Most Read in the Category of Allah (God)

1-) What is difference among the names Azim (the Magnificent), Kabir (the Greatest) and Aliyy (the Exalted/Highest)?

In order to understand the nuances among Azim, Kabir and Aliyy, it is necessary to look at the meanings of the words magnificent, great and high. These words do not explain their meanings completely but they can give us an idea about the difference among them. That is, those three words do not have the same meaning and they are not the same.

When we have a look at the opposites of these words, the opposite of ‘azim’ is 'despicable', the opposite of ‘kabir‘ is small‘ and the opposites of ‘aliyy’ is 'low'.

As it is known, the distance between the sun and the earth is about one hundred and fifty million kilometer square. Light covers this distance in eight minutes, but there are stars whose light has not reached the world yet. 

In the light of this knowledge, let us try to see the differences among the concepts of magnificence, greatness and highness.  

The sky is magnificent in terms of eyes being too weak to see and mind being too weak to understand its vast width and height.

The sky is great in terms of all of the big beings in the world being small compared to it.

The sky is high in terms of all high things in the world being low compared to it.

This example cannot be a measurement to understand themagnificence, highness and greatness of Allah, who is free from being material. For, the greatness, magnificence, and highness of Allah, who does not resemble His creatures in any way, are peculiar to Himself and nothing similar to them can be imagined. However, if it is understood that those names are not the same through that example, it is enough for us.

Magnificence, highness and greatness are in question for all attributes, things, deeds and names.  

Let us deal with mercy only by giving one example:

Nursi writes the following: “The tenderness of all mothers is but a flash of Divine mercy.”

Being merciful is superiority and the perfection of this attribute belongs only to Allah, who is great.

Minds cannot understand the width and scope of His mercy.

The mercy shown by Allah to His creatures is higher than all kinds of mercy.


2-) Why cannot we see Allah in this world?

One of the names of Allah is Noor (Heavenly Light). Everything, from luminous beings, which are angels, to the sunshine and all rays exist in the universe, bears various manifestations of this name. Human eyes, in this world, are able to see only the material world. They can see neither their own souls, nor the angels who record their acts, nor the rays.

It has been found out that human eyes are able to detect only 2.5 % of the total rays in the universe.Expecting to see Allah with human eyes, Who is the creator of all luminous beings in the universe, at least becomes a contrary notion to the laws of physics. Another aspect of the point is that man is under a testing in this world.

Allah's being visible would be contrary to the mystery of this testing. Since the purpose of our being sent to this world is to know and worship Allah, and human beings are left free to believe or not believe, everybody would have to believe unavoidably and the mystery of testing would be eliminated if Allah were seen by the eye. As Badiuzzaman Said Nursi puts it, people with coal (black) spirits like Abu Jahl would be the same as people with diamond spirits.

The reason why Allah is not seen by our physical eyes is His covering everything with His knowledge and His having no opposite equivalent.

For example, if we suppose that the sun surrounds all space just as the atmosphere surrounds everything on earth, it would be impossible to see the sun with eyes. The sun would be invisible since everywhere would be covered with its rays. Since it has no opposite equivalent as is the case with night, the sun would be invisible and it would be rather difficult to understand its nature. However, it would be ignorance to deny the existence of the sun, which exists everywhere with its light and surrounds everything.

Yet within the same perspective of logic, the same situation can also be considered for Allah Almighty, Who surrounds everything with His names and attributes, Who exists everywhere, and Who has no opposite equivalent.

The situation is completely different in the Hereafter. The spirits of the people of Paradise will dominate their bodies. The original forms of beings, which are in the manner of shadows in this earthly life, are going to be created there. Man will go to Paradise as a person who is worthy of it at all points and who is allowed to make use of its all bounties. One must think about the fact that even in Paradise, the occurrence of Ru'yah (seeing Allah) will not take place constantly.

That is to say, the people of Paradise will take on a different appearance and this divine grant will take place in a special environment, which is peculiar to it. As a matter of fact, the information that they will not be recognized by their families when they are back from Ru'yah indicates that.


3-) Should we love Allah or fear Him?

In the religion of Islam, love and fear of Allah are proportional.

A believer who fears the torture of Allah takes refuge in His compassion just like a child who fears his mother’s slap and takes shelter in her compassionate bosom. Allah states in the Qur’an that He will torment people regarding some issues. It is in order to make them gain high positions and enter Paradise and avoid committing forbidden deeds. It is exactly like the attitude of a father who, for the sake of his child and his future, arranges a convenient place for his child who does not study in order to make him study and in order that his child will not become miserable in the future who scolds and scares his child and if necessary slaps his child who is addicted to playing during his child’s upbringing period...

Besides, Allah informs Muslims after those torture verses that He is extremely forgiving and merciful and those who repent and correct their behaviors will be exceptional from this threat in order that they will not fall into despair.

