzzaman

The Lord of the realms did not let anybody tutor him. He did not permit it with his Divine determining and will. His reading was postponed till the command of “Read.” Having received this command, the Prophet, the Unlettered (PBUH) instructed mankind about the Qur’an. He (PBUH) read the book of universe through his Lord’s name. He taught people about the wisdoms, subtle meanings, and purposes in it. He told about the nature, truth, and duty of man.

While he was reading the Hereafter, the throne of Allah (SWT), the Preserved Tablet (2), the polytheists were busy worshipping the idols they made with their hands. They were able to read neither the universe, nor themselves, nor the idols they made. If they had been able to read, they would not have committed themselves to those stones. Their literate ones were the most obstinate and ignorant ones.

If we did not understand well and evaluate correctly the command of “read” of Islam, we would need to proclaim those believers who did not attend any school to be rebels in the face of this definite command. This is impossible… The Qur’an informs us that the Prophet, the Unlettered did not speak through his passions, that is, it is Allah (SWT) Who undertakes this. What else should that Glorious Prophet (PBUH) have read, whose every word was dependent on the divine will? 

FOOTNOTES

1- The Unlettered Prophet: The Unlettered Prophet does not refer to a state of illiteracy as we know it with its lexical meaning. Yes, actually he was illiterate, that is, he was able to neither write nor read. However, the phrase “The Unlettered Prophet”, which today most Muslims use, refers to a state which characterizes itself with having no worldly education, and which means that his education and tutoring were provided by Allah Almighty Himself.    

2- The Preserved Tablet: The original Arabic name of this term is “lahw al-mahfuz,” which refers to an abstract area, whose true nature can only be known by its Maker, where the things that happened and are to happen have been pre-ordained and kept inside. 

Alaâddin Başar (Prof. Dr.)


55-) Should I follow Qur'an or Hadiths? Are the Sunnah and Hadiths binding? To what extent are hadiths reliable?

When there were disintegrations in the history of Islam and when people moved away from the spirit of the Quran, Islamic scholars searched for and found the solution in the Sunnah because the one to describe the Quran is doubtlessly the Prophet.

All of the Islamic scholars accepted the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) as the primary source in explaining the Quran. Is there a truth that it is based on?

Yes, the duty of prophethood does not end by only bringing the Quran; to explain it, to show how it will be applied are also the duties of the Prophet. For instance the following verses define some of the divine duties of the Prophet:

We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them.”(Ibrahim,14-4)

Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own (Scriptures);― in the Law and the Gospel;― for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil: he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him honor, him, help him, and follow the Light which is sent down with himit is they who will prosper.”(al-Araf, 7-157)

It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger, to have any option about their decision: if anyone disobeys Allah and His Messenger he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.” (al-Ahzab ,33-36)

But no, by thy Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction.” (an-Nisa, 4-65)

He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah: but if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds).”(an-Nisa, 4-80)

Take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in Punishment.”(al-Hashr, 59-7)

“Say: "If ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (Aal-e-Imran, 3-31)

Yes, those verses above and similar verses states that the duty of our Prophet is not limited with conveying the Quran to people.
Can we clarify it a bit?

1. One of the duties of our Prophet is to explain the concise verses: For instance, the Quran says, “Perform prayers”, but how shall we perform prayers? It says “Perform ruku (bow down) and sajdah (prostrate)”, but it does not tell us in detail how to perform them. There is no detail as to how to perform qiyam (standing). Our Prophet explains the verse in form and content, and shows how to perform it by saying Perform prayers as I do”. Our Prophet explains the concise commands of the Quran like prayers, fasting and hajj.

2. Explaining the verses that are hard to understand is also one of the duties of our Prophet.
For instance, the following is stated in a verse, “Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies of Allah and your enemies and others besides whom ye may not know but whom Allah doth know” (al-Anfal,8-60). In that verse, the phrase “make ready your strength and steeds of war” is used. The Companions asked the Prophet: “What is strength?” Our Prophet said, “Know that strength is throwing, strength is throwing, strength is throwing” three times. He ordered us to catch up with the changing throwing instruments of each age speedily, without losing any time.

3. The Prophet also limits and reserves the limitless and general verses of the Quran. For instance, the following is stated in the Quran, “Allah hath permitted trade and forbidden usury” (al-Baqara, 2-275). According to that verse, the trade of everything is halal (permissible). However, our Prophet limited it and forbade the trade of pigs and alcoholic drinks. Thus, he explained the limits of the legitimate trade. Another example is the following verse: “It is those who believe and mix not their beliefs with wrong― that are (truly) in security, for they are on (right) guidance.”(al-An'am, 6-82) When that verse was sent down, the companions asked our Prophet: “All of us do wrong to our souls. O Messenger of Allah, is there anyone of us who does not do wrong?” Our Prophet (pbuh) reminded the verse “Polytheism is indeed the highest wrong-doing” and explained that the wrongdoing here is polytheism. Therefore, our Prophet explains the verses of the Quran that are hard to understand.

4. The events in the Quran were also confirmed and approved by the Prophet by repeating them. Thus, he made people understand them better, which can be mentioned here regarding the issue.

5. Our Prophet also has the authority of legislation, that is, enacting laws that are not present in the Quran. For instance, the food items that are haram (forbidden) are mentioned in two verses. However, the flesh of donkey is not mentioned in any of them. Our Prophet forbade eating the flesh of domestic donkeys during the expedition of Khyber.

Why were they not explained in the Quran but left to our Prophet?

If the Quran had given all of the details, it would have been a book of many volumes. It would have made it difficult for us to benefit from it. Therefore, the Quran left the explanations of some issues to our Prophet. There are some other reasons why the explanations were left to our Prophet. Some issues were abrogated in the course of time.

Some of the hadiths reached us as weak hadiths. Acting in accordance with those weak hadiths brought about disagreement. Disagreement is mercy for the umma. If Allah had mentioned all of those issues definitely in the Quran, the probability of disagreement would have decreased. The flexibility of our religion against changing conditions of the time and society would have decreased. As a matter of fact, one of the superior aspects of our religion, I think, is that it opens the way to new interpretations in accordance with time and place, which is something good.

That is not all. Our Prophet left a margin for scholars. It is the beauty of our religion. Scholars determined some fundamental rules and methods in making judgments acting upon the Quran and Sunnah. Scholars have made interpretations for new issues with those methods. Thus, we can make our own laws for new conditions without needing any other legal and cultural system and without importing laws. As a matter of fact, all of our new needs that occurred until the last period of the Ottoman State were made into laws based on the Quran and Sunnah and they were collected into a book within the framework of our own values.

How will our people learn the Quran through hadiths? For instance, we all read the Chapter Ya Seen a lot. If we want to find out “how did our Prophet interpret that chapter?”, how will we find it? Is there a way or method of it?

First of all, the Quran is interpreted through the Quran because one verse explains another verse. An issue is explained in one aspect in a verse; in another verse, another aspect of that issue is explained, etc. However, there are a lot of interpretations of our Prophet about the Quran. One of the largest parts of Bukhari is Tafsir (interpretation). Furthermore, there are also hadiths related to interpretation that are not present in Bukhari and Tirmidhi but are present in other resources.

Applying the science of mathematics, I sometimes say: a line passes through two points. Similarly, the Quran is the point of origination about a meaning that we deduce from the Quran. If we do not refer to the hadiths as a second point, there may be thousands of views originating from one point. However, what is religion? It is the religion of oneness and togetherness. People cannot deduce different interpretations on their own from that verse but interpretations in accordance with the truth. We will search for what the Prophet said regarding the issue. If there is nothing regarding it in the words of the Prophet, then we will search for what Sahaba (the Companions of the Prophet), Tabi’in (people who met Sahaba) and Atbaut Tabi’in (People who met tabi’in) said; we will take into consideration what they said. They had more opportunity than us in understanding the Quran in accordance with its original.

To what extent are hadiths reliable?

There is no reason why we should not rely on hadiths. As we have mentioned before, the Quran directs people to the Prophet saying, “Take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you”. That is, the Quran always points to the Prophet as the secondary resource.

Secondly, the Prophet points to himself; he attracts attention to his Sunnah and states that Islam will continue with his Sunnah. For instance, Hazrat Prophet sends Muadh to Yemen. The Prophet asks him, “How will you act there?” Hazrat Muadh says, “I will act in accordance with the Quran”. Our Prophet asks, “What if you cannot find something in the Quran?” He says, “With your Sunnah and if I cannot find it in your Sunnah, with my ijtihad (deriving laws from the original sources)”. Our Prophet becomes pleased with his answers. That hadith is an evidence for the scholars of Islam. It is proof that Sunnah is evidence and that ijtihad is necessary. Thus, when the Prophet was alive, Sahaba knew hadiths as the secondary source.

Hazrat Umar narrates: “I have made a contract of alternation with a brother of mine. One day, he goes to the field and takes care of the field; I go to the Messenger of Allah and listen to him. In the evening, I inform my brother about what I saw and heard while I was with the Messenger of Allah. The next day, I go to the field and take care of the field; my brother goes to the Messenger of Allah and listens to him. In the evening, he informs me about what he saw and heard while he was with the Messenger of Allah. Thus, we have the opportunity to follow the Messenger of Allah closely.”

A Companion says: “I used to write whatever I heard from the Prophet. Some people said to me, ‘the Messenger of Allah is a human being too. Sometimes, he speaks when he is angry and sometimes, when he is calm. It is not true to write whatever he says.’ Thereupon, I gave up writing. However, I started to forget what I heard from the Prophet. Therefore, I went to the Prophet and told him about the issue. ‘O Messenger of Allah! I hear good things from you and I write them down but some people from Ansar said something. Therefore, I gave up writing. However, I feel uneasy when I do not write. What shall I do?’ the Messenger of Allah showed his blessed mouth and said, ‘Nothing other than truth comes out from this mouth. Write.

Some people came to the Messenger of Allah and complained about their memory. He said to them, “Ask the help of your right hands” advising them to write down.
Let me say something else. Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated a lot of hadiths and he is one of the seven people who narrated most hadiths. In a hadith I read in Mustadrak, Hazrat Anas says, “I wrote down hadiths from the Messenger of Allah during the day and I read them to him at night so that he would correct them.” That is, our Prophet corrected what he had written. After that, in the science of hadith, the students took the hadiths that they learned to their teachers and presented the hadiths to them. The students read the hadiths that they wrote and memorized before their teachers; the teachers corrected them and then gave the students diplomas.

Can we say that all hadiths are the interpretations of the Quran?

Yes we can. Our Prophet (pbuh) put the Quran into practice through his lifestyle. Therefore, the ideal lifestyle that the Quran wants from men is manifest in our Prophet (pbuh). If we consider it from the point of view of worshipping, our Prophet showed it how our worshipping towards Allah should be perfectly. Our Prophet carried out all kinds of worshipping in the perfect way. The worshipping of our Prophet is the perfect way of the worshipping that the Quran wants from us in all aspects. The same thing is valid for human relations too. Our Prophet showed us the best examples in his relationship with people and his neighbors. He also showed the best examples of husband and wife relationship. He showed us how to act towards children.

Thus, our Prophet (pbuh) represented practiced and showed the ideal of the Quran in all phases, sections and moments of his life. Muslims can take them exactly from the Prophet to the extent that they can. In a hadith, Hazrat Aisha expresses the ethics of the Prophet as, “His ethics was the ethics of the Quran.” Therefore, our Prophet explained the ethics of the Quran in terms of ethics. Maybe, he did not explain everything verbally but he practiced it. Every word, act and attitude of the Prophet is the interpretation of the spirit of the Quran.

On the other hand, he explained the stories about the previous nations. In hadiths, we can find some events about Hazrat Ibrahim (Abraham) that are not present in the Quran. Thus, we can find all of the lessons that the Quran wants to mention, to bring to mankind in terms of law, ethics and lifestyle in the life of Hazrat Prophet sometimes in his words, sometimes in his deeds and sometimes in his analyses.

The following is stated in the Quran, “eat and drink: but waste not by excess”. In another verse, squandering is forbidden. Squandering is the brother of wasting. Let us look at the practice of the Prophet to understand those two verses better:
Our Prophet put a clear limit to wasting; the most living example of it is wudu (ablution). When he made wudu, he used the water carefully so as not to waste it. He commanded us two wash our organs with three handfuls of water during wudu. To use more water is makrooh (abominable). He puts that limitation. One of the companions becomes surprised and asks: “O Messenger of Allah! Is it to save water?”. He answers, “No, even if you are near a river, you will wash your organs three times.”    
I saw a narration from Abu ad-Darda in hadiths: “Once, our Prophet arrived at a river on the way to somewhere. They brought him a bowl of water from the river. He made wudu with it and some water remained. We would normally sprinkle it around. However, our Prophet says, “Go and pour it back to the river. It may be the drink of a creature in the future.
If we eat more than we need, speak more than necessary, spend our time in vain, we waste them. They are the wasting that we cannot bring back. Lighting a match is also wasting. They are makrooh. The fact that our Prophet told us not to waste water while making wudu five times a day, he gave us the lesson of respecting nature. He teaches us that wasting is also a serious issue in other fields of life through the example of wudu.

Now, let us have a look at the explanation of the verse, “waste not by excess”. Thus, when we read a verse, we need to refer to the hadiths to see how that verse is explained. The larger our hadith culture is, the better we will understand the Quran. Can I say something like this as a conclusion?   When we read a verse from the Quran, we should try to understand it from the translations and interpretations of the Quran. However, it should not be enough for us; we should increase our hadith culture. We should learn many hadiths and form our life through them. When we read the Quran like that, it will be as if we are learning the meaning of the Quran from the Prophet.

Absolutely. Our scholars who understood it like that, for instance, Tabari, wrote all of the hadiths that he remembered about a verse. Some people criticized Tabari because he reported many hadiths. Most of his interpretation of forty volumes is full of hadiths. However, when we refer to hadiths, we understand the verses better. The light that a hadith gives is different from the meaning that we deduce by contemplating. In my opinion, it is the best way to try to understand the Quran through hadiths.

What is the Sunnah?

The Sunnah is what the Prophet did, said and all of his acts and attitude. Then, we can say that what he did during his lifetime is the Sunnah.

The word sunnah used in fiqh books means “there is reward if we do it but there is no sin if we do not do it.” For instance, eating with the right hand, cleaning the teeth, not to eat while standing, etc.
However, when we consider the word sunnah in its broad sense, it includes everything that our Prophet did. In that case, the wishes and prohibitions of Allah are also included in the Sunnah. For instance, did our Prophet perform prayers? Yes. Then it is sunnah to perform prayers.

Accordingly, it is necessary to divide sunnah into parts.

Fard: Everything that Allah definitely wants us to do or to avoid. It is our Prophet who carries out the commands and prohibitions of Allah in the best way and who serves as an example. We should follow him in order to carry out the commands and prohibitions of Allah. Such as performing prayers, fasting, avoiding fornication and not eating anything haram (forbidden).

Wajib: The wajibs of our religions: for instance, it is wajib to perform the prayer of witr as three rakats.

Nafilah: The things other than fard and wajib that we carry out while performing prayers. For instance, to read some verses from the Quran while performing prayers is fard but to read subhanaka prayer is nafilah.

Adab: If we do as the Prophet did while doing our daily tasks like eating, sleeping, entering the mosque or toilet, etc, we will have done them in accordance with their procedures. A person who does not act accordingly is not regarded to have committed sins.
It means we can divide sunnah as fard, wajib, nafilah and adab. It is the order of the superiority of the parts of sunnah.
We can think of it like a human body. Man has necessary organs to live: for instance, the brain, heart, head, etc. The principles that we must believe in are like the heart and brain of our spirit.

Our body has sense organs like eyes, ears, hands, feet, etc. Fards are like them. They are the eyes, ears, hands and feet of our spirit. A person who does not perform fards is like a person without hands, feet, eyes and ears. 
We also have some beauties and adornments like fingers, eyebrows and hair in our bodies. We can live without them. However, if we have them, we will be perfect. Similarly, the nafilah and adab parts of sunnah are the adornments and beauties of our spirit. If we perform them, we will receive many rewards; if we do not perform them, we will not receive any sins. 
To sum up, the fard and wajib parts are the sunnahs that are obligatory to be performed. We will receive many rewards if we perform the nafilah and adab parts.
As for harams, we must protect our spirits from killing and poisoning harams as we protect our bodies from killing factors like aids, poison and fire.

Are the Sunnah and hadiths binding?

Does the Sunnah, the life of our Prophet bind Muslims; do they have to follow it?

We will deal with that issue in accordance with hadiths and the views of scholars.

1. The Quran: There are some verses showing that Hazrat Prophet receives revelation other than the Quran (1) too.
Some of them are as follows:
1- It is understood from the following verses that our Prophet was given wisdom along with the Book: ‘Messenger from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom’, (2) ‘sent down to him the Book and wisdom’, (3).
Those two words have both similarity and difference. Accordingly, since what is meant by the Book is the Quran, wisdom has to be something else. The probability that it is the Sunnah prevails.(4) It is the point of difference. The point of similarity is that both of them originate from revelation.(5)
2- The promise stated in the following verse was given to Muslims but it is not stated in the verse what it was: “Behold! Allah promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours” (6). It proves that it is informed through another kind of revelation.
3- The following verse proves definitely that there exists revelation apart from the Quran: “When the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his consorts, and she then divulged it (to another) and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed part thereof and repudiated a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said "Who told thee this?" He said "He told me who knows and is well-acquainted (with all things)."”(7) Although there is no explanation about the disclosure of the secret in the Quran, the Prophet knows about it. It becomes clear that there exists revelation which is not included in the Quran since he cannot know it on his own and since it is stated that Allah informed him.

2. Hadiths:

1- According to the narration of Miqdad b. Ma’dikarib, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said the following: “...I was given the Book and the like of it”.(8)
2- Qudsi Hadiths: (9) The following phrases that are present in those kinds of hadiths: “the Messenger of Allah stated the following in the hadith that he reported from his Lord”, “Allah stated the following in the hadith that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) narrated” and the fact that those hadiths started with the words “O my slaves” prove that Hazrat Prophet received revelation other than the Quran.
3- The famous event that is known as the Jibril (Gabriel) hadith:(10). Jibril came in the form of a man, asked some questions and received answers; Hazrat Prophet told his companions that it was Jibril and that he had come to teach them the religion.
4- The expressions of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) like ‘certainly my Lord revealed to me, (11) I was ordered, I was forbidden, (12) and the fact that he said Jibril taught him some things (13) prove that revelation exists other than the Quran too.(14)
The fact that Hazrat Prophet said “actually I did not know about them but Allah informed me about them” when he answered the questions of a Jewish person ”(15) supports that issue.

3. Views of the Scholars:

The Companions of the Prophet knew that our Prophet (pbuh) received revelation other than the Quran from his practices, explanations and words. They expressed it many times. Scholars also expressed their views about the origin of Sunnah based on hadiths and the expressions of the companions; most of them expressed that the source of Sunnah was based on revelation.
Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said that there was revelation about Hazrat Khadija and that she was given a manor in Paradise.

The expression that is present in narrations: Jibril brought down the Sunnah as he brought down the Quran shows that there exists revelation other than the Quran. (16) In addition, the fact that the Prophet received the information like treating the neighbors well, making wudu (ablution), performing prayers, calling out the talbiya, performing prayers in the sacred Aqiq Valley, the times of the prayers, the gate of paradise through which the umma of Muhammad will enter, the name of Hazrat Hamza (may Allah be pleased with him) being written on a tablet by the beings of the sky (17) shows that there exists revelation other than the Quran.
Tawus says that he himself has a written text that was sent by revelation about diyah (blood money, ransom) and that decrees about zakat and diyah came by revelation. (18)

By saying, “when a hadith from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) reaches you, never make judgments contrary to it; because the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was a conveyor from Allah, the Exalted” (19), Awzai stated that sunnah was based on revelation.
As we have mentioned before, a person who made important explanations about the issue was Imam Shafi.(20) According to the understanding that he bases on a person whose knowledge he relies on and that he himself also accepts, the Sunnah is either revelation, or the statement of the revelation or something that Allah handed him. It is based on his prophethood that is peculiar to him and the wisdom that Allah inspires him based on it. No matter which one of the above alternatives is accepted, Allah ordered people to obey the Messenger of Allah and act in accordance with Sunnah. The explanation of the Quran by Sunnah takes place either by the prophethood coming from Allah, or by inspiration or by the “command” that was given to him.
Ibn Hazm, who agrees on the same views, defines the sunnah as non-recited (ghayr matluw) revelation and says that it is necessary to obey the sunnah, which is the second revelation as it is necessary to obey the Quran. They are the same in that they are binding and they come from Allah.(21)

Ghazali states that the sunnah is based on revelation and that it is non-recited revelation.(22)

If the whole sunnah is regarded as revelation, it becomes spontaneously clear that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) cannot change the Sunnah as he cannot change the Quran.(23)

There arises an important issue along with the understanding that the whole sunnah is based on revelation just like the Quran. If Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) waited for the revelation of sunnah like the verses of the Quran for every situation and event, how are his ijtihads and consultations to be dealt with? There were definitely some times when he waited for revelation but to think and accept that he acted like that in every phase of his life will cause problems. 
Due to those situations, some scholars had the view that not all of the sunnah but some of it was based on revelation and some of it was based on situations like ijtihad and consultation.