Here are some verses concerning the issue:

“That Allah may reward the men of Truth, for their Truth and punish the Hypocrites if that be His Will, or turn to them in Mercy: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (al-Ahzab, 33/24)

“(With the result) that Allah has to punish the Hypocrites, men and women, and the Unbelievers, men and women, and Allah turns in Mercy to the Believers, men and women: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (al-Ahzab, 33/73)

“Allah will not call you to account for thoughtlessness in your oaths, but for the intention in your hearts; and He is Oft-Forgiving Most Forbearing.” (al-Baqarah, 2/225)

“In that will they dwell; nor will their penalty be lightened, nor respite be their (lot). Except for those that repent (even) after that and make amends: for verily Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”  (Aal-e-Imran, 3/88-89)

“(But) the Penalty on the Day of Judgment will be doubled to him, and he will dwell therein in ignominy― Unless he repents, believes, and works righteous deeds, for Allah will change the evil of such persons into good and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (al-Furqan, 25/69-70)


4-) We meet some people, though not many, who say, “I do not believe in the things that I do not see.” What should we say to them in order to make them give up this wrong thought?

It is a reality that the realm of beings does not consist of things that can be perceived with five senses only. Man sees only the realm of matter with the sense of sight. He feels the realm of taste with his tongue, the realm of sounds with his ears and the realm of smell with his nose. However, electricity, gravity, the realm of rays, radioactive waves and many more realities are neither seen nor heard. However, their existence is unquestionable.   

Some people who ignore this principle say, "I do not believe in the things that I do not see", making a big mistake by thinking that the whole realm of beings consists of the material things that they see through their eyes only. However, that something cannot be seen by the eye cannot prove its nonexistence. For, what we do not see are much more than what we see in this realm. Even in the human body, the unseen things like, mind, imagination and memory are much more than the things that are seen.  

What underlies the statement “I do not believe in the things that I do not see” is the mistake of giving the duty of the mind to the eye.However, each sense in man opens the door of a separate realm; the duty of each one of them is not expected from another. For instance, the eye cannot fulfill the duty of the ear nor the nose can fulfill the duty of the tongue. Man cannot taste food, hear a nightingale or smell a rose with his eye. The eye cannot fulfill the duties of other sense organs; it cannot fulfill the functions of the mind, either.  

It is known that any work is seen by the eye but its maker can be understood by the mind. A person who says, “I do not believe in the things that I do not see” denies the maker of this work. Similarly, a person who watches this magnificent universe, which is the work of an endless power, knowledge and art, but who does not accept its creator moves away from science and mind.

How can such a person explain endless deeds like creating, giving sustenance and giving life that become manifest in the universe all the time and that show the existence of Allah like the sun?

“The minds of those who seek everything in matter are in their eyes. The eye is blind in spirituality.”


5-) Will a person be held responsible for the thoughts that come to his mind involuntarily like likening the being of Allah to some forms?

Man is not held responsible for the things that come to his mind and imagination. However, he should try to think about Allah's works and deeds, not His personality.

According to what Ibn Abbas narrates, some people wanted to think about the personality of Allah. Thereupon, Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) made the following explanation:

"Think about the beings that Allah created. Do not think about Allah Himself. You will not be able to think about Allah's personality." (see Kanzul-Ummal, h. No: 5705, 5706)


6-) If we commit sins by saying, "Allah is the Forgiver" and repent after that, is it enough?

Some people commit sins openly, without feeling shy and, what is worse, willingly and they console themselves by saying, “Is Allah not the Forgiver and the Merciful?” In fact, is it not necessary to feel ashamed of disobeying Allah, who is the Forgiver and the Merciful? He might not torture if He wishes; He might not send a person to Hell. Besides, a slave needs to fulfill some conditions to attain His forgiveness and pardoning.

The names Ghafur (Forgiver) and Rahim (Merciful) are the names in which those who are ashamed of the sins they commit and who want to get rid of their bad states will take refuge, not those who commit sins openly and willingly. These names save a believer from despair. Otherwise, it does not make a sinner continue - God forbid - his sins.

If those who utter the sentence above remember that Allah is not only Ghaffar (the Forgiving and Sattar (Coverer of Sins) but also Qahhar (the Subduer) and Jabbar (the Compeller), they will not make such a mistake.

“I am the most Allah fearing, and know Allah better than all of you do.” (Bukhari, Iman 13)

Some verses in the Quran give believers the glad tiding of Paradise while others threaten rebels with Hell. They bring about a nice harmony in man by leading them to both fear (khawf) and hope (raja) like the heart beating once and stopping, beating again and stopping again.

The chapter of al-Fatiha is the summary of the Quran. It teaches both fear and hope. In “Hamd”, praise is dominant.

“Maliki yawmiddin” teaches fear.
“Ibadah” indicates hope and “istiana” indicates fear.
“The demand to be guided to sirat al-mustaqim”: Hope
“The fear of being among maghdub and dallin”: Fear

The spirit of a believer who reads the chapter of al-Fatiha travels between waves of fear and hope even if he does not feel it.


7-) The slander that Allah does not know the deeds that man will do..

We live in a very strange age. Some people deny Allah, who created them; others claim that they are Muslims but they deny Allah's knowledge.

We can understand to some extent when an unbeliever denies Allah's knowledge that surrounds everything. How can you explain when a person who says he is a Muslim and claims that he is knowledgeable denies Allah's knowledge; by ignorance, malicious intention or the effort of distorting this religion?

Anyway, let us leave their intentions aside and deal with their views, or rather refute their views.

They say,

"Allah does not know the deeds that His slave will do Allah. First, the slave does a deed; then, Allah knows it. Similarly, Allah does not know whether a slave will die as a believer or an unbeliever. The deeds that are dependent on the free will of a slave are known by Allah only after they are done."

They utter nonsense like the one above. We will show them the verses informing us that Allah knows everything before they happen. Besides, we will explain the real meanings of the verses that they use as evidence for their views. Thus, we will try to protect the ummah of Muhammad from their evil. Help and success come from Allah.

VERSE 1

"Perish the hands of the Father of Flame! Perish he! No profit to him from all his wealth, and all his gains! Burnt soon will he be in a Fire of blazing Flame! His wife shall carry the (crackling) wood ―as fuel!― A twisted rope of palm-leaf fibre round her (own) neck!." (al-Masadd, 111/1-5)

This chapter was sent down five years before Abu Lahab died. The reason for the verse to be sent down is the following incident:

The Prophet (pbuh) gathered the Qurayshis and asked them, "If I told you the enemy would attack us in the morning or in the evening, would you believe me?" They said,"Yes." Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) said, "I warn you against a severe torture." Abu Lahab said, "Did you gather us here for this? Woe on you! May your hands perish!" Thereupon, Allah sent down the chapter of al-Masadd. (Ibn Kathir, Fakhruddin Razi)

As it is seen, this chapter was sent down before Abu Lahab died and stated that Abu Lahab would not believe. Therefore, tafsir scholars agreed unanimously that this chapter is a miracle about the ghayb and they stated the following:

“This chapter is clear evidence of the prophethood of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) and a clear miracle. For the following is stated in the verse: ‘Burnt soon will he be in a Fire of blazing Flame! His wife shall carry the (crackling) wood …’ thus, it is stated that they would remain as bad people and that they would not believe. And things turned out to be as the verses stated and both of them died as unbelievers.”

Those who say, "Allah does not know what His slave will do" did not know what to do due to this verse and slandered Allah and this chapter; they said, "This chapter was sent down after Abu Lahab died."Now we want to quote from the soundest tafsir books:

"The chapter of al-Masadd consists of five verses it is unanimously agreed that it was sent down in Makkah."(Fakhruddin Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb)

"It is a chapter that was sent down in Makkah after the secret period of the call of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)." (Basair al-Qur'an)

"It was sent down in the Era of Makkah. It consists of five verses." (Büyük Kur'an Tefsiri)

"It is unanimously agreed that it was sent down in Makkah."(al-Jamiu li-Ahkami’l-Qur’an)

"It is a Makkan chapter. It consists of five verses." (Furkan Tefsiri)

"This chapter, which is unanimously agreed to be sent down in the Era of Makkah... The verses about Abu Lahab include information about the ghayb in three aspects: 1. It gives information about his destruction and frustration and its actual happening. 2. It states that he will not be able to benefit from his property and children, which turned out to be true. 3. It states that he is a person of Hell, which turned out to be true. (Tafsiru’l-Munir)

"It was sent down in Makkah; it consists of five verses." (Safwatu’t-Tafasir)

“It was sent down in Makkah. It consists of five verses."(Samarqandi)

"It was sent down in the Era of Makkah. It consists of five verses." (Şifa tefsiri)

"This blessed chapter was sent down in Makkah. It consists of five verses. It is called "Tabbat" because it showed Abu Lahab's destruction and frustration." (Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen)

"The death of Abu Lahab took place in the same way as the Quran stated fifteen years ago." (Elmalı Hamdi Yazır)

"It was sent down in Makkah." (Ibn Kathir)

"It was sent down in Makkah." (Asbab an-Nuzul)

We can quote the sentence "This chapter was sent down in Makkah" from many more tafsir books. However, we regard the ones above as sufficient and will not quote any others to keep it short.

To sum up, the chapter of al-Masadd informed beforehand that Abu Lahab and his wife would die as unbelievers and it turned out to be true. This chapter proves that Allah knows everything before they happen. This chapter is a big blow to those who say, "Allah does not know what His slaves will do with their own free will."