For instance, Ibn Qutayba says the following, dividing the source of the sunnah into three:
a) the sunnah that Jibril brought from Allah. (24)
b) the sunnah that Allah left to His Messenger (pbuh), that He wanted him to explain his view. (25)
c) the sunnah that the Messenger of Allah practiced for adab; the sunnah that one receives rewards when one performs but does not receive any punishment when one abandons. (26)
Sarakhsi of Hanafis, who adopts the same view, says that the judgments that Hazrat Prophet made based on his opinion and ijtihad are like revelation:

Revelation consists of two parts:

1- Apparent revelation. It is divided into three.
a) The revelation that comes through the tongue of the angel, that is perceived by the ear and that is certainly known to be coming from Allah. That part is the revelation of the Quran.
b) The revelation that is explained to the Prophet by the angel through signs, without any words. (27)
c) Inspiration. It is the divine manifestation in the heart of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) without any doubt. A light arises in his heart and the judgment about the issue becomes clear.

2- Esoteric revelation: Calling it as “ma yushbihu’l-wahy” (resembling revelation), Sarakhsi says that there are judgments that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) reached through his opinion and ijtihad. The fact that he is not left free to make mistakes and that he is always under the control of revelation makes that kind of judgments like revelation. The ijtihads of other people from his umma are not like the ijtihad of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) since there exists the probability of making mistakes and it is impossible to correct them through revelation. (28)
That explanation of Sarakhsi means all of the acts of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) are beased on and are corrected by revelation. The act or word of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) is either true or wrong. If it remains as it is, it becomes apparent that it is true because Allah will not let a wrong act or word continue. 
Shatibi says the following:
Hadith is either pure revelation coming from Allah or an ijtihad by Hazrat Prophet (pbuh). However, in that case, his ijtihad is either based on a sound revelation in the Book or sunnah or has been checked by it. Even if the view that Hazrat Prophet can make a mistake in his ijtihad is accepted, he will never be left on a mistake; it will be corrected at once. In the end, it will become true. Therefore, there is no probability of mistakes in anything that comes from him. (29)
Acting upon those views, it can be said that those who say all of the sunnah is revelation do not exaggerate because all of the sunnah is checked by revelation; it is either left as it is or corrected. That is, since we cannot accept the existence of an application that is not checked by revelation, we can say as a conclusion that all of the sunnah is based on revelation. However, when we say that all of the sunnah is based on revelation, we mean the sunnah that was determined during the age of the Messenger of Allah and that reached us as sound.

4. Silently approved (taqrir) revelation

What we defined as taqrir sunnah when we explained sunnah is the silent approval by Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) of some actions or words that he saw or heard. (30) That is, when the companions did or said something based on their Jahiliyya applications or their own opinions, Hazrat Prophet sometimes corrected them, sometimes changed them and sometimes did not say anything. The companions regarded his silence as approval because it would not be appropriate for a prophet to leave a mistake as it was. Therefore, his silence meant that action or word was not wrong. 
The companions were under the control of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh); similarly, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was always under the control of revelation as a necessity of the attribute of ismah (innocence) (31). Therefore, it should be known that his mistake would not be left without correction (32) and that the warning would be made at once, without any delay (33). Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) differs from everybody else and from those who are authorized to make ijtihad.
It is known that he was warned because of some of his actions even before he became a prophet. (34)
Once, when he wanted to take off his izar (outer garment) in order to throw stones but he was prevented. In another occasion, he wanted to take off his izar to help his uncle Abu Talib for the repair of the Zamzam Well but he fainted. He said someone with white clothes told him to cover himself when he came to.(35)
His body was protected to save him from exposing the parts that are not suitable to show to others; he was also protected from some unpleasant applications of that period. According to his own statement, he wanted to watch some games and entertainment in the places where marriage ceremonies were held but he fell asleep and could not watch or hear them; after that, he did not commit any bad things till he was appointed as a prophet.(36)
Can it be thought that a person who was under protection even when he was not a prophet and when he was not appointed as an example for his umma and humanity yet would not be protected in a period when he became an example in all aspects for his umma and humanity and that his errors and mistakes would not be corrected? (37)
As a matter of fact, we see some examples of it in the Quran.
Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) were worried about the protection of the revelation and Allah, the Exalted, eliminated his worry by saying there is no need to worry about it.(38)
He was warned about the issues like the guidance of men, people’s obeying the command of Allah, that his duty was only to convey the message of Allah that guidance depended on Allah’s will and that the result depended on the will of Allah (39); he was warned about Abu Talib, whom he asked for forgiveness and he was forbidden to pray for his uncle. (40)
On the other hand, he was stopped from cursing his enemies after the Battle of Uhud (41) from his wish of mutilation after what was made to Hazrat Hamza (may Allah be pleased with him) (42).
Furthermore, he was warned about releasing the prisoners of war in return for ransom after the Battle of Badr (43); he was prevented from the application he wanted in order to win the hearts of hypocrites (munafiqs) (44) ; he was also warned when he made himself haram what Allah had made halal due to the wishes of the prisoners of war .(45)
Those verses above and similar verses are clear indications that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) was corrected when what he did was not in compliance with the divine consent. Allah, the Exalted, first leaves him free and wants him to make ijtihad or consultation with his companions. Then, if it was in compatible with Allah’s consent, it was left as it was; if it was not, he was corrected. As a matter of fact, the fact that he first said the children of the polytheists were like their fathers and then he said that they would go to Paradise, that he first said the lizards were cursed Jews and then gave up that idea due to the warning by revelation, that first he said the view about torture in grave was a Jewish mischief and then accepted the existence of torture in grave due to the warning by revelation and he took refuge in Allah from it in his prayers, (46) shows that he was warned and corrected outside the revelation of the Quran too. 
As it is seen, it is impossible for the Messenger of Allah to continue a wrong deed, act or word that he saw or was informed about because that kind of silent approval is followed by umma; it is also impossible for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to continue the wrong acts or words in the presence of Allah; whatever he did during his lifetime is an example and something to be followed for us.
Then, Allah, who is All- Knowing, All-Aware, All-hearing, All-Seeing and Wise, either corrected all kinds of words, deeds and acts of the Prophet or approved them and left them as they were. Whether we call those things that Allah did not change and left as they were as esoteric revelation as Hanafi scholars called them (47) or as silently approved revelation, we can say that the sunnah of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) is based on revelation.
Acting upon that fact, we think that we should accept that the continuation of some of the customs and traditions of the community the Prophet lived in were checked by Allah and since they were silently approved, it is not correct to regard them as only customs and traditions. Besides, we had stated that they were based Hazrat Ibrahim (pbuh) or other prophets.
Then, even if the attitudes and acts of the Prophet had existed in the same form in the period of Jahiliyya, they would have been corrected by revelation if they were wrong. It can be said that those that were not corrected were approved.

NARRATIONS THAT PERMITTED HADITHS TO BE WRITTEN

There are many narrations showing that it was permissible to write hadiths. One of the narrations belongs to Abdullah Ibn Amr (may Allah be pleased with him); the hadiths he wrote were transmitted to the generations coming after him in the form of books. He says:
“I used to write what I whatever I heard from the Prophet in order to memorize them. Quraishis forbad me to write saying: ' 'You are writing whatever you hear from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) ; however, the Messenger of Allah is a human being too. Sometimes, he speaks when he is angry and sometimes, when he is calm. Thereupon, I gave up writing. However, I informed Hazrat Prophet about the situation. The Messenger of Allah showed his blessed mouth and said, ‘Write! I swear by Allah that nothing other than truth comes out from this mouth."

A narration confirming that Abdullah Ibn Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote hadiths systematically belongs to Abu Hurayra and it is recorded in Bukhari. Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him) says the following: "Nobody can outdo me in knowing hadiths of Hazrat Prophet except Abdullah Ibn Amr; because he used to write but I did not. "
The narrations that express permission about hadiths are not only those that we have mentioned. The fact that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to the people who complained about their memory: “Ask the help of your right hands”, “fasten the knowledge by writing”, that he gave the written texts of his speeches to some people who wanted them in the written form, that there exist about 300 letters (that is written documents) that are all hadiths and whose lengths vary from a few lines to a few pages proves that it was permissible to write hadiths. Even if only the letters are considered, it will be understood that Hazrat Prophet did not oppose systematically and insistently to the writing of things other than the Quran and that he gave great importance to the usage of writing in civil life.

AS-SAHIFA AS-SAHIHA (SOUND PAGES) OF ABU HURAYRA:  In some narrations, it is stated that Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote the hadiths that he heard from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). The name of that page is as-Sahifa as-Sahiha. Al-Hasan Ibn Amr Ibn Umayya ad-Damri narrates: " I reported a hadith near Hazrat Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him). However, he denied it by saying: " 'there is no such a hadith.'' I said to him that I heard it from him. Then, he said, "If you have heard it from me, it must be present with me in writing" and took me by the hand to his house. There, he showed me a lot of books in which the hadiths of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) were written. He found the hadith that I reported and said to me: "Did I not tell you that if I narrated a hadith, it is present with me in writing?"

COLLECTING HADITHS:

The second important period of hadith history consists of works called “tadwin as-sunnah” (documentation and recording of hadiths in written form”. It covers the second century of Hegira.

WHAT IS TADWIN?

In the dictionary, tadwin means to compile and collect into a book. As a hadith term, it means recording of hadiths in written form officially and collecting into a book. The word “officially” is very important here. As it is seen in the previous parts, the recording of hadiths started during the period of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) individually and privately. As a matter of fact, the MESSENGER OF ALLAH himself left many written documents and they are all called “sunnah”. However, none of them can be included in the act of “writing” expressed by the word tadwin because in tadwin, the writing of the all of the hadiths is in question. Then, we can define tadwin perfectly as follows: "the activity of writing of all of the hadiths carried out in the second century of Hegira under the auspices of the state”.

HOW DID IT START?

The activity of tadwin started with Umar bin Abdulaziz, an Umayyad Caliph. Umar bin Abdulaziz (may Allah have mercy upon him), who is famous for his piousness and devotion to the sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), started to worry about hadiths as the generation of the companions who knew sunnah very well and great scholars started to die one after another. He thinks about making the scholars write the hadiths in order to prevent the risk of the loss of hadiths. Therefore, he sends commands and circular notes to governors as the Caliph.
The text of the one of the letters that Umar bin Abdulaziz sent is recorded in Bukhari. It is the letter sent to the governor of Madinah, Abu Bakr Ibn Hazm:
“Search for, collect and write the narrations about Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) in your city. I fear that the science (hadiths) will be lost and scholars will disappear. While doing it, only the sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) should be accepted. Scholars should sit in famous places open to public like mosques, spread knowledge and teach those who do not know. Science will not disappear unless it is kept secret.''
According to the narration that Ibn Sa’d recorded, Umar Ibn Abdilaziz (may Allah have mercy upon him) had the following extra phrase in the letter he wrote to Ibn Hazm:
"...a current, known sunnah or the narrations of Amra Bintu Abdirrahman should be accepted..."
The following extra phrase is present in the narration of Darimi:
“Write the narrations that are certain to be coming from Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) and from Hazrat Umar that you have (or that are present in your region)".
According to what Abu Nuaym recorded in Tarikh Isfahan, Umar Ibn Abdilaziz sent that letter to all Islamic cities.
Thus, by taking the various narrations that mention tadwin into consideration, we have a more holistic idea about the issue. In order to appreciate that attempt of Umar Ibn Abdilaziz, we need to mention the following words of Muhammed Ibnu Shihab az-Zuhri, who was the person with the greatest service in the activity of tadwin and who gave that activity the name of tadwin:
“We did not regard it appropriate to write the knowledge until the administrators forced us to do it. When we started to do it (as a result of the enforcement and intervention of administrators), we believed that we should not prevent any Muslim from writing. ''.

REASONS THAT CAUSED THE COLLECTION OF HADITHS

It will be useful to look closely at the real factors that caused the hadiths to be written and collected into books:

1- With the unanimous agreement of scholars, one of them is the following reason that is stated in the letter of Umar Ibn Abdilaziz: The anxiety that hadiths will disappear with the death of scholars: It is really an important issue. Although hadiths were written by individuals, they were written in order to be memorized; when they were memorized, they were burned; or they were advised to be burned after one’s death. The narration above that we quoted from Zuhri is enough to understand the worry and anxiety among the scholars.

Besides, that period was a period in which political turmoil and civil anarchy prevailed. The death of Said Ibn Jubayr, the famous hadith scholar of the period, who was killed by Hajjaj az-Zalim, was enough to worry Umar Ibn Abdilaziz that hadiths would disappear. What is more, the same events caused the death of Talq Ibnu Habib; The famous scholar Mujahid narrowly escaped death but was sent to prison.

2- Although it was not reflected clearly in the letter of Umar Ibn Abdilaziz, the second important factor that started tadwin was the increase in the activities of fabricating hadiths due to political and madhhab disagreements. The following words of Zuhri (may Allah have mercy upon him) certifies and confirms it: "If it had not been for the unknown hadiths that came from the east and that were rejected by us, I would have never written a single hadith nor would I have let anybody write one."
Suyuti says the following in order to state the role of the activity of fabricating hadiths in tadwin: "In a period when scholars were dispersed and the fabrications and innovations (bid’as) of Kharijites and Rafidis increased, the sunnah was written and collected into books by combining the words of Sahaba and the fatwas of Tabi’in."

HOW TADWIN TOOK PLACE:

The narrations show that Umar Ibn Abdilaziz did not find it enough to send a circular note; he followed and checked the activities of tadwin meticulously. For instance, he hired special clerks to work for tadwin in the center; he allocated two clerks to Hishm Ibn Abdilmalik, and Zuhri. They wrote the hadiths of Zuhri for a whole year.
Umar Ibn Abdilaziz, the Caliph, himself took part in the activities of tadwin; he went to mosque with a pen in his hand for prayer and joined the lessons after the prayer, writing hadiths from Awn Ibn Abdillah and, Yazid Ibnu'r-Raqqaşi.
During tadwin, not only the narrations dating back to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), but also the words and actions of Sahaba and Tabi’in were included by some hadith scholars into the concept of sunnah. 
The hadiths that were written upon the command of the Caliph were sent to the center in the form of books; they were duplicated there and were sent to Islamic cities. An important narration documenting that issue comes from Zuhri: " Umar Ibn Abdilaziz (may Allah have mercy upon him) ordered us to collect the sunnah and we wrote it in books. Umar Ibn Abdilaziz (may Allah have mercy upon him) sent a book to the every city that he dominated."
It is certain that the books that were sent were the duplicated copies of the original books in the center.
Some narrations state that the hadiths collected in the center were checked by scholars: Abu'z-Zinad Abdullah Ibnu'z-Zakwan narrates: "I saw Umar Ibn Abdilaziz bring together fiqh scholars. Fiqh scholars had collected a great amount of hadiths. He read them together with the scholars and when a sunnah that was not carried out was read, he said: “It is extra; there is no deed based on it."
It can be said that the copies that were sent to the cities were duplicated after the examination of that committee.
An important characteristic of tadwin activities is that hadiths were not written under any classification like sunan, sahih or musnad. What was important in tadwin was to write them, to put them into writing not any other style or purpose. Therefore, marfu (traced back to the Prophet), mawqut (timed), maqtu (cut-off) narrations were written together with hasan (well authenticated) and daif (weak). Their distinction and classification would be dealt with in the next century called the period of tabwib (dividing into chapters).

THE ROLE OF ABU BAKR IBN HAZM:

We do not have any document indicating that the governor of Madinah, Abu Bakr Ibn Hazm, wrote any hadiths personally upon the command of although he was a great hadith scholar. He may have found it enough to force the scholars to work for tadwin as the governor. As a matter of fact, Zuhri, who adopted the work of tadwin and played the primary role in it, is a scholar of Madinah and it is certain that he started to work upon the command of Abu Bakr Ibn Hazm.
Although the life of Umar Ibn Abdilaziz was not long enough to see the fruit of tadwin activities, we reported above from Zuhri that the books that were collected in his period reached enough amounts to be duplicated and sent to big cities. Therefore, Islamic scholars agree unanimously that the first tadwin started during the age of Umar Ibn Abdilaziz (may Allah have mercy upon him), in the last years of the first century Hegira.

Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan
Dr. Ahmet Çolak

Footnotes:

1- Although it is said that what is meant by the verse: “Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him” is the Quran, there are some scholars who say it includes sunnah too. For instance, Elmalılı (a Turkish tafsir scholar) interprets that verse as “It, that is, the Quran or his speech, is nothing but revelation. It cannot be expressed in any other way. It can only be sent as revelation.” Thus, he indicates that sunnah is revelation too. (Yazır, Hak Dini VII, 457); Cf Qurtubî, Tafsir, XVII,84-85; Aydınlı, Abdullah, Sünnetin Kaynağı Hakkında, Din Öğretimi dergisi, Issue37, Ank, 1992, p.48; Kırbaşoğlu, Sünnet, 236 et al.
2- al-Baqara, 48; Aal-e-Imran, 164.
3- an-Nisa, 113; al-Jumua, 2.
4- For those who say what is meant by wisdom is sunnah, see Hasan al-Basri, Qatada, Yahya b. Kathir, (Suyuti, Miftahu’l-Janna, s.23); Imam ash-Shaii, ar Risala, 32,78,93.
5- The fact that the Quran and sunnah are revelation brings about the question what the difference between them is. We understand from that verse that there is no difference between them in terms of nature. However, one of them is wahy matluw (recited revelation), the other is wahy ghayr matluw (non-recited revelation). Suyuti explains the issue as follows: The word of Allah has two parts. Allah says to Jibril, “Say to the Prophet Allah commands you to do this and that. Jibril understands the divine wish and conveys it to the Prophet. It can be resembled to a king sending a reliable person as a delegate to his subjects and the conveyance of the message by the delegate through his own words. The other is: Allah says to Jibril, “Go to the Prophet and read this book to him.” Jibril reads the book to the Prophet exactly, word for word. The revelation of the Quran can be resembled to the second from and the sunnah to the first form. Therefore, it is said that it is permissible to report the sunnah with the meaning. Suyuti, al-Itqan, I,45; see Subhi es-Salih, Hadis İlimleri, s.261-262; Karaman, Hadis Usulü, p.9-10.
6- al-Anfal, 7.
7- at-Tahrim, 3.
8- It is important for our issue that it is stated at the beginning of the hadith that there will emerge some people who will say we will accept what is in the Quran but we will reject what is not in it and that the sunnah is given. See Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 6.
9- Those hadith that are called qudsi (sacred) or divine are stated by being attributed to Allah. There are some views that both the words and meanings of them belong to Allah or the meaning belongs to allah and the words belong to the Prophet like the other hadiths. See Al-Hadith, wa’l-Muhaddithun, s.18; Qawaidu’t-Tahdith, p.64 et al.
10- See, Bukhari, Eeman, 37; Muslim, Eeman, 1; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 16; Tirmidhi, Eeman,4.
11- Muslim, Jannah, 63-64; See, Aydınlı, Sünnetin Kaynağı, p.50-51; Toksarı, Sünnet, p.98-99; Abu Dawud, Adab, 48.
12- Muslim, Eeman, 32-36; See, al-Munawi, Fayzu’l-Qadir, VI, 289-290.
13- For examples, see, Muslim, Janaiz, 1; Tirmidhi, Eeman, 18; Jihad, 32.
14- Although some researchers claim that since the hadiths in which the word revelation is mentioned are narrated in terms of meaning, they cannot be accepted as evidence that hadith in general are revelaed (Erul, Bünyamin, İslamiyat, C.1, s.1, p.55 et al), in another article the same person says that it is not possible to say that Allah is not in contact with Hazrat Prophet except the Quran. He also says the Messenger of Allah was appointed with the duty of tabligh (conveying the message), teaching and explaining. However, he also says that it will be better to call it wisdom. (Erul, Bünyamin, İslamiyat, V.III, p.1., p.184.
15- Muslim, Hayd, 34.
16- Bukhari, Nikah, 108.
17- See respectively, Suyuti, Miftah, 29; Musnad, II, 85,160; Bukhari, Adab, 28; Muslim, 1,140; Abu Dawud, Manasik, 24,27; Tirmidhi, Hajj, 14; Abu Dawud, Salat, 2; Bukhari, Badu’l-Khalk, 6; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 9; Musnad, I, 191; Ibn Hisham, Sira, III, 101-102.
18- Suyuti, Miftah, 29.
19- Abdulghani Abdulkhaliq, Hujja, 337; It is said that there is ijma (consensus) that sunnah is based on revelation. See, ibid, p.338; It is reported that Hasan b. Atiyya said sunnah is based on revelation like the Quran. Darimi, Muqaddima, 49.
20- Imam Shafii, who says wahy matluw is the Quran and wahy ghayr matluw is the sunnah, states that the sunnah is the ‘wisdom’ mentioned in the Quran. (ar-Risala, 3-4,10; al-Umm, V, 127,128.)
21- Ibn Hazim, al-Ihkam, 93; cf. Kırbaşoğlu, Sünnet, p.260-261.
22- Ghazali, Mustasfa, I, 83; that Kattabi has the same opinion, see Khattabi, Maalimu’s-Sunan, V, 10.
23- Çakan, İ.Lütfi, Hadislerde Görülen İhtilaflar ve Çözüm Yolları, Ist, 1982, p.96.
24- The hadith that states a woman and her maternal or paternal aunt cannot be married to the same man at the same time is like that. Bukhari, Nikah, 27; Muslim, Nikah, 37-38.
25- He gives the following incident as example: wearing silk clothes is haram for men but Hazrat Prophet lets Abdurrahman b. Awf wear silk clothes due to his illness. See, Bukhari, Jihad, 91; Libas, 29; Muslim, Libas, 24-26.
26- Ibn Qutayba, Abu Muh. Abdullah, Ta’wilu Mukhtalifi’l-Hadith, Beirut, 1972, p.196 et al.
27- Phrases like the holy spirit blew into my heart are revelation of that kind. Ibn Majah, Tijarah, 2; Bayhaqi, Sunan, VII, 76; Suyuti, Miftah, 30.
28- Sarakhsi, Shamsuddin, Usulu’s-Sarakhsi, Beirut, 1973, II, 90-96.
29- Shatibi, Muwafaqat, IV, 19; For similar views, see, Abdulghani, Hujja, p.334 et al.
30- See, Aydınlı, Istılah, 148; Also See, Bukhari, I’tisam, 24.
31-Ismah, one of the attributes of the prophets, means being away from unbelief, not knowing Allah, telling lies, making mistakes, erring, neglecting, not knowing the details of the Shariah. It also means impossibility of continuing to make a mistake. See, Ghazali, Mustasfa, II, 212-214; Sabuni, Maturidiyye Akâidi, trns Bekir Topaloğlu, Ank. 1979, s.212-212; Yazır, Hak Dini, IX, 6357; Abdulghani, Hujja, 108 et al.
32- Sarakhsi, Usul, II, 68.
33- Sabuni, Maturidiyya, 121; Abdulghani, Hujja, p.222; For the view of Ibn Taymiyya that prophets will not be let continue to make a mistake, see Abduljalil Eesa, Ijtihadu’r-Rasul, Egypt, nd. p.33.
34- That Allah protected him (pbuh) from the impurities of Jahiliyya, see Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, I, 121; Abu Nuaym, Dalail, I, 129; Bayhaqi, Dalaîl, I, 313.
35- Abu Nuaym, Dalail, I, 147; See also, Bukhari, I, 96; Muslim, I, 268; Bayhaqi, Dalail, I, 313-314.
36- See. Tabari, Tarikh, II, 196; Abu Nuaym, Dklail, I, 143; Bayhaqi, Dalail, I, 315; Once, they took him (pbuh) to an entertainment by force, but he disappeared; Then, he said; a white-skinned, tall man said to me; ‘O Muhammad! Never touch that idol. Go back!’”. Cf Musnad, II, 68-69; Köksal, İslam Tarihi, II,117-121.
37- For more information, see Sarakhsi, Usul, II, 91; Ghazali, Mustasfa, II,214; Sabuni, Maturidiyya, s.121; Abdülghani, Hujja, 221-222; Abduljalil Eesa, İjtihad, p.31-33; Çakan, İhtilaflar, p.96,113; Erdoğan, Sünnet, 192 et al.
38- Qiyamah, 16-17.
39- See respectively al-Ghashiya, 21-22; Hud, 12; al-Kahf, 23; al,-Qasas, 56; Yunus, 99; ash-Shuara, 3.
40- at-Tawba, 113.
41- Tirmidhi, Tafsir, sura 3/12; Aal-e-Imran, 128; Abduljalil Eesa, Ijtihad, p.95.
42- The organs of Hazrat Hamza like his ear and nose had been cut off and his liver had been removed. Ibn Hisham, Sira, III, 101-103. For the verse see an-Nahl, 126-127.
43- al-Anfal, 67-68. See Abdülghani, Hujja, 185.
44- at-Tawba, 88, 84; See Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, II, 378; Abduljalil Eesa, p.105.
45- at-Tahrim, 1-2.
46- See Abduljalil Eesa, Ijtihad, s.59-66.
47- See, Sarakhsi, II, 90-91; Tahanawi, Muh. Ali b. Ali, Kashshafu Istilahati’l-Funun, Ist, 1984, II, 1523.  


56-) How old was Aisha (PBUH) when she got married to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?

After having become a prophet, ten years later, at the age of 50, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) needed wives to help him do the housework, take care of his children, and help him in inviting people into Islam. He wanted to marry both Sawda, who was old and widow, and the daughter of Abu Bakr, Aisha.

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) made this request ten years after the beginning of the Revelation. Aisha was born 5-6 years before the beginning of revelation. Thus, it appears that the age of Aisha was 17-18 when she got married to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

This point is included in full detail in the book “Asr-i Saadath (The Era of Bliss)” by Mawlana Shibli. (Ist. 1928. 2/ 997)

We can definitely conclude from the biography on Asmaa, Aisha’s elder sister, that Aisha was at a marriageable age when she got married to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The old biography books write about Asmaa as follows: “When Asmaa was 100 years of age, she died in the seventy third year of the Emigration (Hijrah). During the Emigration, she was exactly 27 years old. Since Aisha was 10 years younger than her sister was, she needs to be at her 17. Besides, she had been engaged to Jubair before she married the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). So she was a girl at a marriageable age.” (Hatemu’l Enbiya (The Seal of Prophets) The Prophet Muhammad and His life, Ali Himmet Berki, Osman Keskio?lu, p. 210)


57-) Why is the birthday of the Prophet important for us?

April 20, 571 (the 12th night of the month of Rabi’ul-awwal) is the date when our beloved Prophet was born; it is called the birthday of the Prophet. It is the birthday of the Prophet of the prophets, whom the universe and the humankind had been looking forward to for centuries. He is the prayer of Hazrat Ibrahim, the glad-tiding of Jesus, and the dream of Abdulmuttalib, his grandfather and Amina, his mother. The Incident of the Elephant informed about his coming. Several extraordinary events took place on the night he was born. A holy light that illuminated the east and west of the world was seen. The fire of the fireworshippers which had been burning continuously for a thousand years blew out. The valley of Samawa, which had been dry for centuries, was flooded. Tens of stars fell down from the sky. Fourteen towers of Kisra’s Palace fell down spontaneously. Most of the idols in the Kaaba were overturned. The devil gave out a deadly scream. Many more mysterious incidents took place one after another because the Master of the Universe, the Source of Pride of the humanity, Hazrat  Ahmad Mahmud Muhammad Mustafa (pbuh) was coming to the world. All of the beings welcomed him by standing.

To celebrate the birth of the Prophet of human beings and jinn, to utter salawat for him, to mention his name, to remember that we are his ummah thanks to this night is a nice application that has been done for a long time by Muslims. 


58-) Will you write the hadith about the Prophet’s (pbuh) advice to the young person who wanted to commit fornication?

This narration is a hadith. The Prophet (pbuh) was together with the Companions. A young man came to him and said insolently:

"O Messenger of Allah! I want to be friends with a woman and commit fornication." the companions got very angry. Some of them were furious and wanted to beat him and to dismiss him. Some of them shouted because the young man spoke so insolently.  

The Prophet (pbuh) said, “Let that young man come here.” He called the young man near him, made him set down next to him and asked him, 

“Would you like this ugly act for your mother? Would you regard it something nice?" The young man answered furiously:

"No, O Messenger of Allah." the Messenger of Allah said:

"Neither would the people like it for their mothers." Then he asked,

“Would you like this ugly act for your sister?" The young man answered furiously:

"No, never!”

“Neither would the people like it for their sisters." Then the Messenger of Allah placed his hand on his chest and prayed, “O Allah! Keep his heart clean, guard his chastity, and forgive his sins.”

The young man left the Messenger of Allah after this prayer. He never committed a sin again; he led his life without even thinking of such an ugly thing. (Musnad, V. 257)


59-) Is Muhammad (BPUH) the prophet of Jinn? Did our prophet himself convey them to the religion of Islam?

In the Qur’an and in some of the hadith, it is narrated that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) saw the Jinn and He recited the Qur’an and had a conversation with them. [Bukhari, Salat 75, Amal fi's-Salat 10, Bad'u'l Khalq 11, Anbiya 40, Tafsir, Sad; Muslim, Masajid 39, (541)]

 “Behold, We turned towards thee a company of Jinn (quietly) listening to the Qur'an: when they stood in the presence thereof, they said "Listen in silence!" When the (reading) was finished, they returned to their people, to warn (them of their sins). They said "O our people! We have heard a Book revealed after Moses, confirming what came before it: it guides (men) to the Truth and to a Straight Path. "O our people hearken to the one who invites (you) to Allah, and believe in him: He will forgive you your faults, and deliver you from a Penalty Grievous.” (Surah Al-Ahqaf, 46/29-31; see Jinn, 72/1-15)

The verses explain that Jinn obeyed our prophet (PBUH) and they also invited their tribes to follow our Prophet, Muhammad (PBUH).


60-) Why was the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) referred as “the last of Nabis” (Nabi is an Arabic word for “Prophet”) instead of “the last of Rasuls” (Rasul is an Arabic word for a prophet who was given a Book.)?

That the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the seal of the prophets is indicated in Surah Al-Ahzab as follows: “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things. (Al-Ahzab Surah, 33:40)

In this verse, Allah Almighty clearly announces the Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) prophethood by mentioning his name and states conclusively that he is the last of prophets by saying “the Seal of the Prophets.

The prophets who were given Books are called “rasul.” The verse mentions the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as both rasul and the seal of the prophets and thus it definitely shows that there will be no more prophets after him and the gate of prophethood is closed for good. That is to say, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is both last nabi (prophet) and the last rasul. For, every rasul is a nabi, but not every nabi is a rasul.

If the verse had mentioned him as “the prophet who was sent last” instead of “the seal of the prophets,” perhaps some people might be deluded into thinking that there would be a new prophet who would not be given any Book. In this way, the verse has closed the door for all delusions and scruples.


61-) Who is the closest person to Hz. Muhammad? Hz. Umar, Hz. Uthman, Abu Bakr or Hz. Ali?

In terms of ancestry, Hz. Ali is the closest. However, spiritually, the closeness is based on the order of caliphate as Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar, Hz. Uthman and Hz. Ali.


62-) When did the Prophet (pbuh) perform the first prayer?

The first fard prayer that Hz. Prophet (pbuh) performed after Miraj is the noon prayer. (Naylu’l-Awtar, 1/300). There are different views whether the morning and evening prayers he performed before it were sunnah or fard.

Mudarris Tahirü’l-Mevlevi reports that Jibril led the morning prayer to the Prophet (pbuh) near the Kaaba on the first day of the prophethood. The Prophet performed the evening prayer together with Hz. Khadijah; Hz. Ali joined them the next day. (see Tahirü’l-Mevlevi (Olgun), Müslümanlıkta İbadet Tarihi, p. 24)

According to some narrations, the first person to perform the morning prayer is Hz. Adam (pbuh). Accordingly, he is the first human being to perform a prayer. The first person to perform the noon prayer is Hz. Dawud (pbuh), the first afternoon prayer Hz. Ibrahim (pbuh), the first evening prayer Hz. Isa (pbuh) and the first night prayer Hz. Yunus (pbuh). These five daily prayers were rendered fard for Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) and his ummah. (see al-Mutadabu’l-Islami)


63-) What was the relationship between the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions like? How did he treat them?

It is necessary to read the books that narrate the life, ethics and attitudes of the Prophet (pbuh) in detail in order to find the answers to these questions. However, we will try to mention some of his characteristics briefly:  

We learn about the high ethics of the Prophet (pbuh) and his relationships with other people from his companions, who followed him closely like a shadow. Those who knew the Prophet (pbuh) best were his wives, the people who served him and his close friends.

For instance, we learn from his loyal and enduring wife, Hz Khadijah, who lived with him for twenty-five years, fifteen years being in the period before his prophethood, about his personality and characteristics briefly.

Hz. Khadijah believed in the Prophet (pbuh) without any hesitation when he received the first revelation. When she saw that the Prophet was in panic, she soothed him and eliminated his worries.

Hz. Khadijah consoled the Prophet as follows: 

"Allah will never embarrass you because you help the desperate, protect the poor, support the oppressed, entertain guests and take care of those who suffer misfortunes in the way of the truth."

Hz, Aisha, who lived with the Prophet for nine years, was his wife whom he liked the most after Hz. Khadijah. We learned about the family life of the Prophet and most of his characteristics from Hz. Aisha. She described the ethics of the Prophet as follows: 

"The ethics of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was the ethics of the Quran. The Messenger of Allah never nursed a grudge against anybody and never took revenge. He got angry with a person because the Quran got angry with him. He liked something or someone because the Quran liked it or him."

"When the Messenger of Allah had to choose between two things, he would choose the easier one. If that easy thing was a sin, the Messenger of Allah would keep away from it more than anybody else."

"He did not utter any bad words; he did not want to wrong anybody. When the Messenger of Allah spoke, he would not link and lengthen words. He would utter words distinctly when he talked. A person who listened to him could memorize what he said if he wished."

Hz. Ali (ra), who was educated by the Prophet (pbuh) beginning from an early age, who was always with him after his prophethood and who continued his bloodline, listed the ethical characteristics of the Prophet (pbuh) as follows:

"The Prophet was always merry, gentle and benevolent. He was not surly, hard-hearted, aggressive, phony, toady or jealous; he did not try to find people's mistakes."

"He turned a blind eye to the things he did not like; he never disappointed the people who expected something from him; he did not deprive them of what they wanted."

"He kept away from three things: squabbling, gabbiness and useless things. He definitely avoided three things: He did not discredit or condemn anybody; he did not try to find out about people's faults and secrets."

"He talked about only the things that he expected to be useful. When the Prophet spoke, the listeners pricked up their ears and listened attentively. When he stopped talking, those who wanted to talk would ask for permission to speak."

"When the Companions spoke in the presence of the Prophet , they never argued or quarreled. When one of them spoke in the presence of the Prophet, the others listened to him carefully until he finished his words. The words of all of them were listened as carefully as the words of the first speaker."

“He laughed at the things that his Companions laughed and wondered at the things that they wondered. He showed patience when some strangers talked rudely and asked irrelevant questions. The Companions wanted those people to ask questions very much. 


“The Prophet said, ‘When you meet someone who is in need, help him’."

“The Prophet accepted only the praises that were equal to the favors he did and that were not flattery; he did not interrupt the words of anyone unless they transgressed their limits. If people spoke by transgressing their limits, he either silenced them or left that place in order to prevent them.”

Hind bin Abi Hala, who was the son of Hz. Khadijah from her first husband and who was the stepson of the Prophet, described the superior characteristics of the Prophet as follows when Hz. Hasan asked him:

“The Messenger of Allah was always mindful. His silence was longer than his speech. He never spoke unnecessarily. He mentioned Allah’s name when started and finished talking. He told the truth when he spoke; he expressed several meanings concisely through a few words. He uttered neither more nor fewer words than necessary. He showed respect to even the smallest bounty; he did not regard any bounty as ordinary. He did not praise or criticize a bounty because he liked or disliked it."

“He did not get angry for worldly affairs. However, he got so angry when the right of someone was violated that nothing and nobody could prevent his fury and wrath before that violation was eliminated. On the other hand, he did not get angry with anybody regarding something that interested him only; he did not think of taking revenge; on the contrary, he returned a good deed for a bad deed as a gentle and generous person."

“When he got angry, he would get over his anger very quickly and he did not show his anger. When he was joyful, he would close his eyes. He would smile instead of laughing. When he smiled, his teeth looked like pearls.”

Hz. Anas bin Malik, who served the Prophet (pbuh) for nine years, describes a nice characteristic of the Prophet (pbuh) as follows:

“The Messenger of Allah was the most gracious man among people. Even when it was very cold in a winter morning, he would make wudu with the water brought by a female slave or a child. When somebody asked the Messenger of Allah something, he would listen to him carefully and he would not leave before the person who asked the question left."

“When somebody shook hands with the Messenger of Allah, the Messenger of Allah would not release his hand before that person released his hand.”

A few people went to Zayd bin Thabit, a revelation scribe of the Prophet and asked him, “O Zayd! Will you inform us about the state, attitudes and words of the Prophet (pbuh)?” Zayd described him as follows:

“What shall I tell you about that supreme Messenger? You ask me about all of his states, attitudes and words; he is such a sea that he has no coast. However, I will tell you about some of his attitudes:"

“I was a neighbor of the Messenger of Allah. When he received revelation, he would send someone to me; I would go to his presence and write down the revelation that he received. When we talked about the worldly affairs in his presence, he would also talk about the worldly affairs. When we talked about the otherworldly affairs, he would also talk about the otherworldly affairs. When we talked about eating, he would also talk about eating.”


64-) Did Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) see Allah (SWT) during Mir'aj (Ascension)?

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) saw Allah (SWT) during mir'aj (Ascension).

Jibril (PBUH) took our Holy Prophet (PBUH) and rose from the seventh level. Afterwards, the Sidra- al -Muntaha’s (the seventh heaven) court opened. “Here, this is Sidra-al- Muntaha. I will burn if I move forward by the length of a finger tip,” said Hazrat Jibriil and did not take one step forward.” Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) saw Sidra-al-Muntaha’s four rivers flowing. Furthermore, our Holy Prophet (PBUH) again saw Jibriil (PBUH) in his true shape and form. Before, our Holy Prophet (PBUH) had seen Hazrat Jibril covering the skies with his majestic wings in the spot called Jiyad in Mecca where a revelation was revealed. 

Afterwards, our Holy Prophet (PBUH) went to the “station that was marked ”Qab-al-Qawsayn,” the distance of two bow-lengths even though Hazrat Jibriil was not by his side. And after that, he witnessed Allah’s beauty and conversation first hand.

Hazrat Sulayman Chelebi, the author of the “Mawlid” describes this incident very clearly:


While talking with Jibriil

A Heavenly Mount came before him and saluted him.
 

It took the King of the World then

From Sidra and left quickly
 

At that moment, a space was seen

There was neither place, nor the Earth nor skies
 

That place was neither empty nor full

The mind cannot understand that situation
 

Seventy thousands curtains were opened

The light of oneness drew the curtain on his face
 

Whenever he passed a curtain,

He was summoned, “O Muhammad, come here”
 

He proceeded after seeing all of them

He reached that High Personality
 

That Lord of Majesty, who is free of six directions

Showed him His face in an indescribable manner
 

Anyway, the Sultan who saw everything truly

Looked at God Almighty carefully
 

He saw the Lord of Majesty clearly

His ummah will see him like that in the hereafter
 

Without any letters or sentences, the Sultan

Said to following to him


65-) How old was the Prophet when the miracle of Night Journey (Isra) and Ascension (Miraj) happened?