VERSE 2

"As to those who reject Faith, it is the same to them whether thou warn them or do not warn them; they will not believe. Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing.” (al-Baqara, 2/6-7)

Let us meditate on these verses: Allah Almighty states in the verse that the unbelievers will not believe -whether they are warned or not. If somebody said for this verse,

"This verse states that the unbelievers will not believe. However, we see many unbelievers believe. Thus, the statement they will not believe' is- God forbid- wrong",

the answer we -that is, those who believe that Allah knows everything - give to this claim would be very simple. We would say,

“The verse above and similar verses were sent down about the people who were known to die as unbelievers in the pre-eternal knowledge of Allah. They will not believe whether they are warned or not. Allah Almighty knew with His pre-eternal knowledge that they would not believe; so, He said, ‘they will not believe' about them.”

Besides, the word "alladhi (who)" at the beginning of the verse is a relative pronoun used for known/definite people. The people who are known here are the people that are known to die as unbelievers in the pre-eternal knowledge.

Ibn Abbas, Imam Tabarani, Ibn Jarir, Imam Bayhaqi, Imam Suyuti and others state the following about the verse:   

“The Prophet (pbuh) wanted the unbelievers to believe very much; he became very sad because they did not believe. It was stated by the verse above and similar verses that the people who were known to die as unbelievers in the pre-eternal knowledge of Allah would not believe and that their guidance was not in the hand of the Prophet; thus, the Prophet was consoled.”

We answered the question about the verse "they will not believe" in short. How will those who do not believe in the pre-eternal knowledge of Allah and claim that Allah does not know the deeds man will do answer the question above? If somebody asked them, "Allah says they will not believe' but many unbelievers believe; it means what the verse says is - God forbid - wrong"; how would they answer this?  

Or, how would they answer if we asked them the following question?

Which unbelievers are meant by the phrase "they will not believe" in the verse? We say the unbelievers who are known to die as unbelievers in the pre-eternal knowledge of Allah are meant. However, you do not believe in pre-eternal knowledge. You say Allah cannot know the end of His slave. Then, who are the unbelievers in the verse that will not believe?

Let us see how the verse goes on:

"Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing."

How would you answer if somebody said the following?

"What is their sin? If Allah had not set a seal ontheir hearts and on their hearing, they would have believed. The sin belongs - God forbid - to Allah."

Our answer to this question is very simple: Allah knew by His pre-eternal knowledge that they would choose unbelief and that they would never believe. Therefore, He set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing. The unbelievers who would choose belief were not sealed.

While we say so, what will you - who deny the pre-eternal knowledge of Allah - say? If Allah did not know the end of His slave and that His slave would choose unbelief using his own free will, how did He set this seal? Or, do you believe in the following? Allah does not know, God forbid, but He set a seal on the heart and hearing of some of His slaves that He chose; those slaves cannot believe because of those seals. 

Do you believe in this? See what kind of a conclusion your wrong creed reached. Not only do you deny Allah's knowledge but you also attribute oppression to Him. For, if they cannot believe because Allah sealed their hearts and if they are to go to Hell because they do not believe, it will be cruelty and oppression. It is like cutting a person's tongue off, then demanding him to speak and punishing him because he cannot speak. Is the Allah that you believe in an Allah like that?

Now we want to put this evidence together with the following questions:

1. The following is stated for unbelievers in verse six:"They will not believe." Who are the unbelievers mentioned here?

2. The relative pronoun at the beginning shows that these unbelievers are known people. If these people are not the ones that are known to die as unbelievers, who are they?

3. If Allah does not know who will die as unbelievers and who as believers, who did He mean by "they will not believe"?

4. It is seen that some unbelievers believe. Therefore, this state violates the decree "they will not believe" of the verse. If we do not accept that the word "they" means the people whoare known to die as unbelievers in the divine knowledge, how can we associate "the unbelievers who believe" with the decree "they will not believe"?

5. It is stated in verse seven that Allah set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing. In our view, this seal was set on those who are known to die as unbelievers; who was it set on in your opinion?

6. If Allah set this seal on the slaves He knows to die as unbelievers and if they cannot believe, will it not be cruelty and oppression?

7. If you do not accept that Allah sets this seal on the people whom He knew with His eternal knowledge that they would die as unbelievers, answer the following question: "Based on what does Allah set this seal?"

VERSE 3

"It was revealed to Noah: "None of thy people will believe except those who have believed already!...and address Me no (further) on behalf of those who are in sin: for they are about to be overwhelmed (in the Flood)." (Hud, 11/36-37)

Let us analyze the aspect of this verse that is related to our issue:

Allah told Hz. Nuh that his people except those who believed beforehand would not believe and that they would beoverwhelmed in the flood. Therefore, He prohibited Hz. Nuh from praying for them and ordered him to construct a ship. Hz. Nuh completed this ship in two years, or, according to another narration, in four years. And as Allah stated, nobody from his people believed in this time period and finally they were all drowned.     

We refer the details of the story to tafsir books and we ask those who say, "Allah knows what man will do only after he does them," answer the following questions:

1. If Allah does not know the end of His slaves, how did He know that Hz. Nuh's nation would not believe and that they would be drowned? Did He - God forbid - guess?

2. Or, did Allah remove their free will and prevent them from believing so they could not believe in the two-year period of the construction of the ship? If it is so, will not they speak as follows in the hereafter?

"O Allah! If you had not made us unbelievers by force and had not removed our free will, we would have believed when Hz. Nuh constructed the ship. We are not guilty; You are guilty because you forced us to remain in unbelief."

Or do you believe in this possibility? In fact, one of the reasons why prophets are sent is the fact that people will not be able to say,

"There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings and no warner (from evil)." (al-Maida, 5/19)

That is, there will not be left any evidence for people against Allah (an-Nisa, 4/165). This evidence not being left depends on Allah's not removing people's will.

How will we solve this problem now? Allah told Hz. Nuh that his nation - except the ones who had believed beforehand - would die as unbelievers two years later and prohibited him from praying for them. If Allah had not known the future and had not removed their will, how did He acquire this knowledge? Or, do you believe - God forbid - that Allah made a guess and it turned out to be true? What else can we say to you if you believe in this? What can be said to a person who has no conscience?

Conclusion: Allah told Hz. Nuh two years - according to another narration four years - before this incident that his nation would not believe and that they would be drowned; and it turned out as He had stated. This verse is related to giving information about the future and proves clearly that Allah knows the future of His slaves. 

How will those who oppose the chapter of al-Masadd, which stated that Abu Lahab would die as an unbeliever by saying, "This chapter was sent down after Abu Lahab died," oppose the verse in the chapter of Hud mentioned above? What is more, Allah stated this time that all members of Nuh's nation - except the ones who had believed beforehand - not one person, would die as unbelievers and it turned out so.   

Now, there are three ways before us:

1. Allah knew with His pre-eternal knowledge that Hz. Nuh's nation would not believe and revealed this to Hz. Nuh.

2. Allah -God forbid- made a guess and this guess turned out to be true.

3. Allah -God forbid- removed their will and forced them to remain in unbelief. Then, he oppressed them by both drowning them in water and torturing them in the hereafter. 

O ignorant people who deny the pre-eternal knowledge of Allah! We accept the first way and acquit Him of the other two ways hundreds of thousand times. Which way do you accept?

VERSE 4

"Behold thy Lord said to the angels: 'I will create a vicegerent on earth.'  They said 'Wilt thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?'" (al-Baqara, 2/30)

There are two points that we will deal with in this verse. The first point is that Allah Almighty said, "I will create a vicegerent on earth." Yes, Allah Almighty said, "I will create a vicegerent on earth." However, after He created Hz. Adam, He sent him to Paradise. That is, He did not send Adam directly onto the earth; He tested him in Paradise. When Hz. Adam approached the forbidden tree, Allah sent him out of Paradise to the world.

The following is understood from the verse: Allah knew that Hz. Adam would approach the forbidden tree because He said in the verse, "I will create a vicegerent on earth." The reason why Hz. Adam was sent down to the earth was his approaching the forbidden truth.  

"Would Hz. Adam have been sent down to the earth if he had not approached that tree?" If we were asked this question, we would answer it as follows: It is clearly stated in the verse before Hz. Adam was created that he would be sent down to the earth. Therefore, he was bound to be sent down. However, for the realization of several wisdoms, Allah first put him in Paradise and sent him out of Paradise due to his mistake. Our issue is not related to the reason why he was sent out; so, we will ignore it. We attract attention to the following point, which is related to our issue: 

It means Allah knew the mistake of Hz. Adam that would cause him to be sent out of Paradise. If he had not known it, He would not have put Hz. Adam, whom He created for the world, in Paradise first. Yes, if Hz. Adam had not approached the forbidden tree, he would not have been sent out of Paradise in terms of cause and effect. In that case, would Hz. Adam not have remained in paradise forever?  

The second point we will deal with in the verse is as follows: The angels asked the following question about the creation of man:"Wilt thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?" How did the angels know that man will make mischief and shed blood? Yes, man had not been created and sent down to the world yet. How did the angels obtain this knowledge about the ghayb?

There are two answers that can be given to this question:

1. They knew it because Allah informed them about it.  

2. They might have read it in Lawh al-Mahfuz (the Preserved Tablet); everything that will take place is recorded there. Both answers mean that Allah knows everything.

Look! Even the angels know the future when they are informed, let alone Allah. Then, it is complete ignorance to say, "Allah does not know the future."