The miracle of Miraj (Ascension) happened in the 12th year of His prophethood that is the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was 52 years old.


66-) Which wife of his did the prophet (PBUH) lead the funeral prayer himself?

-Two wives of the prophet (pbuh) passed away while he was alive.

There was no religious decree about funeral prayers at the time when Hz. Khadijah died.

Thus, the prophet did not lead her funeral prayer.

His second wife was Zaynab bint Khuzayma. As there was a religious decree for the funeral prayer when she died, the prophet (PBUH) led her funeral prayer. And she was the only wife of the prophet who had this honor.

Hz. Zaynab bint Khuzayma, passed away for about two or three months (in some narrations eight months) after her marriage with the prophet (pbuh) (see Ibn Qayyim, Zadu’l-Maad, 1/103; Ibnul-Athir, Usdul-Ghaba, V, 297)


67-) When a person asked the Prophet (pbuh), "Where is my father?", he said to the man, "Both my father and your father are in hellfire." Will the Prophet's father go to Hell?

- Imran b. Husayn narrates: My father, Husayn went to the Messenger of Allah and asked, “What do you say about my father, who entertained guests, visited his relatives but who died before you came?” The Prophet (pbuh) said, “My father, your father and you are in hellfire.” Indeed, Husayn died as a polytheist twenty days later.” (Tabari, Kabir, 13/128-Shamila) Hafiz Haythami stated the the chain of the hadith is sound by saying, “The narrators of the hadith are the narrators of Sahih.” (see Majmau’z-Zawaid, 1/117)

- According to another narration, Amir b. Sad reported from his father:  A Bedouin came over to the Prophet (pbuh) and said, “My father visited his relatives, and did many other good deeds. Where is he now?” Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said, “He is in Hell” The Bedouin was a bit disturbed by the answer and asked, “O Messenger of Allah! Where is your father? Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said to him, “When you go to the grave of any unbeliever, tell him he is in Hell.” This man, who became a Muslim afterwards, said, “Hz. Prophet (pbuh) ordered me a hard task. Whenever I go to the grave of an unbeliever, I tell him he is in Hell.”(Tabarani, Kabir, 1/143-Shamila)

- We cannot find anything to interpret the first narration differently. One of the ancestors might have been meant with the phrase "my father".

- It is possible to understand the expression of the Prophet (pbuh) in the second narration as something that aimed to relieve the man who asked the question. For, the statement “When you go to the grave of any unbeliever, tell him he is in Hell” sounds as if the Prophet's father is also in Hell but it does not necessarily mean so.

- There are also narrations stating that the father and mother of the Prophet (pbuh) will go to Paradise with belief. For instance, Hz. Aisha narrates: “Hz. Prophet (pbuh) was standing in a very grieved state in Hajjun (where his mother's grave was). He stood there for a while and returned to me in a very happy state. He said,

“I asked my Lord and He revived my mother; she was sent back after she believed in me.”(see Nabhani, Hujjatullahi ala’l-Alamin, p.412)

- According to what Hz. Aisha narrates,

“Hz. Prophet (pbuh) asked his Lord to revive his mother and father. He revived them and they both believed in him. Then, they were returned to their previous state.”(ibid)
 

- Some evidences indicating that the mother and father of the Prophet (pbuh) are among the people of Paradise are as follows:

a.They did not live long enough to see his prophethood.

“…Nor would We visit with Our Wrath until We had sent an messenger (to give warning).”(al-Isra, 17/15)

According to the verse above, they will not be punished. 

b. They are among the people of interregnum. There are narrations that the people of interregnum will attain salvation or that they will be tested in the Gathering Place.

c.Most of the people who memorized hadiths hold the view that the Prophet's parents are among the people of Paradise acting upon the narrations that they were revived and then believed in him.

d. Hz. Prophet's parents believed in the religion of Hanif (the religion of Hz. Ibrahim) like Abu Bakr, Amr b. Nufayl, Qus b. Saida, Waraqa b. Nawfal. According to Razi, who is one of those who support this view, all of the ancestors of the Prophet (pbuh) up to Hz. Adam believed in the religion of oneness.

Accordingly, the statement,"My father and your father are in Hell" has two meanings:

1.The Prophet (pbuh) meant that his uncle, Abu Lahab, was in Hell because Arabs call their uncles as "father".

2.The hadiths stating that the mother and father of the Prophet (pbuh) are in Hell belong to an earlier period; the narrations stating that they are among the people of Paradise are newer hadiths that abrogated the previous ones.  The Prophet (pbuh), who did not have information about them in the past, received definite information about them later and stated that they were among the people of Paradise. (see Nabhani, ibid, p. 412-414)


68-) What are the things that were given to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in Miraj (Ascension)?

The Prophet (pbuh) was given three things as a result of the encounter in Miraj:

1. Five daily prayers equal to the reward of fifty daily prayers.

2.The last two verses of the chapter al-Baqara.

3.The muqhimat (major sins) of the people from the ummah of Muhammad were forgiven except those who associated partners with Allah. [1]

As a matter of fact,, those gifts were expressed as follows in a hadith: “…Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) were given three things in Ascension: He was given five daily prayers, the last part of the chapter of al-Baqara (Amanarrasulu) and the promise that the sins ofthe people from the ummah of Muhammad would be forgiven except those who died associating partners with Allah.” (see Muslim, Iman, 279)

This glad tiding does not mean that no believers will enter Hell. It states that any sin can be forgiven and that a believer will not stay in Hell forever even if he is a sinner.

The believers who have more rewards than sins will go to Paradise directly. Those who have more sins will remain in Hell for a certain period so that they will be purified of their sins; and then they will go to Paradise.

Allah stated:

"O Muhammad! These prayers need to be performed five times a day. However, there are ten rewards for each prayer! It means fifty prayers. [2]

I utter a word once; I will not change it! [3]

A person who intends to do a good deed but does not do it is given one reward due to his good intention; if he does it, he is given ten rewards.

No sin is written for a person who intends to do a bad deed but does not do it; if he does it, one sin is written for him". [4]

The following is stated in the last two verses of the chapter of al-Baqara:

 

The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith.

 Each one (of them) believeth in Allah,

 His angels,

 His books,

and His Messengers

 "We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His Messengers."

And they say: "We hear and we obey;

(We seek) Thy forgiveness,

Our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys."

On no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear.

It gets every good that it earns

and it suffers every ill that it earns.

(Pray): "Our Lord! condemn us not if we forget or fall into error;

our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which Thou didst lay on those before us;

Our Lord! lay not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear.

Blot out our sins and grant us forgiveness.

Have mercy on us.

Thou art our Protector;

help us against those who stand against faith!" [5]

 

Muqhimat means major and dangerous sins that lead man to Hell. [6]

Once, the Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Beware seven things that lead man to destruction!"

"O Messenger of Allah! What are those dangerous things?" asked his Companions.

The Prophet said,

“To associate partners with Allah,

To cast a spell,

To kill a person unjustly, which was forbidden by Allah,

To devour interest (usury),

To devour the money of the orphans,

To escape from the battlefield,

To slander Muslim women who are chaste and never think of committing fornication that they have committed fornication!" [7]

Sources

[1] Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, V. 1, p. 422; Muslim , Sahih, V. 1, p. 157; Tirmidhi, Sunan, V. 5, p. 393-394; Nasai, Sunan, V. 1, p. 224; Bayhaqi, Dalailu'n-Nubuwwa, V. 2, p. 373; Baghawi, Masabihu's-Sunna, V. 2, p.179; Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, V. 1, p. 1 42; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 57; Qurtubi, V. 17, p. 94; Dhahabi, p. 255; Diyarbakri, Khamis, V. 1, p. 312.
[2] Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, V. 14, p. 304; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 3, p. 149; Muslim, V. 1, p. 146-147; Bayhaqi, Dalail, V. 2, p. 384; Qadi Iyad.V.1, p. 138; Ibn Athir, V. 1 2, p. 54; Dhahabi, p. 266.
[3] Bukhari, Sahih, V.1, p. 93; Muslim, Sahih, V. 1 ,p.149; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 57.
[4] Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, V. 14, p. 304-305; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 3, p. 149; Muslim, V. 1, p. 147; Bayhaqi, V.2, p. 384; Qadi Iyad, V. 1, p.138; Ibn Athir, V. 12, p. 54.
[5] al-Baqara, 2/285-286.
[6] Ibn Athir,Nihaya, V. 4. p.19.
[7] Abdurrazzaq, Musannaf, V. 11 , p. 17; Bukhari, Sahih, V. 195; Muslim, Sahih, V. 1, p. 92; Bayhaqi, Sunanu'l-Kubra, V. 8, p. 20, 249.


69-) Will you give information about the Prophet's love of children?

We see the best example of the compassion of the Prophet (pbuh) in his attitude toward children. The compassion and love of the Prophet (pbuh) toward children was really different.

When the Prophet (pbuh) saw a child, his blessed face would be covered in joy. He would hold that child, hug, caress, pat and kiss him.

He would greet each child he met and ask about his/her health. When he saw a child while he was riding an animal, he would make the child ride pillion and give him/her a lift. He would talk to children as if he was their friend and would give them advice according to their level of understanding.   

He was so closely connected with children that when he saw some children racing once, he ran with them to join their fun.

The Prophet was very keen on his children and grandchildren. He was a compassionate father and a merciful grandfather.

Hz. Anas narrates:

"I have never seen anybody more compassionate than the Prophet toward one's family. His son, Ibrahim, had a wet-nurse living in Awali, Madinah. He often went to see his son with me. He would enter the blacksmith's house, which was full of smoke, took Ibrahim and kissed him and smelled him; then, he would return." (Bukhari Adab, 18; Muslim, Fadail, 63)

The Prophet (pbuh) loved her daughter, Fatima, very much. Before he went on an expedition, he would always visit his daughter and when he returned, he would visit her first.  

When Hz. Fatima came to visit her father, he would stand up to welcome his daughter, kiss her on the forehead and make her sit next to him.  

Hz. Fatima had two sons: Hasan and Husayn. The Prophet (pbuh) loved these two grandsons of his very much. He held them, put them on his shoulders, carried them on his back, played with them and fulfilled their requests.

When the Prophet (pbuh) died, Hz. Hasan was seven and Hz. Husayn was six years old. That is, Hasan and Husayn were very young when the Prophet (pbuh) was alive.  

Some examples of compassion and love the Prophet showed to his two grandsons and hence to all children:

Once, the Prophet was reciting a sermon on the pulpit when he saw Hasan and Husayn enter the mosque slithering. He stopped the sermon, went down, held them and hugged them. He said, 

Allah Almighty said, "Your possessions and your progeny are but a trial.' (al-Anfal, 8/28; at-Taghabun, 64/15) It is so true. I could not stand seeing them on the ground." (Bukhari, Fitan, 20)

After that, he continued the sermon.

Hz. Anas narrates:

"I saw the Prophet (pbuh) reciting a sermon. Hasan was on his lap. He addressed the people and then bent down to kiss the child, saying, 'I love him.'" (Muslim, Fadailu's-Sahaba, 56)

Abu Said narrates:

"When the Prophet (pbuh) was in prostration, his grandson, Hasan, came and climbed on his back. The Prophet held his hand and stood up. He kept Hasan on his back until he bowed down for ruku. After standing up from ruku, he released Hasan; and Hasan left." (Haythami, IX/176)

Abdullah bin Mas'ud narrates:

"When the Prophet prostrated while performing a prayer, Hasan and Husayn came and climbed on his back. When the people who were there wanted to intervene, the Prophet signaled them not to intervene. After finishing the prayer, the Prophet (pbuh) cuddled them. He said, 

"He who loves me should love them too." (Haythami, IX/179)

Anas bin Malik narrates:

"Once, Hasan and Husayn arrived while the Prophet was in prostration and climbed on his back. The Prophet lengthened the prostration until they got off. The people who were there asked him,

"O Messenger of Allah! Did you not lengthen the prostration too much?" He answered:

"I avoided hurrying when they were on my back." (Haythami, IX/181)

Qatada narrates:

"Once the Prophet (pbuh) came over to us holding Amama, his granddaughter born of his daughter Zaynab, in his arms. He started to perform a prayer like that. When he bowed down for ruku, he put the child onto the ground and took her again when he stood up."

Abu Hurayra narrates:

"Once the Prophet (pbuh) came to us with Hasan on one of his shoulders and Husayn on the other. First, he kissed one of them and then the other. He continued kissing them like that."

We said,

"O Messenger of Allah! It seems that you love them very much." He said,

"Yes, I love them very much. A person who loves them is regarded to have loved me. A person who hates them is regarded to have hated me." (Ibn Sa’d, VI/360; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, I/329)

Once, the Prophet was invited somewhere. On the way, he saw Husayn, his grandson. Husayn opened his arms and ran toward his grandfather but he suddenly changed his direction and ran away. He did the same things a few times. The Prophet ran after him and eventually caught him and hugged him. He said, 

"Husayn is of me; I am of Husayn." (Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 11)

The Prophet did what the children wanted in order to please them and won their hearts.

Once, he was walking and Hasan was on his shoulders. When a man saw him like that, he said to Hasan,

"O child! What a nice mount you have!" The Prophet (pbuh) said to the man,

"What a nice rider he is!" (Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, I/329)

Although he was a prophet, he was not ashamed of carrying a child on his shoulders; he was proud of it.

The Prophet (pbuh) was so compassionate and tolerant toward children that he would tolerate it when babies and small children wetted themselves; he would leave them as they were until they finished urinating.  

Hz Husayn, the grandson of the Prophet (pbuh), was with Umm Fadl, his wet nurse. Once, the Prophet (pbuh) went to see him. Umm Fadl narrates:

"I was breastfeeding Husayn. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) came toward me. He wanted to hold Husayn. I gave Husayn to him. He suddenly started to urinate on the Prophet. I stretched out my hand to take Husayn. The Prophet said, 'Do not interrupt his urination.' Then, he asked for a glass of water and poured on the place where he had urinated."

The Prophet could not stand it when a child started to cry. He wanted them to be silenced. It was very difficult for his love and compassion to allow children to cry.  

He often asked his wives not to allow Husayn to cry. He stated the following about silencing a child who was crying: 

"If a person takes care of a crying child until he keeps silent, Allah Almighty will give him so many bounties to please him in Paradise."

When he heard a child crying while he was leading a prayer, he would finish the prayer earlier so that his mother would take care of him.

When the Prophet (pbuh) led prayers in the mosque, mothers with small children also joined the congregation. One Companion narrates the following:

"Once, the Messenger of Allah led the morning prayer. He recited two short chapters in the prayer. When the prayer ended, Abu Said al-Khudri asked:

"O Messenger of Allah! Why did you perform the prayer much shorter than before?"

The Prophet (pbuh) answered:

"Did you not hear the sound of the child among the women at the back? I wanted to enable the woman to look after her child."

A child is shown the most compassion by her mother. It is stated in a hadith that mothers will get great rewards due to the compassion they show toward their children. An incident regarding the issue took place as follows:

Once, a poor woman and her two daughters visited Hz. Aisha. Hz. Aisha had only one date to give them. She gave the date to the mother. The woman divided the date into two and fed her daughters. When Hz. Aisha told the Prophet (pbuh) what happened, the Prophet said,

"To love children truly and to take care of them is a means of salvation from Hell for her."

The Prophet did not discriminate among children. He showed the same love and mercy he showed to his children and grandchildren to the children of his Companions too.  

Hz. Zayd's son Usama, the servant of the Prophet (pbuh) narrates:

"The Messenger of Allah used to put me on one of his knees and Hasan, his grandson, on the other; then he would hug us and pray as follows: 'O Lord! Show mercy to them! For, I am merciful toward them.'

Some people found it strange that the Prophet (pbuh) hugged and kissed the children of the Companions. They could not fully understand this nice characteristic, which they did not have. 

Once Aqra bin Habis saw the Prophet (pbuh) kiss Hz. Hasan and said,

"I have ten children; I have never kissed any of them."

Thereupon, the Prophet said,

"He who shows no mercy, will receive no mercy."(Muslim, Fadail, 65; Tirmidhi, Birr and Sila, 12)

Once, a Bedouin came to the Prophet and said,

"O Messenger of Allah! Do you kiss children? We do not kiss them."The Prophet (pbuh) said,  

"What can I do if Allah removed the feeling of mercy from your heart?"

Thus, the Prophet stated that the feeling of mercy and compassion can be seen the most distinctly related to love of children and compassion shown toward them. We learn from the Prophet that to love and kiss children make us gain great rewards:

"Kiss your children a lot because you are given such a rank in Paradise in return for each kiss that there is a distance of five hundred years between two ranks. The angels count your kisses and record rewards for you."(Musnad Zayd)

The Prophet did not discriminate among children of different religions related to compassion he showed toward them.

Once a Jewish child became ill. The Prophet (pbuh) went to visit him. He asked the child to become a Muslim. The child asked permission from his father to become a Muslim. His father allowed and the child became a Muslim.

This nice attitude of the Prophet during peace also continued during war. He advised his Companions not to kill children and asked them to treat children well.  

Once, a few children remained in the middle of a fight between two groups and were killed. The Prophet (pbuh) became very sorry when he heard about it. The Companions asked,

"O Messenger of Allah! They are the children of the polytheists. Why are you so sad? "The Prophet said,

"They remain as they were born. Never kill children. Every living being is clean when it is first created."

For, even if a child's father is non-Muslim, he is not regarded as responsible unless he reaches the age of puberty. They retain their innocence since they are born having the nature of Islam.   

We see the unique compassion of the Prophet (pbuh) shown to the girls too. Before Islam, daughters had no significance in the eye of their fathers. They regarded having a daughter as something bad. They did not want to marry their daughters off since they did not want their son-in-laws to be called "the son-in-law of such and such a man". They used to bury their daughters alive. They regarded this savage act as their tradition from their ancestors and applied it.

The Prophet (pbuh) regarded the killings of the poor innocent girls like this as a big murder and worked very hard to eliminate this evil custom as soon as possible. He was proud of having daughters and he gave the glad tidings that a person who brought up three (or two or one) daughters and educated them in an Islamic way would go to Paradise.  When a girl came to his presence, he would take care of her.  

When Khalid bin Said came to visit the Prophet (pbuh), he had brought his little daughter with him. The Prophet gave close attention to her since she was born in Abyssinia. The girl played with the seal of the prophethood at the back of the Prophet. Her father wanted to take her but the Prophet (pbuh) prevented her father so as not to offend the girl. Once, the Prophet had a piece of embroidered fabric. He summoned Khalid's daughter and gave it to her to make her happy.     

• • •
Jamra was a little child then. His father took her to the Prophet (pbuh) and asked the Prophet "O Messenger of Allah! Will you pray to Allah for her?"  The Prophet held her in his arms and prayed for her.

• • •
The reward for those who showed love and compassion toward their children is given even in this world. They enjoy the pleasure of loving a child and gain the love and mercy of Allah.   

Abu Hurayra narrates:

"Once, a man came to the presence of the Prophet (pbuh). He had his son with him. He often hugged his child and loved him. The Prophet asked him, 

"Do you show compassion to this child?" He said,
"Yes. O Messenger of Allah!"
"Allah will show you more compassion in return for your compassion toward this child."

The Prophet (pbuh) did not like those who discriminated between boys and girls. He warned those who did so and asked them to correct their mistakes. There was no difference between a girl and boy in his eye. Both needed compassion and love. 

Anas bin Malik narrates:

"Once, a man was sitting next to the Prophet. When his son arrived, he let his son sit on his lap. After a while, his daughter arrived. He made her sit next to him. The Prophet (pbuh) asked the man,

'Why did you not treat them equally?'"

• • •
Along with asking people to love their children equally, the Prophet asked them to treat them equally regarding, gifts, money, food etc given to the children.

Numan bin Bashir narrates:

"My father gave me something from his property. My mother said to me, 'If you do not make the Prophet a witness for this gift, I will not approve it.' Thereupon, my father took me to the Prophet to ask him to be a witness for this gift. When the Prophet was informed about it, he asked my father,

'Do you have any other children?' My father said,'Yes, I do.'
'Did you give the same amount to your other children?'
My father said no. Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) said,
'Fear Allah and treat your children equally.'

After leaving the presence of the Prophet, my father annulled the gift he had given to me."

We see this equal treatment more clearly regarding the deeds of the Prophet (pbuh). The following incident may seem simple but it is very remarkable in terms of being an important and permanent criterion. 

Hz. Ali narrates:

"The Prophet came to visit us. He stayed in our house that night. Hasan and Husayn were sleeping. Hasan woke up and asked for some water. The Prophet got up and brought a glass of water to him. Meanwhile, Husayn woke up and reached out for the glass to drink water. The Prophet did not give the water to Husayn. He gave it to Hasan first. Thereupon, Fatima said,

'It looks as if you love Hasan more than Husayn.'

The Prophet said, 'No. Hasan asked for water first.'"

We see from what we have mentioned so far that the Prophet gave special importance and value to children; we learn the most useful and practical knowledge about child education from him.

The religion of Islam gives great importance to treating orphans well and protecting their property. The Quran orders the protection of orphans directly or indirectly in twenty-one places. One of those verses is as follows:

"Those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, eat up a Fire into their own bodies: they will soon be enduring a blazing Fire." (an-Nisa, 4/10)

What is meant by eating up the property in this verse is not protecting their property and to grab what belongs to them. It does not mean not eating something offered by orphans when you visit their house. Hz. Prophet mentions in one of his hadiths that eating up the property of orphans is one of the seven major sins that destroy man. (Bukhari, Wasaya, 23)

An orphan cannot manage his property; so, his property is managed by his guardian. His personal affairs are managed by one of his relatives. The guardian cannot spend his money on things that are certain to be lost.  

When an orphan reaches the age of puberty, his property is delivered to him. If it is seen that the orphan lacks the ability to manage his property when he reaches the age of puberty, his property is not delivered to him until he becomes 25 years old. After that age, he manages his property himself.

To eat up the property of orphans

According to Islam, it is definitely haramto eat up the property of orphans and it is one of the major sins.  There are several verses and hadiths expressing it clearly. Allah Almighty states the following in the Quran:

"Those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, eat up a Fire into their own bodies: they will soon be enduring a blazing Fire." (an-Nisa, 4/10)

"And come not nigh to the orphan's property, except to improve it, until he attain the age of full strength; give measure and weight with (full) justice." (al-An'am, 6/152)

The Prophet (pbuh) states the following in a hadith:

"Avoid seven sins that destroy individuals and nations." The Companions asked,

"O Messenger of Allah! What are they?" The Prophet said,

"Associating partners with Allah, killing a person that Allah disallows killing - except the ones that are killed for good reason - , usury, eating up the property of orphans, escaping from the war while fighting the enemy, accusing a married and innocent woman of adultery." (see. Riyadu's-Salihin Trnsl. III/184)

That is eating up the property of orphans is one of the sins that destroy individuals and society. When one thinks reasonably, he will see clearly that it is very bad to eat up the property of orphans. It is stated by verses and hadiths that those who eat up the property of a small child whose parents died, who was left alone at a very young age needing help, who cannot manage the property he inherited and who is hopeless will be sad in this world and punished severely in the hereafter. 

Let alone eating up the property of orphans, the religion of Islam orders people to protect orphans and their property. Allah states the following regarding the issue:

"Therefore treat not the orphan with harshness; Nor repulse the petitioner (Unheard)."(ad-Duha, 93/9-10)

The Prophet (pbuh) states the following about those who protect orphans and who undertake the management of their property:

"I and a person who undertakes the management of an orphan's property will be like this in the hereafter."

Then, he showed his index finger and middle finger in the shape of V." (Riyadu's-Salihin Trnsl. I/308)

Eating up the property of orphans is an evil deed; on the other hand, protecting orphans is such a good and charitable deed. Therefore, it is a religious and humane duty to look after and protect the orphans around and to manage their property until they become old enough to manage their own property.


70-) What chapters and verses did the Prophet (pbuh) read in prayers?

The Prophet (pbuh) did not read certain chapters and verses in prayers all the time.

It is makruh (abominable) to read certain chapters in prayers every day. However, if a person does so due to being very busy, it is not makruh. It is definitely regarded as makruh for a person who has a view that it is wajib to read such and such chapters in such and such prayer. For, such an obligation did not become certain through narrations or ijtihads. (at-Tahawi - al-Isbijabi / Alaaddin Ali)

Then, it is more appropriate to read different chapters and verses on different days and it is in compliance with the spirit of the sunnah. It is especially necessary for the imam to pay attention to this issue. Otherwise, the people who follow the imam and who do not have fiqh knowledge may think that it is wajib to read certain chapters or verses in certain prayers.

How long should qira'ah (recitation) be in prayers under normal circumstances? What length is better for qira'ah in different prayers?

It is appropriate to read a chapter that is about 40-50 verses long in both rak'ahs of the morning (fajr) prayer after the chapter of al-Fatiha. In the noon prayer, the qira'ah is slightly shorter than the morning prayer. It is stated in the book called al-Asil that the qira'ah in the noon prayer should be shorter than that of the morning prayer. This is the true criterion. It is appropriate to read a chapter that is about 20 verses long or 20 verses in both rak'ahs of the night (isha) prayer after the chapter of al-Fatiha. A short chapter is read in the evening (maghrib) prayer in both rak'ahs after the chapter of al-Fatiha. This is sunnah or mustahab. (al-Muhit / Sarakhsi)

Most of the fiqh scholars have determined a general criterion as follows regarding the issue: It is more appropriate to sunnah to perform the fards of the morning and noon prayers with tiwal mufassal, the fards of the afternoon and night prayers with tiwal awsat and the fard of the evening prayer with short chapters if a person is not a traveler. (al-Wiqaya / Taj ash-Shari'a)

Explanation: Tiwal Mufassal are the chapters between the chapter of al-Hujurat and al-Buruj.

Tiwal Awsat are the chapters between the chapter of al-Buruj and the chapter of al-Bayyina.

Short chapters are the chapters from the chapter of al-Bayyina to the end of the Quran. (al-Muhit / Sarakhsi - al-Wiqaya / Taj ash-Shari'a)
 

As for the qira'ah in the witr prayer,

it is understood from the sound narration reported from the Prophet (pbuh) that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) sometimes read the chapters starting with “sabbih isma rabbika”, “qul ya ayyuha'l kafirun” and “qul hu-wa'l-lahu ahad”and that he sometimes read other chapters and verses. For, reading the same chapters all the time causes one to stop reading the other chapters in prayers, which is not very appropriate.  

Then, the most appropriate act is to read in accordance with the criterion stated as mustahab. To read more than this criterion is appropriate for a person who performs a prayer individually, but it is not appropriate for the imam because it is not right to tire the congregation. (Tahawi)

It is sunnah to read longer in the qira'ah in the first rak'ah of the morning prayer than in the second rak'ah. There is consensus on it. Imam Muhammad accepts it as mustahab to read longer in the qira'ah in the first rak'ah of all prayers. Fatwa on the issue is according to the view of Imam Muhammad. (Mi'raju'd-Diraya - Fatawa-yi Hindiyya)

There are similar and different views regarding the eid and Friday prayers. Imam Muhammad says the same thing is mustahab for those prayers.  

How long should the difference between them be?

According to the majority of fiqh scholars, the difference should be two thirds. That is, the chapters or verses read in the first rak'ah should be almost twice longer than that of the first rak'ah.

According to Tahawi, it is appropriate to read thirty verses in the first rak'ah and ten verses in the second rak'ah. There is no drawback to increasing the ten verses to twenty verses, which is more appropriate. The fatwa is in accordance with the latter.

As for the decree regarding qira'ah, there is no drawback to reading the longest chapter in the first rak'ah and the shortest chapter in the second rak'ah. For, the qira'ah which is fard and wajib is fulfilled; the ratio mentioned above is the most appropriate and the best one.

It is stated in the book called al-Khulasa that it is makruh to read three or more verses longer in the second rak'ah than the first rak'ah and that it is not makruh to read fewer than three verses longer. This is a nice and easy way for the people in general. 

According to Marghinani, who wrote the book called al-Hidaya, the length of the qira'ah needs to be calculated based on the number of words not the number of verses. However, if the verses are about the same length, calculation based on the number of verses is appropriate. (at-Tabyin / Zaylai )

Hz. Husayn says,

«When we went to Khorasan for war, there were at least 300 Companions with us. When some of them led the prayer, they would read the chapter of al-Fatiha and one verse from any chapter.»

According to a sound narration, Ibn Abbas readthe chapter of al-Fatiha and one verse from the chapter of al-Baqara in both rak'ahs.» (Daraqutni)

Abdullah bin Saib says,

«The Messenger of Allah read the chapter of al-Mu'minun in the morning prayer. When he started to read the part related to Moses (Musa) and Harun (Aaron) or Christ (Isa), he started to shiver slightly and bowed down.»

Hz. Umar read one hundred and twenty verses from the chapter of al-Baqara in the first rak'ah while he was leading a prayer. He read a chapter which had fewer than one hundred verses in the second rak'ah.  

Al-Ahnaf read the chapter of al-Kahf in the first rak'ah and the chapter of Yunus or Yusuf in the second rak'ah.

Ibn Mas'ud read forty verses from the chapter of al-Anfal in the first rak'ah and a mufassal chapter in the second rak'ah.  

Ibn Qayyim says,

«When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) led a prayer, he would read the chapter of al-Fatiha and another chapter in the first rak'ah; he would do the same in the second rak'ah, too. However, he sometimes read a long chapter; when we traveled, he would read a short chapter; in general, he read a chapter of medium length.»

According to the determination in Fiqh as-Sunnah,

the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) sometimes read the chapter of "Qaf" in both rak'ahs; he sometimes read the chapter of "ar-Rum", "at-Takwir" and "az-Zalzala". He sometimes read the chapters of al-Falaq and an-Nas, especially when he travelled.

(Celal Yıldırım, Kaynaklarıyla İslam Fıkhı, Uysal Kitabevi: 1/268-275.)


71-) Although there is a limitation in the Quran about marrying stating that a man can marry at most four women, why did the Prophet (pbuh) marry more women?

The Prophet (pbuh) had more than four wives. All of his marriages took place before being married to more than four women at the same time was prohibited. The verse in the chapter of an-Nur prohibiting marriage to more than four women was sent down three years before the death of the Prophet. The Prophet did not marry anybody else after this verse was sent down. 

As for the Prophet being married to more than four women at the same time:

1. As it is known, it was haram for the wives of the Prophet to marry someone else even if they got divorced from the Prophet according to a verse of the Quran. Therefore, if the Prophet had divorced his wives after the verse limiting marriage to at most four women was sent down, they would not have been able to marry anybody else and they would have been wronged.

2. There are some properties that are peculiar to our Prophet (pbuh). Some of these properties are haram for his ummah. Being married to more than four women are among the properties that are peculiar to our Prophet (pbuh). Therefore, nobody can imitate the Prophet (pbuh) regarding this issue.    

The Prophet (pbuh) was married to more than four women at the same time. It is not permissible for a man to be married to more than four women at the same time. However, the Prophet (pbuh) is an exception. As a matter of fact, there are some issues that are haram for the Prophet (pbuh) but halal for his ummah. For instance, zakah (alms) cannot be given to the Prophet (pbuh) and his family. Besides, the Prophet (pbuh) did not leave any inheritance. Tahajjud prayer is fard for the Prophet (pbuh) but it is sunnah for his ummah.     

"The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers." (al-Ahzab, 33/6)

The wives of the Prophet (pbuh) were declared as the mothers of believers and it was forbidden to marry them. Therefore, when the number of the women a man can be married to was limited as four, the wives of the Companions that they divorced could marry others. However, there was no permission for the wives of the Prophet (pbuh). They were not allowed to marry anybody else. In that case, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) was allowed to remain married to his wives.


72-) How can we answer the claims of those who say the Prophet and the four caliphs did not live stating that they are not mentioned in the Byzantine and Persian sources?

A person who esteems the views of a person who has such delusions is regarded to be busy with something unnecessary.

There are hundreds of sources in the most civilized continents like Europe and America narrating the life of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) and the religion he introduced.

In order to prove that there is nothing like that in the ancient Byzantine and Persian history, it is necessary to scan all of the sources written in Persian and Latin. Only after doing it can such a delusion be taken into consideration.

Can anybody show any Byzantine or Persian history source written fifteen hundred years ago? Nobody can because there was almost no tradition of writing history then.

Let us suppose that Byzantine and Persian sources did not mention Hz. Muhammad (pbuh). Can we decide that the hadith sources which were written while Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) was alive and which are much reliable and have more academic discipline than those sources, and thousands of scholars that exist in those sources did not exist at all?

It is illogical and unreasonable to say that the source of Islam, which continued fifteen hundred years and which harbored hundreds of philosophers, theologians, physicists, chemists, astronauts, geologists, archeologists, mathematicians, historians, writers, poets and similar scientists, scholars and academicians, which conquered their hearts and of which one out of three people is a member, is nothing.

Can there be a delusion more insane than thinking that a book like the Quran, which is a superhuman miracle studied and investigated by Muslim and non-Muslim scholars and scientists for hundreds of years and admired by them and which has kept the minds of hundreds of Western Orientalists busy, is without an owner?

While the existence of the era of four caliphs, Umayyad, Andalucian, Abbasid, Ayyubi, Seljuki and Ottoman states and many other states witnessed by history is as certain as the existence of the sun and while all of these states acted on behalf of the prophet called Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), it is ignorance to overlook their witnessing.

The photograph of the original letter written by Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) to the Iranian Chosroes was published in the newspapers and magazines in the east and west as a sound document. (see Prof. Dr. Muhammed Hamidullah, -trnsl by Prof. Dr. Salih Tuğ-İslam Peygamberi/İst. 1993/1/360-373)

The photographs of the original letters sent by Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) to the Byzantine King Heraclius (ibid, 1/332-350) and to the Egyptian King Muqawqis (see ibid, 1/313-324) are also included in the same book, and detailed information is given about the authenticity of the documents.

In his article called “Some Arabic Inscriptions of Madinah of Early Years of Hijrah” written in Hyderabad/October 1939, Muhammad Hamidullah states that he saw two inscriptions carved on the rocks in Madinah and that he saw the names of Hz. Abu Bakr and Hz. Umar carved on one of them and the name of Hz. Ali in the other. (see ibid, 367-368-694. footnote)


73-) What is the reason why Allah mentions the Prophet Hz. Muhammad as "Habibullah" (Beloved of Allah)? Is this phrase used in the Quran and hadiths?

The word "habib (beloved)" is not directly used for the Prophet. However, there are expressions showing that he is a beloved slave of Allah. For instance, this issue is emphasized in the following verse:   

“And thou (standest) on an exalted standard of character.” (al-Qalam, 68/4)

For, to like something means to love it. It means you love the person whose character you like. Accordingly, it is necessary to understand from the verse above that Allah loves the Prophet.

"Say: 'If ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you.'" (Aal-i Imran, 3/31)

It is emphasized in the verse above that it is necessary to follow Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) in order to attain Allah's love. It is understood that Allah loves the ethics, character and lifestyle of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh).

“Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct).” (al-Ahzab, 33/21)

In the verse above, Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is presented as an example to follow. Allah definitely loves him since He shows us his ethics as an example to follow.  

As a matter of fact, the Prophet (pbuh) stated the following:

“Ibrahim is khalillulah (Allah’s friend); Musa is safiyyullah (Allah’s distinguished slave); I am habibullah (Allah's beloved slave).” (see Darimi, Muqaddima, 8; Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 1)

Allah gave the Prophet (pbuh), who is the most comprehensive mirror for His names, such a title. That man is the perfect fruit of the tree of the universe in terms of his creation and that Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is the perfect man among people make him receive that title and position.  

It is suitable for an artist to love his work, praise it and appreciate it. Allah created man in the best way and superior to other beings. It is normal for Him to love His work of art (man).

Hz. Prophet is a human. He ate, became sad and happy like other people. However, he is a unique person in terms of worshipping Allah. There is nothing missing or wrong in his worshipping. It is natural for our Lord to praise and love such a person who is free and away from sins and who turns to Him with all of his body and faculties.   

Everything was in the darkness of non-existence before this realm was created. Allah Almighty ended this darkness with His grace and created the first being that would be the seed of all beings. It was the light of Muhammad.

“The first thing Allah created is my light.” (see. Tirmidhi, Tafsir Surah 68; Hakim, II/492)

It is necessary to analyze the hadith above a bit because there are some wrong interpretations or groundless objections regarding the issue.

As it is known, all of the characteristics of the living beings are recorded in their genetic codes. This recording is a divine program written by the pen of qadar (destiny). You cannot see the shape of the tree, the hardness of its trunk, the greenness of the leaf or the flavor of the fruit in a seed. All of these characteristics are recorded in DNA in the form of sequence of bases, but that program is neither hard nor soft, neither green nor red.  They all exist in that code as a program but it is an unnecessary effort to try to find all of the characteristics of that tree in that code. A person who thinks that the creation of all beings is based on the light of Muhammad without taking the point mentioned above into consideration tries to make an analogy between stars, forests, seas and this light.

The plans we make are like that too. A plan includes all parts of a house but you cannot cook in the kitchen in the plan.

“Just as among the Names there is a Greatest Name, so too among the impresses of those Names there is a greatest impress, and that is man.” (see Nursi, Sözler (Words))

The greatest name includes all names; similarly, all of the names that are manifest in the universe become manifest in man, who is the greatest impress. According to the rule “When something is mentioned without any limitations, its best or perfect form/type is understood”, when man is mentioned, the best individual of the mankind and the sun of the sky of prophethood, who is Hz. Muhammad, is understood.  

All of the divine names became manifest in the light of Muhammad first. For instance, the manifestation of the name Muhyi (the Giver of Life) is manifest in him and that light has a life. All of the lives to be created in the phases to come later are different manifestations of this name became manifest in him first. That luminous light is the starting point and nucleus of all lives. However, it is obvious that it is wrong to try to establish a relationship between all kinds of lives and the clean spirit of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).

Another example: to preserve, to keep is a divine deed. The name Hafiz (the Preserver) is manifest in the light of Muhammad an it became like a seed of "lawh al-mahfuz (the Preserved Tablet)", "seeds", "eggs", "nutfahs (semen drops)" and "memories".

“Wisdom requires that the tree of creation also, be formed from a seed. And such a seed that contains the essentials and principles of other worlds besides the corporeal world.”(Nursi, Sözler (Words))

According to Muhyiddin Arabi, who is the founder of the way of Wahdah al-Wujud (Unity of Being), all of the natures of beings (ayan ath-thabitah: fixed potentials) to be created until the Doomsday were existent in the form of a luminous seed in the knowledge of Allah. Muhyiddin Arabi  calls this first degree of taayyun (determination) “haqiqah al-Muhammadiyyah (the reality of Muhammad)”, “alam al-wahdah (the realm of oneness)”, “wujud al-ijmal (summary of existence)”, “nur al-Muhammadiyyah (the light of Muhammad)”.

Accordingly, Nur al-Muhammadiyyah is the common name of all natures; and these natures were transferred from the circle of knowledge to the circle of power with the creation of things.    

Imam Rabbani states the following:

“As for the sentence that means, "Development occurred from the reality of Muhammad" written by me, what is meant by this reality is the shadow of that reality described as "it consists of the summary of the knowledge"; the term "wahdah (oneness)" was used for it." (Mektubat, Vol. 2)

Alam al-wahdah (the realm of oneness) is one of the four names given to the level of taayyun (determination) by Muhyiddin Arabi.

As it is known, "wahdah" means oneness and "kathrah" means multiplicity. There is oneness in a seed and multiplicity stems from it. Tens of branches, hundreds of fruits and thousands of leaves show this multiplicity and they stem from oneness, one thing. The sky where there are infinite stars, the earth where there are infinite living beings and the realm of angels whose numbers we do not know show multiplicity; and all of them stem from the realm of oneness, the light of Muhammad.  

An important clue from Risale-i Nur Collection is as follows:  

“The heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of Creation), before We clove them asunder.”After various interpretations of the verse above are mentioned, the following statement is given:

“The meaning inferred by those with a higher level of understanding is: The sun and planets were separated from the matter that was created from the light of the Chief of all creation (the Prophet Muhammad) and [that matter] could assume any shape, like dough.” (Nursi, Mesnevi-i Nuriye)

As it is understood from the statements above, the realm was created in phases from the light of Muhammad, which is the seed of the creation of this realm of wisdom.  The creation of the physical world, the skies and the earth took place in accordance with this principle. A “dough-like matter” was created and this essential dough, this encoded creature, was used as a basis in the creation of the skies and the earth.