Now we want to put this evidence together with the following questions:

1. Though Allah said, "I will create a vicegerent on earth," He placed Hz. Adam in Paradise first. He allowed Adam to walk all around Paradise but forbad approaching only one tree. Did Allah not know that Hz. Adam would approach that tree?

2. If Allah had not known - God forbid - Hz. Adam would approach that tree, would He not have sent him directly to the world?

3. What about the angels knowing man would make mischief and shed blood? What will you say about it? We say either Allah informed them or they looked at Lawh al-Mahfuz and learned from it. Both of them prove the pre-eternal knowledge of Allah. O those who say Allah does not know the future! Answer us. How did the angels know that man would make mischief and shed blood?  

VERSE 5

"Nor can a soul die except by Allah's leave the term being fixed as by writing." (Aal-i Imran, 3/145)

It is stated in this verse that the time of death is fixed. Some other verses also attract attention to this issue and state the time of death cannot be advanced or delayed. (al-A’raf, 7/34; ar-Rad, 13/38;an- Nahl, 16/61)

That is, Allah Almighty determined a lifespan for us before we were created and a time of death. We do not die before that time comes and we cannot delay it. 

Then, suppose that somebody jumped off a mountain and committed suicide. Which of the following is true in that case?

1. Allah determined a lifespan for him but he advanced his death by committing suicide.  

This cannot be true because it is definitely stated in verses that death cannot be advanced or delayed. For instance, the following is stated in verse 16 of the chapter of an-Nahl: "When their Term expires they would not be able to delay (the punishment) for a single hour." (16/61) It means committing suicide cannot advance death. Then, this option has been eliminated.

2. Allah determined a lifespan for this person and when that time came, He forced this person to commit suicide. The person who committed suicide jumped off the mountain involuntarily. Or rather, Allah made him jump off and he could not resist Allah's power. Thus, the time of death was not delayed or advanced.

However, this cannot be true, either. For, in that case, the partial free will of the slave is removed and he is forced to commit suicide. However, Allah stated that committing suicide was a major sin and threatened a person who committed suicide to torture in Hell. If the free will of the person who committed suicide had been removed from him, this threat would have been meaningless and the torture would have been oppression. Then, this option has been eliminated too because Allah is away from oppression.     

3. Allah knew with His pre-eternal knowledge that this person would commit suicide using his partial free will and determined a lifespan for him accordingly.  If that person had not committed suicide by using his partial free will, Allah would have determined a longer life for him or would have taken his life at the same time due to another reason. This is something that we cannot know. 

This is the only option that is true. This option does not contain oppression or advancing the time of death.

Now let us look at the aspect of this analysis that is related to our issue:

- If Allah knows the time that a slave will commit suicide with His pre-eternal knowledge and determines a lifespan for him accordingly, is it not natural for Him to know his other deeds before he does them?  

- Our Lord knows when and how man will die and records it in Lawh al-Mahfuz as the verse "fixed by writing";why should He not know and record our other deeds?

- Does the fact that when man will die is known before his death not show that his other deeds will be known before they occur?  

VERSE 6

"The Roman Empire has been defeated― In a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious, Within a few years. With Allah is the Decision, in the Past and in the Future: on that Day shall the Believers rejoice." (ar-Rum, 30/2-4)

Before we deal with the aspect of the verse that is related to our issue, let us deal with the reason why this verse was sent down:

Between the years 613 and 614, the Persian army, who were fireworshippers, defeated and overwhelmed the Byzantine army, who were Christians. Makkan polytheists became very happy when the Christians, who were of the People of the Book, were defeated and they said to Muslims, “If Allah had been the only victor, He would have made the Byzantines, who are of the People of the Book, defeat the Persians.” Thereupon, the Quran gave some news, which seemed impossible at that time, about the future as a miracle. The Byzantines would defeat the Persians and the Muslims would be happy.

As a matter of fact, acting upon this promise of Allah's, Hz. Abu Bakr said to the polytheists, who were very happy about the victory of the Persians, “Allah will not allow you to be happy so long. Allah stated that the Byzantines would be victorious again.” Upon this word of Hz. Abu Bakr's, Ubay B. Khalaf offered Hz. Abu Bakr to make a bet on this subject. They made a bet on ten camels whether the Byzantine would be victorious or not within three years.

When Hazrat Abu Bakr told the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) about what had happened, the prophet said: The word of (بِضْعِ) (a few) in the verse does not express three years but between three and nine years; thus, he told Hz. Abu Bakr to increase the time period and the number of camels.

This time, they made a bet on whether the Byzantine could be victorious within nine years for one hundred camels. In fact, according to the Sahih of Tirmidhi, during the days of the Battle of Badr, the Byzantine became victorious over Persians in the battle and the news of the Quran about the ghayb came true. Hz. Abu Bakr gave the camels that he obtained from the successors of Ubay Ibn Khalaf to the poor upon the advice of the prophet (pbuh).