The hadith “The first thing Allah created is my light” goes on as follows, stating the phases of creation: qalam (pen), lawh (tablet), arsh (thrown),angels carrying the throne, kursiy (chair),the other angels, skies, the earth.... In the phases before the creation of the skies and the earth, the creation may have taken place directly from the light of Muhammad; then, an essential matter was created from the light of Muhammad and this seed was used as a basis in the creation of the skies and the earth. In this world of wisdom, everything is based on a cause; in terms of divine wisdom, the beginning of this visible earth probably took place like that. 

The fact that matter was created from light should not be found strange. As a matter of fact, it is known that matter is actually condensed energy. That atom is transformed into energy when it is broken up shows that power is in question at the basis of creation. It is not condensed and material, but luminous and spiritual.

“Angels were created out of light. Jinn were created from smoky flame.” (Muslim, Zuhd, 10/60)

The hadith above tells us that jinn were not created directly from the light of Muhammad but that they were created in another way or in another phase.

“There not a thing but celebrates His praise.” (al-Isra, 17/44)

According to the verse above, everything knows, praises and glorifies Allah. It is understood from the first essence of the universe in divine knowledge and the name “the Light of Muhammad” being given to the essential being (seed) in the creation of the visible realm that the highest degree in knowing, praising and glorifying Allah belongs to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). The highest degree of the divine names are manifest in him. He is the real purpose of the creation. All of the worshipping deeds by the other beings, all of the knowledge they attain and all of their love are like a shadow compared to him.

“The Divine effulgence which the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who manifested the Greatest Name, received in a single verse, may have been as much as the whole effulgence one of the other Prophets received.” (Nursi, Sözler(Words))

That is, the loftiness, brightness and lucidity of the Light of Muhammad in the first creation surpassed all of the other things and the first essential being (seed) was given the name the Light of Muhammad.


74-) Will you inform us about the vow of the Prophet related to Mariya? Did something like that take place?

As it is stated in the verse, two incidents are reported as the reason why the Prophet (pbuh) made something haram that was halal for himself:

After the Treaty of Hudaybiya, the Messenger of Allah wrote letters to several kings. One of those kings was Muqawqis, the Patriarch of Alexandria.  Hatib b. Abi Balta took the letter to Muqawqis. He did not accept Islam but treated Hatib well, sending the following answer to the Prophet (pbuh):

"I knew that a prophet would come but I thought he was going to appear in Damascus. However, I will treat your envoy with respect. I am sending you two girls who are respected among Copts."(Ibn Sa'd)

The name of one of the girls was Sirin, and the other was Mariya. (Christians call Maryam Mariya 'Mary'.) While returning from Egypt, Hatib invited them to Islam and they accepted Islam. When the girls were brought to Hz. Prophet (pbuh), he gave Sirin to Hassan b. Thabit, the poet and he kept Mariya for himself.

In the month of Dhul-Hijjah of the 8th year of the Migration, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) had a son from Hz. Mariya called Ibrahim. (al-Istiab, al-Isaba) Hz. Mariya was a very beautiful woman. As a matter of fact, Hafiz Ibn Hajar reports the following sentence from Hz. Aisha in al-Isaba:

"I have never been jealous of any women as much as Mariya because she was very beautiful and the Messenger of Allah liked her."

We can summarize the hadith reported through various ways regarding the issue as follows: Once, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) went to Hz.Hafsa's room and could not find her there. Meanwhile, Hz. Mariya arrived and she stayed in Hafsa's room for a while together with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). Hz. Hafsa got very angry when she found out about it and shouted at the Prophet (pbuh). Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said she would never have sexual intercourse again with Mariya in order to please Hafsa. In another narration, it is stated that he swore that he would not do it again. Most of these narrations were reported from Tabiin as mursal. Some narrations are reported from Hz. Umar, Ibni Abbas and Abu Hurayra.

Related to this narration, Ibn Hajar states the following in his work Fathu'l-Bari "This incident should have a true aspect."  However, this incident is not reported in any books of Kutub as-Sitta. It is stated only in a hadith reported from Hz. Anas in Nasai that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had a sexual intercourse with a female slave and as a result of the pressure from Hz. Hafsa and Hz. Aisha, he rendered that female slave haram for him. Thereupon, the following verse was sent down:

"O Prophet! why holdest thou to be forbidden that which Allah has made lawful to thee?Thou seekest to please thy consorts?" (at-Tahrim, 66/1)


The second incident is reported from Hz. Aisha in Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasai and several other hadith books as follows: In the 9th year of the Migration, the light of Islam covered the whole Arabian Peninsula with its magnificence. The Messenger of Allah had many material things. The wealth of the Islamic state increased and the financial situation of the Muslims improved. 

Despite all kinds of material opportunities, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) continued to lead a plain and modest life; he did not have any luxurious or wasteful things.

However, due to the inclination to the jewels and worldly goods inherent in the nature of women, the wives of the Prophet wanted their share of clothes and jewels from the wealth of the world. Therefore, they sometimes said to the Prophet, “We also want some jewels like the other women.”

Then, they told the Prophet what they wanted. However, the Prophet wanted his wives to lead a plain life like his life and show consent to it. Therefore, he did not give them what they wanted. He also felt disturbed by their requests like that.

The Prophet had a custom: After the afternoon prayer, he would visit all of his wives, ask about their health and determine their needs. In the evening, all of his wives would gather in the room of the woman who was going to be with the Prophet that night and the Prophet would talk to them there. After that, everybody would go to their own room.

During these usual visits, the wives of the Prophet treated him to the food or drinks that they had. Once, somebody gave Zaynab bint Jahsh a leather bag full of honey. Whenever the Prophet visited Zaynab, she treated him to the sherbet she made of that honey that the Prophet liked very much. Therefore, the Prophet stayed with Zaynab longer than usual.

Aisha noticed this and wondered why the Prophet stayed with Zaynab longer than usual. She found out through her female slave that he stayed there longer due to the sherbet made of honey. 1

There was a competition between Hazrat Aisha and Hazrat Zaynab; due to this competition, the wives of the Prophet were divided into two groups.  Sawda, Safiyya and Hafsa supported Aisha; Umm Salama, Umm Habiba, Maymuna and Juwayriyah supported Zaynab bint Jahsh. 2

Aisha felt grievous and jealous because the Messenger of Allah stayed in Zaynab’s room longer. She gathered the wives of the Prophet that supported her and said to them,

When the Messenger of Allah comes to any of our room, we will ask him, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Have you eaten maghafir?’ The Messenger of Allah will say, ‘No’. Then, we will say, ‘What is this smell, then?’ He will say, ‘Zaynab gave me honey sherbet.’ Then, we will say, ‘It means that the honey was produced by bees that collected nectar from urfut tree’.” 3

Maghafiris the plural of “maghfur”. Maghfur is sticky and sweet gum from the urfut tree; it has an unpleasant smell.

The Messenger of Allah did not like this smell; he felt disturbed by it. Aisha knew about it. That is why, she gave them an instruction like that. 

Once, the Prophet was entering Hafsa’s room; she asked, “O Messenger of Allah! Have you eaten maghafir?

The Prophet said, “No!

Hafsa said, “What is this smell, then?

The Prophet said, “I drank honey sherbet in Zaynab bint Jahsh’s house.

Then, Hafsa said, “It means that the honey was produced by bees that collected nectar from urfut tree.

Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah said, “I will not drink it again.” And he vowed that he would never drink it. Then he said, “I have vowed. Never tell about it to anyone.” 4

Thus, the Prophet vowed that he would not have honey, which is halal (permissible)*, because he wanted to rejoice his wives and to prevent the competition caused by jealousy among his wives from causing a negative effect on the order of his family. 5

He asked Hafsa to keep it secret along with some other things** he told her. He made her promise not to tell anyone about them.

When the Prophet vowed that he would not have honey from then on, the following verse was sent down:

O Prophet! Why holdest thou to be forbidden that which Allah has made lawful to thee?, Thou seekest to please thy consorts? But Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” 6

Hafsa did not keep those secrets very long; she told Aisha about it. Then, the other wives of the Prophet knew about it. 

God Almighty informed His Prophet (pbuh) through revelation that the secret that he wanted to be kept was disclosed:

When the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his consorts, and she then divulged it (to another) and Allah made it known to him, he confirmed part thereof and repudiated a part. Then when he told her thereof, she said, ‘Who told thee this?’ He said, ‘He told me who knows and is well-acquainted (with all things).’” 7

Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) reproached Hafsa. Aisha supported her. Altogether, they requested some things about the worldly life. 

The Prophet felt grievous about the situation and he felt disturbed by the fact that his wives were jealous of one another. 

Thereupon, he vowed that he would keep away from his wives for a month in order to show them that the worldly life was unimportant for him, to teach them a lesson, to decrease the jealousy among them and to measure their love of and loyalty to him. 8 

After this vow, he started to live in the arbor called Mashraba. 9

This incident is called “the Incident of I’la”. “I’la” lexically means an absolute vow; as a fiqh term, it means a vow by a man that he will not approach his wife for sexual intercourse.

 

The Panic of the Companions

When the Companions heard that the Prophet started to live in Mashraba alone, they panicked because they thought he divorced his wives. Hazrat Umar narrates that panic as follows:

“I was living in Awali, a district of Madinah. I had a neighbor from Ansar. We visited the Prophet every other day. When I went to visit the Messenger of Allah, I informed my neighbor about the revelation that was sent down that day and any other news when I returned. When he went to visit the Prophet, he informed me about things when he returned.

It was my neighbor’s turn to visit the Prophet. It was late at night. He knocked on my door very loudly. I opened the door in panic.

I asked him, ‘What is the matter?

He said, ‘A great disaster!

I said, ‘What happened? Did Ghassanis attack Madinah?
 

He said, ‘No! They say the Messenger of Allah has divorced all of his wives.

Thereupon, after performing the morning prayer, I got dressed and went to Madinah. I went to my daughter, Hafsa. She was crying. I said, “Why are you crying? Did I not warn you against opposing him and not demanding anything from him?’ Then, I asked her, ‘Did the Messenger of Allah divorce you?

She said, ‘I do not know.

I asked, ‘Where is the Messenger of Allah now?

She said, ‘He is there, in that Mashraba; he is resting.’

I stood up and approached the place where the Messenger of Allah was. Rabah, his servant, was at the door. I said, ‘O Rabah! Ask the Messenger of Allah permission for me to see him.

Rabah went in and then returned. He said, ‘I asked him but he did not say anything.

I went to the mosque. Some Companions were sitting around the pulpit sadly; some of them were weeping. I sat there for a while. I could not overcome my sorrow. I approached the room of the Messenger of Allah again. I said to Rabah, ‘Ask the Messenger of Allah permission for Umar to see him.

The servant went in and then returned. He said, ‘I told him about you but he did not say anything.’

I returned to the mosque. I sat near the pulpit for a while. I could not get rid of my anxiety and sorrow no matter what I did.

I approached the room of the Messenger of Allah again. I said loudly, ‘O Rabah! I want to see the Messenger of Allah. Ask for permission. If the Messenger of Allah thinks that I will intercede for Hafsa, I swear by Allah that I will kill her if the Messenger of Allah orders me to do so.’ Rabah went in. When he came out, he said, ‘I told him but he kept silent. He did not say anything.

While I was returning, I heard the servant say, ‘Come in; you were given permission.

I went in. I greeted the Messenger of Allah. He was on a mattress made of straw. There were marks of the mattress on his body. I looked around. I saw a handful of barley and a fleece hung on the wall. I started to weep. The Messenger of Allah asked, ‘Why are you weeping?

 I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! How should I not weep? The kings and sultans of other countries lead a life of pleasure but you lead a very simple and plain life though you are the most beloved slave of Allah.’

The Messenger of Allah said, ‘O Umar, son of Khattab! Do you not consent to the hereafter for us and the world for them?

Then, I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Did you divorce your wives?

He looked up and said, ‘No!

Upon this answer, I said, ‘Allahu Akbar!All of the Companions are in sorrow. Did I go and tell them the truth?

The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Alright’ and he talked to me until his sorrow disappeared. Then, he became happy and started to laugh.

Thereupon, I stood near the door of mosque and shouted loudly: ‘The Messenger of Allah did not divorce his wives.' 10

 

The Messenger of Allah Leaves Mashraba

When one month passed, the Messenger of Allah ended the seclusion and started to see his wives. Meanwhile, the following verses were sent down:

O Prophet! say to thy Consorts: ‘If it be that ye desire the life of this world, and its glitter― then come! I will provide for your enjoyment and set you free in a handsome manner." But if ye seek Allah and His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter verily Allah has prepared for the well-doers amongst you a great reward.’” 11

According to the verses, the Messenger of Allah offered two options to his wives: To prefer the world and the possessions in the world or to prefer Allah and His Messenger.

When the verses were sent down, the Prophet was near Aisha. He told her about the verses; he said she could also talk to her parents regarding the issue. Aisha gave her answer at once:

Why should I talk to my parents regarding this issue? I definitely prefer Allah, His Messenger and the hereafter.” 12

The Prophet smiled at Aisha’s answer.

His other wives also preferred Allah, His Messenger and the hereafter to the world and worldly possessions. Thus, they proved their love of and loyalty to the Prophet.

References:

1. Ayni, Umdatu'l-Qari, 20:244.
2. Bukhari, 3:132.
3. Tabaqat, 8:85; Bukhari, 6:167; Muslim, 2:1101-1110.
4. Tabaqat, 8:85; Bukhari, 6:167; Muslim, 2:1102.
5. Kamil Miras, Tajrid Sarih Translation, 11:209.
* What is meant by the Messenger of Allah rendering something halal haram is preventing his soul from using that thing. It does not actually mean to make something that Allah rendered halal haram and to regard it as haram. For, nobody can render haram what Allah made halal and vice versa. However, a person is allowed to prevent himself from using something halal. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah prevented himself from some halal food: honey or honey sherbet. Therefore, a question like the following should not come to the mind: "How can the Messenger of Allah render haram what Allah rendered halal?"
** According to some narrations, the Prophet (pbuh) told Hz. Hafsa Hz. Abubakr would be the caliph after his death and Hz. Umar after him. (Ibn Kathir, Sirah, 4:390)
6. at-Tahrim, 1.
7. at-Tahrim, 3.
8. Bukhari, 7:230; Insanu'l-Uyun, 3:406
9. Bukhari, 7:230; Insanu'l-Uyun, 3:406
10. Bukhari, 1:31-33, 6:70; Musnad, 1:33; Muslim, 2:1109-1112; Tirmidhi, 5:421; Insanu'l-Uyun, 3:404
11. al-Ahzab, 28-29.
12. Bukhari, 6:23; Muslim, 2:1113.


75-) Why was the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was given the duty of prophethood at the age of 40? What can the wisdom behind it be?

The age of forty is the age when man becomes mature. It is the age when his abilities and talents become mature and his faculties settle. At this age, it was possible for the Prophet (pbuh) to receive the divine revelation and to face the difficulties of call to Islam and propagating it.

Besides, an extraordinary claim of messengership like prophethood could have caused more doubts, hesitations and objections by people if he had been younger. It would not have been logical for a person who was known as "Muhammad al-Amin" (Muhammad the Trustworthy) in all phases of his youth up to the age of 40 to tell lies and to do wrong things contrary to his high ethics throughout his life.    

As a matter of fact, when the Prophet (pbuh) first declared Islam openly on Safa Hill to the Qurayshis, he asked them, “Would you believe me if I said there was an army ready to attack you behind that hill?” they answered as follows: “Yes, we have never heard any lies from you.”


76-) Will you give information about the face and appearance of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)?

Today, people especially young people follow several people's examples, imitate their attitudes, speeches, styles, way of dressing, etc and try to be like them. However, most of those people who are imitated are not in the true path and they do not have good attitudes and high ethics. Therefore, it is an important responsibility to show people the true path, the best ethics and attitudes. The person whose attitudes and ethics a Muslim needs to try to imitate is Hz. Muhammad (pbuh). Allah expresses this reality as follows in a verse:  

"Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the praise of Allah." (al-Ahzab, 33/21)

Therefore, it is a duty of every Muslim to know the nice attributes of Hz. Muhammad and take him as a model.  

Along with the verses of the Quran, narrations from the Companions give a lot of information about the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet's relationships with his family and the believers around him, details from his daily life, his outward appearance, his solemnity that makes those who see him admire at him, the foods that he likes, his clothing, his way of laughing, and other details about him are expressed by the word "shamail" by many Islamic scholars.   

The word shamail is derived from "shimal". This word means "character, temper, state, act behavior and attitude". The word shamail had a wider meaning first but in the course of time, it assumed a specific meaning and became a term expressing the lifestyle and personal characteristics of the Prophet (pbuh).

Every detail reported about this distinguished slave of Allah whom our Lord made superior to the realms is also a reflection of his high ethics. The aim for the preparation of this article, which gives detailed information about the Prophet, is to analyze his nice characteristics reported in various books and to take advice and lessons from them.  

- The Beauties of Creation Manifest in the Prophet (pbuh)

The Companions of the Prophet reported many details about the beauties that Allah made manifest in him, from his outward appearance, his solemnity that makes those who see him admire at him, and his posture to his way of smiling. These Companions, whose number was quite a lot, gave a lot of different details about these beauties and made the Prophet known to the Muslims who did not live at that time. Some Companions described him mentioning about his general characteristics while others gave long and detailed accounts. Some of those narrations are as follows:  

- The Outward Appearance and Beauty of the Prophet (pbuh)

The Companions narrated the beauty of the Prophet (pbuh) as follows:

"The Messenger of Allah was very handsome and attractive. His blessed face shone like the full moon. His nose was quite beautiful. He had bushy beard, big eyes and flat cheeks. His mouth was wide and his teeth were as bright as oysters His neck was like a ray of light. The part between his two shoulders was white and the heads of his shoulder bones were thick...." (Büyük Hadis Külliyatı, Jam'ul-fawaid min Jami'il-usul wa Majma'iz-zawaid, Imam Muhammad Bin Muhammad bin Sulayman ar-Rudani, Vol. 5, İz Yayıncılık, p. 31) 

Anas b. Malik (ra) narrates:

"The Messenger of Allah was neither tall nor short. His skin was neither clear white nor dark. His hair was neither straight nor curly. When he became forty years old, Allah sent him as a prophet. After becoming a prophet, he remained in Makkah for ten years and in Madinah for ten years. He died when he was sixty years old. When he passed away, he did not have even twenty wisps of grey hair on his head and in his beard." (Sunan Tirmidhi Translation, Translated by: Osman Zeki Mollamehmetoğlu, Yunus Emre Yayınevi, İstanbul, Vol. 4, p.201)

"The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was white, handsome and moderate."[Hz. Abu Tufayl (ra), G.Ahmed Ziyaüddin, Ramuz al Ahadith, Vol. 1, Gonca Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1997, 519/1]

Anas b. Malik (ra) narrates:

"The Prophet (pbuh) was of medium height; he was neither tall nor short. He had a nice appearance. His hair was neither curly nor straight. His blessed face was luminous white." (at-Tirmidhi Imam Abu I'sa Muhammad, Şemail-i Şerife, Vol. 2, Hilal Yayınları, Ankara, 1976, p. 7-8) 

Bara b. Azib (ra) narrates:

"... I have never seen a person more handsome that the Messenger of Allah. He had long hair touching his shoulders. The part between his two shoulders was wide. He was neither short nor tall." (Sunan Tirmidhi Translation, Translated by: Osman Zeki Mollamehmetoğlu, Yunus Emre Yayınevi, İstanbul, Vol. 4, p. 210)

Ibrahim b. Muhammad, one of the grandchildren of Hz. Ali narrates: When my grandfather, Hz. Ali, told me about the Prophet (pbuh), he described the Prophet (pbuh) as follows:   

"The Messenger of Allah was neither tall nor short; he was of medium height in the group he belonged to.His hair was neither curly nor straight; it was a bit wavy. The color of his blessed face was reddish white; his eyes were black; his eyelashes were thick and long; the heads of his shoulders were big... He was the most generous, honest, lenient and friendly person among people."