Now let us analyze the aspect of this verse that is related to our issue:

They say, "Allah does not know the future. An incident is known by Allah only after it takes place." If they are sure about what they say, they should answer the following questions:

1. How did Allah inform the Prophet about the victory of the Byzantines if he did not know the ghayb?

2- If you say, "Allah does not know what the slave will do with his partial free will; He knows the other things," we will say, "Did they nothave their partial free will when the Byzantines defeated them? Or, was the free will of the Persians removed when they were defeated?" No. Both parties used their own free will. Allah Almighty knew through His pre-eternal knowledge what they would do and the outcome of the war; and the Quran informed us about it. Does this not prove clearly that Allah knows the ghayb?

3. Since Allah informed us about the victory of the Byzantines and the defeat of the Persians, He knew that this war would take place, how many soldiers would take part in it, how many of the soldiers would die and other issues about the war. Yes, He knew; therefore, He stated which side would win and which side would lose. If Allah had not known what people would do in this war, would He have been able to tell what the result would be?

4. If you still insist on your idea that "Allah does not know the ghayb," explain to us how Allah knew about this incident before it happened.

VERSE 7

"Ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads, shaved, hair cut short, and without fear." (al-Fath, 48/27)

Before we deal with the aspect of the verse that is related to our issue, let us deal with the reason why this verse was sent down:

The Prophet (pbuh) saw a dream when he was in Madinah. He saw in his dream that the believers were circumambulating the Kaaba securely by entering Masjid al-Haram. Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) gave this good news to the believers. For, the believers who migrated from Makkah to Madinah have not been able to visit Makkah since then. Thereupon, Allah sent verse 27 of the chapter of al-Fath. Indeed, after a while, when Makkah was conquered, the Muslims entered Masjid al-Haram securely. 

It is necessary not to forget the following and view the verse accordingly: It is easy to give the good news of spring at the beginning of the spring. What is difficult is to give the good news of spring in the middle of the winter. The news that the Quran gives is like giving the good news of spring in the middle of the winter. For, in the period when these verses were sent down, the Muslims were weak and their number was very small. They were forced to migrate, leaving their country and things behind. They had gone to Makkah from Madinah in order to visit the Kaaba but they had to return to Madinah sadly because the Makkan polytheists had not allowed them to visit the Kaaba. Thus, under these conditions, the Quran informed them that they would enter the Kaaba securely and that the religion of Islam would become superior to the other religions; and everything turned out as the Quran informed.

Now let us analyze the aspect of this verse that is related to our issue:

They say, "Allah does not know the future. The future is known only after it takes place." That is, according to them, Allah is not dependent on time like us. Since they believe so, they should answer the following questions:  

1. If Allah did know the ghayb, how did He inform the Muslims that Makkah would be conquered?

2. Or, God forbid - did Allah make a guess and it turned out to be true?

3. Although you heard the news Allah gave about the ghayb, how do you still say, "Allah does not know the ghayb"?

4. Or, do you say, "He knows some but He does not know most of it"? If you say so, how do you divide it?

VERSE 8

"In whatever business thou mayest be, and whatever portion thou mayest be reciting from the Qur'an― and whatever deed ye (mankind) may be doing― We are Witnesses thereof when ye are deeply engrossed therein. Nor is hidden from thy Lord (so much as) the weight of an atom on the earth or in heaven. And not the least and not the greatest of these things but are recorded in a clear Record." (Yunus, 10/61)

Allah states in the verse above that everything is in a clear book/record. This news is mentioned in some other verses of the Quran, too. For instance, it is stated in al-Anam, verse 59, Hud, verse 6, an-Naml, verse 75, and Saba verse 3 that everything is recorded in a clear book.

Imam Zajjaj writes the following about the phrase "clear book" mentioned in the verse: “Allah Almighty wrote all the information before creating beings in a book.”

Tafsir scholars wrote the following about the wisdom behind this writing/record:

1. This writing serves to warn people that their situations related to reward and punishment will not be ignored. This view is preferred by Hasan al-Basri.

2. One of the reasons why everything is recorded in Lawh al-Mahfuz before they are created is as follows: The angels take lessons by seeing that everything happens in accordance with the knowledge of Allah and they glorify Allah.  

3. Allah's writing everything aims to show His grandeur. That is, the following is emphasized: If everything that is not related to reward and punishment is written, what about the things that are related to reward and punishment?

Fakhruddin ar-Razi writes the following: There are two views about "kitab mubin" (clear book): 1. Clear book is Allah's knowledge. 2. Allah wrote the qualities of knowledge (what is to be known) in a book before creating the beings. Imam Zajjac holds the second view.

Imam Fakhruddin ar-Razi, who made the explanation above, holds the first view and states that clear book is Allah's knowledge.

If you study all of the explanations about clear book, you cannot find anything but the two explanations mentioned above. The essence of both of them is that Allah knows everything before they are created.  