"Those who saw him unexpectedly would get very excited due to his majesty; those who listened to his talk knowing his superior attributes loved him more than anything else. A person who tried to describe his superiority and beautiful attributes would usually say, 'I have never seen anybody like him neither before nor after him.' Thus, he would confess his weakness and insufficiency to describe the Prophet. May Allah's peace [prayer, asking for forgiveness and mercy for the Prophet (pbuh)] be upon him." (at-Tirmidhi Imam Abu I'sa Muhammad, Şemail-i Şerife, Vol 1, Hilal Yayınları, Ankara, 1976, p. 18-19)

Hz. Hasan (ra) narrates:

"The Messenger of Allah was majestic and splendid naturally. His blessed face emitted light as brightly as the full moon. He was a bit taller than medium height and a bit shorter than a slender person. His hair was between curly hair and straight hair. If his hair were divided into two spontaneously, he would let it hang from the sides of his head; if it were not divided, he would not divide it. When he lengthened his hair, it would pass his earlobes."

"The color of the Prophet was very bright and white. His forehead was open. His eyebrows were bushy like crescent and close to each other.

His neck was silver bright like the neck of statues made of pure marble. All of the organs of his body were in harmony with one another and he had a handsome posture..." (see ibid, p. 18, 22, 23) 

Abu Hurayra (ra) narrates:

"Hz. Prophet (pbuh) was luminous white as if created from silver; his hair was slightly wavy." (see ibid p. 28-29) 

"The Messenger of Allah had a wide forehead; he had bushy eyebrows like crescent. There was a gap between his two eyebrows, which were like pure silver. His eyes were very nice; his pupils were black. His eyelashes were very bushy... When he laughed, his teeth shone like lightning. Both of his lips were exceptionally beautiful... His beard was bushy. His neck was very nice, neither tall nor short. The part of his neck that was exposed to the sun and wind shone as if reflecting the whiteness of silver and redness of gold of a pitcher made of gold and silver... His chest was wide; the straightness of his chest was like a mirror and its whiteness was like the moon... His shoulders were wide... His arms and biceps were big. His arms were softer than silk." (Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 820) 

Umm Mabad, whose tent was visited by the Prophet (pbuh) during the journey of the Migration, was known for her generosity, chastity and courage. She did not recognize the Prophet (pbuh). She described him to her husband, who recognized the Prophet upon her description, as follows:    

"He had a bright face and a beautiful countenance. He was not weak and thin. The black and white parts of his eyes were separated from each other.  His hair, eyelashes and mustache were bushy. His voice was bass.  When he remained silent, he was contemplative and when he spoke, he was majestic. When you looked at him from afar, he was the most handsome of all people. When you moved closer to him, he was the most pleasant of them. He spoke very nicely. He was of medium height; nobody who looked at him felt that he was short or tall. He was the most handsome of the three who came here with the most luminous face. His companions always listened to him, who was in the middle of them. When he commanded, they hastened to carry out his order. His speech was rich and determined." (Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, I, 230-231; Tabqrani, al-Mu'jam'ul-Kabir, IV, 49, nu:3605, VII, 105, nu:6510; Hakim, al-Mustadrak, III, 9-10; Bayhaqi, Dalail'un-Nubuwwa, I,) 

As it can be seen from what the people who saw him narrated, the Prophet was very handsome, had such a nice face that would take one's breath away and had a very nice posture. In addition, he was fit; he had a very strong body. 

- The Shamail of the Prophet (pbuh)

Ahmet Cevdet Paşa, who was an important scholar of the Ottoman era, wrote a book compiling the characteristics of the Prophet (pbuh). He compiled them under the heading "Bazı Evsaf-ı Seniyye-i Muhammediyye" (Some High Characteristics of Muhammad) in Part 4 of his work called "Kısas-ı Enbiya" (History of Prophets):

"... His blessed body was beautiful; all of his organs were in harmony; he had a nice posture; his forehead, chest, the part between his two shoulders and palms were wide; his neck was long and harmonious; it was pure like silver; his shoulders, biceps and calves were big and thick; his wrists were long; his fingers were quite long; his hands and fingers were thick. His blessed skin was softer than silk.  

His head was slightly big; his eyebrows were like crescent; his nose was straight and his face was oval. His eyelashes were long; his eyes were slightly big, black and beautiful; there was a gap between his eyebrows but they were close to each other.

The distinguished Prophet had luminous, bright skin; it was neither white nor black; it was between black and white and slightly reddish; his face was luminous. His teeth were bright and strong like oysters; when he spoke, light emitted from his front teeth. When he laughed, his happy mouth emitted light like gentle lightning...

When he passed away, his hair and beard had just started to turn gray; there were a few wisps of grey hair on his head and twenty wisps of grey hair in his beard.

His senses were extraordinarily strong. He could hear and see from very distant places. To sum up, he had a happy and blessed body that was created perfectly and exceptionally. A person who saw him suddenly would love him. A person who talked to him would adore him. He showed respect to knowledgeable and generous people in accordance with their levels. He gave generously to his relatives. However, he would not give them more than he gave to the people who were better than them.  

He treated his servants very well. He gave them the same things as he ate and wore. 

He was generous, open-handed, compassionate, merciful, brave and lenient. He always kept his promise. To sum up, he was superior to all people in terms of high ethics and intelligence; he deserved all kinds of praise.

He ate as much as it was necessary; he wore clothes in order to cover his body; he avoided eating and wearing extra things" (Ahmed Cevdet Paşa, Kısas-ı Enbiya, Part (Vol.) IV, Kanaat Matbaası, İstanbul 1331, p. 364-365)

- The Prophet's (pbuh) Seal of Prophethood

Allah chose Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) for all of the realms and stated that he was "the last prophet" (al-Ahzab, 33/40). No prophet will be sent after him. The Quran is the last book sent as a book of guidance for humanity. Allah showed this unique property of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) through a mark on his body. 

In the Islamic resources and narrations, this mark between the shoulder bones of the Prophet (pbuh) is named as "the seal of prophethood". It is reported in al-Mustadrak by Wahb b. Munabbih that the other prophets also had seals similar to that of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) but that his seal was different from theirs:

"... All prophets that Allah sent had a mole on their right hands called the mole of prophethood (şamatun-nubuwwa). However, Hz. Muhammad is an exception. His mole of prophethood was not on his right hand butbetween his shoulder bones. When the Prophet (pbuh) was asked about it, he said, 'This mole between my shoulder bones is like the mole of the previous prophets.'  " (From the translation of Tirmidhi's book called Şemail by Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998, p. 73) ..."

Jabir b. Samura (ra) narrates:

"I saw the seal of the prophethood between the two shoulder bones of the Messenger of Allah. It was a it was a reddish bump as big as a pigeon's egg." (at-Tirmidhi Imam Abu I'sa Muhammad, Şemail-i Şerife, Vol 1, Hilal Yayınları, Ankara, 1976, p. 36) 

Ibrahim b. Muhammad, one of the grandchildren of Hz. Ali narrates:

"When my grandfather Hz. Ali described the attributes of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), he narrated the long hadith about the hilya (appearance) of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and said,

'He had the seal of the prophethood between his shoulder bones. He was the last prophet.'" (see ibid, p. 38) 

Abu Nadra (ra) narrates: "I asked Abu Said al-Khudri about the seal of prophethood of the Messenger of Allah. He said, 'It was a mole like a rose bud on his back.'" (see ibid, p. 42)

"The seal of prophethood was located betweenhis shoulder bones. This seal was nearer to his right shoulder." (Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 820)

Muhammad b. Muthanna, Muhammad b. Hazm narrates from Shu'ba Simak (ra):

"I heard Jabir Ibn Samura say, 'I saw a seal on the back of the Messenger of Allah. It was like a pigeon's egg.(at-Tirmidhi Imam Abu I'sa Muhammad, Şemail-i Şerife, Vol 1, Hilal Yayınları, Ankara, 1976, p. 36)

- The Prophet's (pbuh) Hair, Beard and Dressing Style

- The Hair of the Prophet (pbuh)

There are different descriptions about the hair of the Prophet (pbuh). These differences are normal because those who gave those descriptions saw the Prophet at different times when he had different lengths of hair. However, what is understood from those descriptions is that the shortest hair the Prophet (pbuh) had was down to the level of his ears and his longest hair was down to his shoulders.

Anas b. Malik (ra) narrates:

"The hair of the Prophet (pbuh) grew down to the middle of his ears." (see ibid, p. 49)

Hz. Aisha (ra) narrates:

"The blessed hair of the Messenger of Allah was between his ears and shoulders. May Allah's peace be upon him!" (see ibid, p. 50) 

Bara b. Azib (ra) narrates:

"The Prophet (pbuh) was of medium height. His shoulders were quite wide. His hair touched his earlobes." (see ibid, p. 50) 

Abu Talib's daughter, Umm Hani (ra) narrates:

"When the Messenger of Allah came to Makkah, he visited us. His blessed hair had four plaits." (see ibid, p. 51)

The Hair and Beard Care of the Prophet (pbuh)

Since the Prophet (pbuh) gave great importance to cleanliness, he also gave importance to hair and beard care. It is stated in some resources that he always had a comb, mirror, miswak, toothpick, scissors, container for kohl, etc with him. (Ali al-Qari, Jam'ul-Wasail fi Sharh'ish- Shamail, İstanbul, p. 96-97) The Prophet (pbuh) gave the same advice to his Companions and said,

"If you grow your hair, take good care of it."(Abu Dawud, Sunan, IV, 74, nu: 4062)

The other narrations about the hair and the beard of the Prophet (pbuh) are as follows:

The following was reported from Hz. Adda Ibn Khalid (ra):

"His blessed beard was very nice." (G. Ahmed Ziyaüddin, Ramuz al Ahadith, Vol. 2, Gonca Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1997, 519/16) 

Hz. Asha (ra) narrates:

"When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) combed and oiled his hair,…" (at-Tirmidhi Imam Abu I'sa Muhammad, Şemail-i Şerife, Vol 1, Hilal Yayınları, Ankara, 1976, p. 58)

Simak b. Harb (ra) reports:

"I heard from Jabir b. Samura. He was asked about the graying of the Prophet's hair. He said, 'When he oiled his blessed head, the gray wisps could not be noticed but when he did not oil his head, some gray wisps could be seen.'"(Ibn Adiyya al-Kamil; Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 3 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 679)

The Prophet (pbuh) set a good example for believers with the importance he gave to his appearance and cleanliness. The attitude of the Prophet regarding the issue is stated as follows in a narration:

"When the Prophet was about to go to the place where the Companions were, he would straighten his turban and beard by looking at the water in a container and said,

'Allah likes it when a person fixes himself up before he visits his friends.'"(see ibid, p. 679)

The Dressing Style of the Prophet (pbuh)

The Companions reported many details about the clothes of the Prophet (pbuh). Besides, the advice of the Prophet (pbuh) to the believers about how to dress indicates the importance he gives to clothes. For instance, the Prophet (pbuh) stated the following in hadith:

"Allah is beautiful; He loves beauty; wearing beautiful clothes is not conceitedness; conceitedness means to refuse the Lord (by attributing the bounties one has to himself) and to despise people."(Kütüb-i Sitte, Muhtasarı Tercüme ve Şerhi, Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Vol. 7, Akçağ Yayınları, Ankara, p. 208)

The Prophet's (pbuh) grandson Hz. Hasan states his view about dressing as follows:

"The Prophet (pbuh) ordered us to wear our best clothes and to wear the nicest perfume that we can find." (Bukhari, at-Tarikh'ul-Kabir, I, 382, no:1222)

Another hadith of the Prophet (pbuh) regarding the issue is as follows:

"O Believers! Eat, drink and wear clothes as you wish and spend your money in the way of Allah. However, do not waste; do not become arrogant." (Bukhari, al-Jami'us-Sahih, VII, 33; Ibn Majah, Sunan, II, 1192, nu:3605) 

Whenever the Prophet saw a Companion in shabby or worn-out clothes, he would warn him immediately. Abu'l Hawas (ra) reports a narration from his father regarding the issue as follows:

I went to visit the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) wearing some old clothes. He said to me,
"Do you not have any property?" I said,
"Yes, I do." Then, he asked,
"What kind of goods do you have?" I said,
" Allah gave me all kinds of goods." Thereupon, he said,

"When Allah gives you something, the trace and virtue of this boon should be seen on you."[Nasai, Zinah 83, (8, 196), Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998, p. 119].

Hz. Jabir (ra) narrates a similar incident as follows:  

The Messenger of Allah saw one of our workers; he herded our sheep. He had two pieces of shabby clothes on him.  The Messenger of Allah said,

"Does he not have any other clothes to wear?" I said, "Yes, he has. There are two more clothes in the bag. I had made him wear them." The Prophet said,

"Call him and tell him to wear them." I called him and told him about the order of the Prophet. He wore them. When he returned, the Messenger of Allah said,

"Why does he not wear those new ones? Are they not nicer?" [Muvatta, Libas 1, (2, 910); Kütüb-i Sitte, Muhtasarı Tercüme ve Şerhi, Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Vol. 15, Akçağ Yayınları, Ankara, p. 64-65]

Some information reported by the Companions about the dressing style of the Prophet (pbuh) is as follows:

Ibn Abbas (ra) narrates: 

"I saw the nicest possible clothes on the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)."[(Abu Davud., Libas 8, (4037); Kütüb-i Sitte, Muhtasarı Tercüme ve Şerhi, Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Vol. 15, Akçağ Yayınları, Ankara, p. 69]

Umm Salama (ra) narrates:

"The garment that the Prophet (pbuh) liked best was shirt (qamis)." (at-Tirmidhi Imam Abu I'sa Muhammad, Şemail-i Şerife, Vol 1, Hilal Yayınları, Ankara, 1976, p. 85) 

Qurra, one of the Companions, narrates:

"I went into the presence of the Prophet with a group of people from the tribe of Muzayna to pay allegiance to him. The collar of the shirt of the Prophet had no buttons..."(see ibid, p. 88)

Anas b. Malik (ra) narrates:

"The Prophet (pbuh) liked Hibara al-Yamani the most among his clothes." (Sunan Tirmidhi Translation, Translated by: Osman Zeki Mollamehmetoğlu, Yunus Emre Yayınevi, İstanbul, Vol. 3 p. 283) "

(Hibara is green fabric with red stripes made of cotton, woven in Yemen. It is a term used for colorful fabrics with various patterns. It shows that the fabric is not plain and that it has patterns and various colors.)

Al-Bara b. Azib (ra) narrates:

"I have never seen clothes with red patterns fit anybody more than the Prophet (pbuh). When I saw the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) wearing this garment, his blessed hair was long enough to touch his shoulders." (at-Tirmidhi Imam Abu I'sa Muhammad, Şemail-i Şerife, Vol 1, Hilal Yayınları, Ankara, 1976, p. 94)

Samura b. Jundub (ra) narrates:

"Wear white clothes because white is very clean and nice." (see ibid, p. 98)

Hz. Aisha (ra) narrates:

"One morning, the Messenger of Allah went out of the house wearing an izar (loose waist wrapper) made of black wool..." (see ibid, p. 99)

- The Clothes that the Prophet (pbuh) Wore Outside

Asha's b. Sulayn (ra) narrates:

"My aunt told me that she heard the following from her uncle: 'I was walking around the streets of Madinah my izar touching the ground. Meanwhile, I heard a voice behind me:

"Pull your izar up. If your izar does not touch the ground, it will remain cleaner and last longer."

When I turned back I saw that the one that was speaking was the Messenger of Allah." (see ibid, p. 154)

Salama b. al-Aqwa (ra) narrates:

"Hz. Uthman wore an izar that covered half of his legs. He said, 'The izar of my friend, that is, the Messenger of Allah, was like this.'" (see ibid, p. 155) 

Anas b. Malik (ra) narrates:

"The seal of the Prophet (pbuh) was made of silver. Its bezel was made of Abyssinian stone.

When the Messenger of Allah wanted to send letters to the rulers of foreign countries, he ordered a signet ring to be made.

I still see the brightness of the ring that was around the finger of the Prophet (pbuh)."

There were three words "Muhammad Rasulullah" carved in the form of three lines on the signet ring of the Prophet (pbuh). "Muhammad" was carved on the first line, "Rasul" was carved on the second line and "Allah" was carved on the third line. (see ibid, p. 114-117)

- The Way the Prophet (pbuh) Walked

Abu Hurayra (ra) narrates:

"I have never seen anyone more handsome than the Messenger of Allah. It looked as if the sun was moving on his face. I have never seen anyone walking faster than the Prophet (pbuh). When he walked, the earth seemed to roll under his feet. We had to try hard and walk very fast to keep up with him." (see ibid, s.157)

Ibrahim b. Muhammad, one of the grandchildren of Hz. Ali narrates: When my grandfather, Hz. Ali, told me about the Prophet (pbuh), he said,

"When the Messenger of Allah walked, he would lift his feet hard as if going downhill."

Thus, he stated that the Prophet (pbuh) walked very easily. (see ibid, p. 158) 

Hz. Yazid Ibn Mirsad said,

"When the Prophet walked, he would walk solemnly but fast. Those who walked with him could hardly catch up with him."(G. Ahmed Ziyaüddin, Ramuz al Ahadith, Vol. 2, Gonca Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1997, 541/1)

From Hz. Abu Ataba (ra):

"He walked with strong steps." (see ibid)

"... When he walked, he would lift his feet off the ground a bit and walk by leaning to the front slightly. He would not hit the ground hard; so, he would not make any noise and would not raise dust. He took long and fast steps but he walked calmly and solemnly. When he walked, he looked as if he was walking downhill on a rough road.

When he turned right, left or round, he would turn with his whole body. He would not look right or left randomly. He looked more at the ground than the sky. He usually looked out of the corner of his eye.

When he walked with his Companions, he made them walk at the front and he himself walked behind them. When he met someone on the road, he would greet first."[From the translation of Tirmidhi's book called Şemail by Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998, p.  66-67]

"His acts were always moderate. When he walked somewhere, he would not hurry; he would not tend to the right or left; he would walk straight solemnly. However, he walked quite fast and easily. He looked as if he walked normally but those who were with them had difficulty in catching up with them though they walked very fast." [Ahmed Cevdet Paşa, Kısas-ı Enbiya, Part (Vol.) 4, Kanaat Matbaası, İstanbul 1331, p. 364-365; Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998, p. 51]

- The Way the Prophet (pbuh) Sat

Qayla bint Mahrama (ra) narrates:

"When I saw the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) sitting so modestly and humbly, my body started to shiver due to his majesty."(at-Tirmidhi Imam Abu I'sa Muhammad, Şemail-i Şerife, Vol 1, Hilal Yayınları, Ankara, 1976, p. 160) 

Jabir b. Samura (ra) narrates:

"I saw the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) leaning on a cushion on his left side." (see ibid, p. 163)

- The Way the Prophet (pbuh) Spoke

The Prophet (pbuh) was known for his influential style and wise and sharp speech. His speech influenced people a lot and everybody took pleasure from his talk. The narrations reported by the Companions show this characteristic of his. Some of the narrations regarding the issue are as follows:

The Messenger of Allah was the most fluent and eloquent person; he was also soft-spoken and smooth-tongued. The Prophet said,

"I am the most eloquent person among Arabs." (Tabarani, Hakim; Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 800,) 

Hz. Aisha describes the speech of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) as follows:

"The Prophet did not utter words quickly one after another as you did. He spoke concisely. You add sentences one after another."(al Fawaid, Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 800)

"The Messenger of Allah spoke very concisely. Jibril taught him to speak like that by the order of Allah. He made himself understood by short sentences. He made concise sentences. He uttered neither more nor fewer words than necessary. His words came one after another in harmony; he paused between words; thus, those who listened to him memorized his words easily. His voice was sonorous and soft. He spoke when it was necessary. He did not utter bad words. He always told the truth whether he was angry or not." (Abu Dawud, Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 800)

"He turned his face away from those who uttered bad words. When he had to use a word that he disliked and regarded bad, he would hint it instead of uttering it directly." (Buhari, Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 800) 

When he kept silent, those near him would speak. People did not argue in front of him. (Tirmidhi; Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 800)

He always smiled at his Companions. He liked their words, listened to them carefully and regarded himself as one of them.(see ibid, p. 800)

Hz. Aish (ra) narrates:

"His words were clear. Anybody who listened to him understood him easily. " (G.Ahmed Ziyaüddin, Ramuz El Hadis, 2. cilt, Gonca Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1997, 521/4) 

From Hz. Abu Umama,

"He was the most cheerful and friendly person among people." (see ibid, 545/4)

Hz. Anas narrates:

"The Prophet (pbuh) was the one who used the most pleasant words among people." (see ibid, 545/5) 

- The Nice Scent of the Prophet (pbuh)

The Prophet (pbuh) gave great importance to cleanliness. He always smelled clean, nice and fragrant. He advised Muslims to be clean. The narrations reported by the Companions give detailed information about this characteristic of his. Some of the narrations regarding the issue are as follows:

Anas b. Malik (ra) narrates:

"When the Messenger of Allah walked through one of the streets of Madinah, his nice scent would be perceived at once; so, people would say the Prophet passed. We understood that the Prophet was coming over from his scent."(Ibn Sa'd Tabaqat, I, 398-399; Majma'uz Zawaid, VIII, 282; al-Matalib'ul-Aliya, IV , 25; Bahjat'ul Mahafil, II, 254; Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998, p. 280)

Ibn Abi Adi, Humayd, reports from Anas (ra):

"I have never touched any wool or silk softer than the hand the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). I have never smelled anything better than the scent of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)." [Bukhari, 1/503; Muslim, 2/257; Ibn Kathir, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Mucizeleri, Çelik Yayınevi, p. 46]

Muaz b. Hisham (ra) reports from his father Qatada, who reports from Anas:

"The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was known for his nice scent. The Messenger of Allah was handsome. His scent was pleasant. He liked nice scents."(Ibn Kathir, Prof. Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998, p. 51)

"His body was clean and his scent was nice. His skin smelled nicer than the most beautiful scent whether he wore any perfume or not. When somebody shook hands with the Prophet, he would feel the Prophet's nice smell all day long; when the Prophet touched the head of a child, that child would be known among other children due to his nice scent." (Ahmed Cevdet Paşa, Kısas-ı Enbiya, Part (Vol.) IV. Cüz, Kanaat Matbaası, İstanbul 1331, p. 364-365)

- The Food the Prophet (pbuh) Liked

"He did not like very hot food."(Bayhaqi, Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 802)

"The food he liked best was meat." (see ibid, p. 803)

"He liked pumpkin very much." (G. Ahmed Ziyaüddin, Ramuz al Ahadith, Vol. 2, Gonca Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1997, 552/7)

"He ate the meat of the birds that were hunted." (Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, ibid)

"Among the dates, he liked Ajwa dates best." (see ibid, p. 803)

Hz. Aisha (ra) stated the following about the food the Prophet (pbuh) liked:

"He liked desserts and honey." (G. Ahmed Ziyaüddin, ibid)

Some kinds of food that the Prophet (pbuh) ate are as follows:

"The forearm and back of sheep, lamb chops, kebab, chicken, bustard, meat soup, brewis, pumpkin, olive oil, skim-milk cheese, melon, halwa, honey, dates, chard, cachalot..."[Abu Dawud, III, 496-497, nu: 3840; Nasai, VII, 207-209; Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998, p. 219]

Hz. Aisha said,

"The Prophet ate melon and watermelon with wet dates." (G. Ahmed Ziyaüddin, ibid)

Hz. Cabir (ra)'den:

"He ate fresh dates and melon a lot and said, 'They are nice fruits.'" (G. Ahmed Ziyaüddin, ibid)

"He never criticized any food. If he liked, he ate the food; if he did not like, he did not eat it. When he did not like a certain food, he did not say any bad things about it to others." (There are similar narrations in Bukhari and Muslim. Hujjatu'l Islam Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2 Translated by: Dr. Sıtkı Gülle, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 804)

Some comments the Prophet (pbuh) made about the food he liked are as follows:

"The best meat is from the back of an animal." (Haydar Hatipoğlu, Sünen-i İbni Mace Tercemesi ve Şerhi, Kahraman Yayınları, Vol. 9, İstanbul 1983, p. 62)

"Vinegar is very nice food to eat with bread." (see ibid, p. 70)

"Mushroom is manna." (see ibid, p. 209)

"Keep eating senna and sannut (honey put into butter in goatskin). For, these two things have cure for all diseases except death." (see ibid, p. 213)

"Eat and use olive oil because it is blessed." (see ibid, p. 73)

- The Drinks that the Prophet (pbuh) Liked

Hz. Aisha (ra) narrates:

"He liked sweet and cold sherbets." (G.Ahmed Ziyaüddin, ibid, 521/15)

"The Prophet (pbuh) liked the drinks like honey sherbet, dates sherbet and grape juice."[Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimiz (sav)'in Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998, p. 261]

"The drinks that the Prophet (pbuh) liked best were cold and sweet sherbets." (see ibid)

"Among sherbets, he liked the honey sherbet best." (G.Ahmed Ziyaüddin, ibid, 521/17)

"Among drinks, he liked milk best." (G.Ahmed Ziyaüddin, ibid, 521/18)

The Prophet (pbuh) stated the following for milk:

"When Allah makes someone eat food, he should pray as follows: 'O Allah! Make this food abundant for us and give us good sustenance from it.' When Allah makes someone drink milk, he should pray as follows: 'O Allah! Make this milk abundant for us and give us more milk.' For, there is nothing but milk that can replace both food and drink." (Haydar Hatipoğlu, Sünen-i İbni Mace Tercemesi ve Şerhi, Kahraman Yayınları, Vol. 9, İstanbul 1983, p. 75) 

What the Prophet (pbuh) said about water:

The Prophet distributed water to his Companions especially during journeys. Once, he stopped during a journey and asked some water. After washing his hands and face, he drank some water and said to his Companions, "Pour some water on your face and neck." (Konyalı Mehmed Vehbi, Tam Metni Sahih-i Buhari, Vol. 4, Üçdal Neşriyat, İstanbul 1993, p. 64-65) 

The Messenger of Allah prayed as follows after drinking water:

"Praise be to Allah, who made water sweet with His mercy not salty or bitter." (Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 2, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 16)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated the following for water in another narration:

"Allah created water as a cleaner. Nothing can dirty it except the things that change its taste, color or smell." (Imam Ghazali, Ihya'u Ulum'id-din, Vol. 1, Huzur Yayınevi, İstanbul 1998, p. 295) 

Conclusion

"... Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets..." (al-Ahzab, 40)

As Allah states in the verse above, Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is the last prophet sent for people; he is Allah's friend, to whom He sent His last true book, whom He made a model for people with his high ethics, taqwa and closeness to Allah; he is also believers' friend who has a high rank in the eye of Allah. 

"Soon shall We send down to thee a weighty Message." (al-Muzzammil, 73/5)

As Allah states in the verse above, Allah laid a great burden and responsibility on Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), who is the last prophet. With his strong belief in Allah, the Prophet fulfilled his responsibility in the best way; he led people to the way of Allah and became the guide and light of all believers.

Even though we did not see the Prophet (pbuh), we can know his good attitudes, speech and ethics through the verses of the Quran and hadiths; we can do our best to resemble him and to be a friend of him in the hereafter.

Today, people especially young people take many people as examples and imitate their attitudes, speech, talking styles and dressing styles; and they try to be like them. However, most of these people are not on the right path and they do not have good attitudes and high ethics. Therefore, it is an important responsibility to guide people to high ethics and good attitudes. The person whose attitude and ethics a Muslim needs to imitate is Hz. Muhammad (pbuh). Allah expresses this reality as follows in a verse:

"Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the praise of Allah." (al-Ahzab, 33/21) 

 Our Prophet, Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), and the other prophets are people that Allah sent as examples for believers and that Allah is pleased with. (Imam Muhammad Bin Muhammad bin Sulayman ar-Rudani, Büyük Hadis Külliyatı, Jam'ul-fawaid min Jami'il-usul wa Majma'iz-Zawaid, Vol. 5, İz Yayıncılık, p. 33) . Allah states the following in the chapter of Yusuf:

"There is, in their stories instruction for men endued with understanding. It is not a tale invented, but a confirmation of what went before it a detailed exposition of all things, and a Guide and a Mercy to any such as believe." (Yusuf, 12/111)

The reason why this article was written is to make the Prophet (pbuh) known through various aspects and to make people imitate his ethics by showing what superior characteristics and merits a community that consists of people who take his ethics as an example will have.

"I am leaving you two things. You will not go astray as long as you stick to them: The book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah."

As it is stated in the hadith above, the two most important guides of Muslims are the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet set a model a model for people with his high ethics and asked people to have high ethics.

The Prophet (pbuh) said, "The heaviest thing on the scales of the believer in the hereafter is high ethics. Allah definitely dislikes a person who does bad things and utters bad and immoral words." He also said, "I swear by Allah, who holds my spirit under His power, that only people with high ethics will enter Paradise."

It is necessary for the Muslims who follow the Prophet (pbuh) to set good examples for humanity with their high ethics and good manners and to call everybody to high ethics both verbally and in writing.

References:

Prof. Dr. İbrahim Bayraktar, Hz. Peygamber’in Şemaili.

Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım, Peygamberimizin Şemaili, Damla Yayınevi, 3rd Impression, İstanbul, 1998.


77-) Will you give information about the children of the Prophet (pbuh)?

The Messenger of Allah had seven children: three of them were boys and four of them were girls. Their names are as follows in the order of birth: Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum, Fatima, Abdullah, Ibrahim. Six of them were born of Hz. Khadijah and the last one was born of Hz. Mariya, the Egyptian.

Ibn Ishaq says that the Prophet had two more children called Tahir and Tayyib but it is stated that they are the attributes of Abdullah.

1) Qasim:

Qasim was the first child of the Messenger of Allah. Therefore, his nickname became Abul-Qasim (Qasim's father). The Prophet liked it when they called him Abul-Qasim. The Companions also called him like that. According to Ibn Sa'd, Qasim lived for two years. He died in Makkah. The first child of the Messenger of Allah that died was Qasim.

2) Zaynab:

She was the oldest daughter of the Prophet. She was born after Qasim. When Zaynab was born, the Messenger of Allah was thirty years old. Zaynab, who was born in Makkah, died in the eight year of the Migration in Madinah. When she died, she was about thirty years old. 

Zaynab married her aunt's son Abul-As first. He did not become a Muslim at first. When he was enslaved by the Muslims during the Battle of Badr, he promised that he would send Zaynab to Madinah after he was freed. The Messenger of Allah sent Zayd bin Haritha with Abul-As to fetch Zaynab to Madinah. Zayd took Zaynab back to Madinah. Zaynab returned to Madinah but her husband, Abul-As, stayed in Makkah.   

During a sariyya, Abul-As was enslaved by the Muslims again. However, he was freed thanks to the protection of Hz. Zaynab. When Abul-As was freed from slavery for the second time. He went to Makkah. He returned the things entrusted to him to their owners and became a Muslim. Then, he migrated to Madinah. He married Hz. Zaynab again in Madinah.

Abul-As treated Hz. Zaynab very well. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah appreciated him. Zaynab did not live long after marrying her husband again. When she died, her dead body was washed by Hz. Umm Aym and Hz. Sawda. Her janazah prayer was led by the Messenger of Allah. Abul-As placed her in the grave.

3) Ruqayya:

She was the second daughter of the Messenger of Allah. When she was born, Hz. Prophet was thirty-three years old. Before her father became a prophet, Ruqayya was engaged to Utba, Abu Lahab's son. When the Messenger of Allah started to call people to Islam, Abu Lahab called his son, Utba, and said to him,

"My son! If you do not leave Muhammad's daughter, I will leave you." Utba left Ruqayya due to his father's request. After that, Ruqayya married Hz. Uthman. Hz. Usman and his wife Ruqayya took part in the first group that migrated to Abyssinia. Afterwards, Hz. Uthman returned to Makkah from Abyssinia. Before the Battle of Badr, Ruqayya became very ill; therefore, Hz. Uthman could not take part in the Battle of Badr. He was regarded as one of the excused people since his wife was ill.

Hz. Ruqayya died on the same day as Zayd bin Haritha brought the good news that the Muslims won the battle. The Messenger of Allah could not take part in her daughter's funeral due to the Battle of Badr.

4) Umm Kulthum:

She was born before the advent of Islam. Her mother was Hz. Khadijah. Umm Kulthum was engaged to Utayba, Abu Lahab's second son, before Islam. When Islam came, Abu Lahab did not become a Muslim and became a fierce enemy of Islam. When the chapter of al-Masadd was sent down about him, he told his son to leave Umm Kulthum. He obeyed his father and left Umm Kulthum. 

She married Hz. Uthman one year after the death of Hz. Ruqayya, in the third year of the Migration.

According to what Bukhari narrates, when Hafsa was widowed, Hz. Umar went to Hz.Uthman and asked him to marry Hafsa, his daughter. Hz. Uthman hesitated. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah said to Hz. Umar,

"I will find you a better man than Uthman and I will find Uthman a better man than you. Marry your daughter off to me and I will marry my daughter off to Uthman." 

Umm Kulthum, who married Hz. Uthman, lived with him for six years. She died in the ninth year of the Migration. Her janazah prayer was led by the Messenger of Allah. She was buried by Hz. Ali, Hz. Fadl and Hz. Usama.

Hz. Uthman was given the nickname "Zinnurayn" (the owner of two lights) since he married two daughters of the Messenger of Allah: Ruqayye and Umm Kulthum.

5) Fatima:

She was the youngest but most beloved daughter of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). She was born in Makkah when the first revelation came. She married Hz. Ali in Madinah in the second year of the Migration. When they got married, Hz. Fatima was fifteen and Hz. Ali was twenty-four years old. The Messenger of Allah prepared a bed linen, two grinders and a water-skin for his daughter Fatima. Hz. Fatima used the grinders and the water-skin throughout her life.

The Messenger of Allah wanted Hz. Ali and Hz. Fatima to get on well. Once, Ali treated Fatima harshly; thereupon, Fatima went to the Messenger of Allah and complained about Ali. After Fatima, Ali arrived and complained about her. However, the Messenger of Allah reconciled them.

Once, Hz. Ali wanted to have another wife; when the Messenger of Allah was informed about it, he said in a sermon,

"My daughter is my part, what makes her uneasy makes me uneasy."

Thereupon, Hz. Ali gave up the idea of marrying another woman. He did not marry anybody else when Hz. Fatima was alive.

Hz. Fatima died in the eleventh year of the Migration, six months after his father's death. She was twenty-five years old when the Messenger of Allah passed away. 

The Messenger of Allah loved his daughter, Fatima, very much. When he was ill, he called her. He whispered something to her ear. Hz. Fatima cried. He whispered to her again; this time Fatima smiled. Hz. Aisha asked what happened. Hz. Aisha said,

"First, the Messenger of Allah said that he would die and I cried. Then, he said that the first person to rejoin him after his death would be me and I smiled." 

Hz. Fatima continued the generation of the Messenger of Allah. Fatima had five children: Hasan, Husayn, Muhsin, Umm Kulthum, Zaynab. Muhsin died when he was very young.

6) Abdullah:

He was born eleven years before the Migration in Makkah. He lived for three months and died. "Tahir and Tayyib" were Abdullah's other names.

7) Ibrahim:

He was the youngest child and son of the Messenger of Allah. He was born in the eighth year of the Migration in Madinah. According to Ibn Ishaq, all of Hz. Muhammad's children except Ibrahim were born before his prophethood. Ibrahim was born of Mariya, the Egyptian, and according to the narration of Hz. Aisha, he died when he was seventeen or eighteen months old.

The Messenger of Allah became very pleased when Ibrahim was born; he gave a feat seven days after Ibrahim was born and doled out money to the poor. He named his child Ibrahim. For, all of his sons born of Hz. Khadija had died when they were very young. He did not have any children from his other wives.  

Salma, who was Abu Rafi's wife, fostered newborn Ibrahim as his wet-nurse. Bukhari states that Umm Sayf breastfed Ibrahim. The Messenger of Allah visited the wet-nurse frequently to see, caress and kiss Ibrahim.  

Ibrahim died in Umm Sayf's house. When Hz. Prophet heard that his son was ill, he went to see him with Abdurrahman bin Awf. When he saw that he was in agony, he could not help crying. Abdurrahman said:

"O Messenger of Allah! What are you doing?" The Messenger of Allah said,

"My feelings of compassion overwhelmed."

The Messenger of Allah led his son's janazah prayer.  Fadl bin Abbas, Usama bin Zayd and Uthman Maz'un placed him in the grave. He was buried in the cemetery of Baqi.

When Ibrahim died, the sun was eclipsed. People said that the sun had also joined the mourning. The Messenger of Allah said,

"The sun and the moon are signs of Allah. They are not eclipsed because of the death of an ephemeral person!"

Thus, he drove people away from such wrong beliefs.


78-) Were there any Companions whose Quran reading the Prophet liked personally?

There are some narrations that the Prophet praised the people who read the Quran clearly and beautifully. Once the Messenger of Allah said, "The person who reads the Quran in the best way in my ummah is Ubayy." (Bukhari, "Fada'ilu'l-Qur'an", 8) He said to Ubayy b. Ka'b, "Allah ordered me to make you read the Quran." Ubayy asked, "Did Allah utter my name?" The Prophet said, "Yes, He did." (Bukhari, "Tafsir", 98; Tirmidhi, "Manaqib", 33)

The Messenger of Allah also praised Ibn Mas'ûd, Zayd b. Thabit and Salim regarding their Quran reading; with these words, the Messenger of Allah encouraged the Companions to learn and read the Quran correctly; and he appreciated in the community those who strengthened their reading.

According to a narration in Bukhari, the Prophet asked Hz. Abdullah Ibn Masud to read him the Quran. Thereupon, Ibn Mas’ud said,

“O Messenger of Allah! Shall I read the Quran to you though it was sent down to you?” The Prophet said,

“Yes, I like listening to the Quran from others.”

Ibn Mas’ud started to read. When he came to the verse, “How then if We brought from each people a witness, and We brought thee as a witness against these people?”, the Messenger of Allah said,

“That is enough for now.” At that moment, tears were coming down from his eyes. (Bukhari, Fadailu’l-Qur’ân: 32-33)

There is information in hadith and siyar books that the Messenger of Allah sent the Companions who memorized the Quran and read the Quran very well to various regions as instructors of the Quran. That he felt very sad when the Companions of Ahl as-Suffa he sent to the tribe of Banu Amir to teach them the Quran and Islam were killed at the incident of Bi'r al-Mauna and that he bedamned their murderers for a month show the importance he gave to those who have a good command of the Quran.


79-) What was the religious life of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) like before his prophethood?

Before Islam, the Prophet (pbuh) was a unitarian person who worshipped in accordance with the true religion. He followed the religion of Hz. Ibrahim. However, he worshipped based on his own will, not due to an obligation. All of the history and siyar books agree on the issue.

The Prophet (pbuh) used to go to the cave of Hira, worship and pray there. The first revelation was sent down while he was worshipping there.


80-) What are the colors that the Prophet liked the most?

It is known that our Prophet (pbuh) wore white, black, green and red clothes at various times. However, he often preferred white clothes and advised his Companions to wear white clothes. There are narrations that he wore a red gown, cardigan and turban. (Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat I. 451; Bukhari, al-Adab 127 no: 348)


81-) Were there any Companions whose Quran reading the Prophet liked personally?

There are some narrations that the Prophet praised the people who read the Quran clearly and beautifully. Once the Messenger of Allah said, "The person who reads the Quran in the best way in my ummah is Ubayy." (Bukhari, "Fada'ilu'l-Qur'an", 8) He said to Ubayy b. Ka'b, "Allah ordered me to make you read the Quran." Ubayy asked, "Did Allah utter my name?" The Prophet said, "Yes, He did." (Bukhari, "Tafsir", 98; Tirmidhi, "Manaqib", 33)

The Messenger of Allah also praised Ibn Mas'ûd, Zayd b. Thabit and Salim regarding their Quran reading; with these words, the Messenger of Allah encouraged the Companions to learn and read the Quran correctly; and he appreciated in the community those who strengthened their reading.

According to a narration in Bukhari, the Prophet asked Hz. Abdullah Ibn Masud to read him the Quran. Thereupon, Ibn Mas’ud said,

“O Messenger of Allah! Shall I read the Quran to you though it was sent down to you?” The Prophet said,

“Yes, I like listening to the Quran from others.”

Ibn Mas’ud started to read. When he came to the verse, “How then if We brought from each people a witness, and We brought thee as a witness against these people?”, the Messenger of Allah said,

“That is enough for now.” At that moment, tears were coming down from his eyes. (Bukhari, Fadailu’l-Qur’ân: 32-33)

There is information in hadith and siyar books that the Messenger of Allah sent the Companions who memorized the Quran and read the Quran very well to various regions as instructors of the Quran. That he felt very sad when the Companions of Ahl as-Suffa he sent to the tribe of Banu Amir to teach them the Quran and Islam were killed at the incident of Bi'r al-Mauna and that he bedamned their murderers for a month show the importance he gave to those who have a good command of the Quran.