Now, we want to ask those who say, "Allah does not know the ghayb" the following questions:

1. It is stated in the verses that everything is recorded in a clear book. The scholars interpret this phrase as Allah's knowledge or Allah's book in which He recorded everything, that is, Lawh al-Mahfuz. This proves that everything is known by Allah. How do you interpret the phrase kitab mubin (clear book)?

2. Can something that all scholars agree on be wrong?

3. Or, are you better scholars than Fakhruddin ar-Razi and Imam Zajjaj?

VERSE 9

In the chapter of al-Kahf, Hz. Musa's travel with Hz. Khidr is narrated.

We refer the details of this travel to the chapter of al-Kahf and attract attention to the part that is related to our issue:

In verse 71 of the chapter of al-Kahf, it is narrated that Hz. Musa and Hz. Khidr embark a ship and that Hz. Khidr scuttles the ship. Hz. Musa cannot find it appropriate and says, "Hast thou scuttled it in order to drown those in it? Truly a strange thing hast thou done." Hz. Khidr explains the reason why he scuttled the ship in verse 79 as follows: "As for the boat, it belonged to certain men in dire want: they plied on the water: I but wished to render it unserviceable, for there was after them a certain king who seized on every boat by force."

That is, the reason why Hz. Khidr scuttled the ship iss to prevent the cruel king from seizing the ship by force. Yes, the cruel king intends to seize the ship but when he sees that it is torn, he gives up the idea of seizing it. After that, the poor people who owned the boat repaired it and continued working.

Hz. Musa and Hz. Khidr got off the ship and continued travelling. It is stated in verse 74 that Hz. Khidr killed a child. Hz. Musa cannot put up with it and says, "Hast thou slain an innocent person who had slain none? Truly a foul (unheard-of) thing hast thou done!"

Hz. Khidr explains the reason why he killed the child in verses 80 and 81. If that child had grown up, he would have caused his parents to deviate; Allah wanted to give them a better and more merciful child.   

After summarizing the story like this, we want to ask the ignorant people who say, "Allah does not know the ghayb" the following questions:

1. You have listened to the story. You already know the details. How can you say, "Allah does not know the ghayb" though you know this story? It is not ignorance but treachery.

2. Hz. Khidr scuttled the ship and explained the reason as the cruel king who will seize it by force. It means Hz. Khidr knew that the king would seize the ships. Look! Even a slave can know the ghayb when he is informed by Allah. If Allah had not known the seizing to be done by the cruel king with his partial free will, how wouldthat incident have taken place? How did Hz. Khidr obtain this information?

3. What about Hz. Khidr killing the child? Hz. Khidr explained the reason for his deed by saying the child would cause his parents to deviate and to disbelieve. How did Hz. Khidr know about it? The only answer is that Allah informed him. How did Allah know about it? For us, the answer is simple: He knew about it with His pre-eternal knowledge, which is free from time. He decreed that the child be killed so that this knowledge would not be realized.

According to you, who deny Allah's pre-eternal knowledge, how did Hz. Khidr know about the end of the child? Did he guess? Did he kill the child acting upon his guess?

4. After these clear verses showing that Allah knows the ghayb and that He took some measures so that some incidents would not take place based on some wisdom, will you still insist on your claim, "Allah does not know the ghayb"? Are your minds so blind and your hearts so dead that you still insist on this wrong idea?

VERSE 10

"For each period is a Book (revealed). Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth: with Him is the Mother of the Book." (ar-Ra’d, 13/38,39)

Fakhruddin ar-Razi states the following for the decree, "For each period is a Book (revealed)" mentioned in the verse: There is a determined time for everything. This determination is recorded in Lawh al-Mahfuz. Every incident like life, death, richness, poverty, happiness and unhappiness has a determined time. Allah decreed that it happen at that time. This time does not change. The verse above is similar to the following hadith:  "The pen of qadar wrote everything that would happen up to the Day of Judgment and finished them." (Tefsir-i Kebir)

Imam Rabbani explains the sentence "Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth" in the verse as follows: Qada (the things that Allah will create) are of two parts in Lawh al-Mahfuz: 1. Qada al-Muallaq (conditional decree) 2. Qada al-Mubram (irrevocable decree). The first one means the things that are created based on a condition; its way of creation can change; or, it is not created at all. The second one means things that are definitely created; it does not change by any means and it is definitely created. The following is stated in verse 29 of the chapter of Qaf: “The Word changes not with Me”. This verse is related to qada al-mubram. Verse 39 of the chapter of ar-Rad is related to qada al-muallaq: "Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth. " (Mektubat-ı Rabbani, 217. Mektup)

We want to quote the following from Fakhruddin ar-Razi here: If somebody says, "Did you not claim that qadar was determined beforehand, that the pen of qadar wrote and finished them and that things did not happen newly? According to this claim, how can ‘blotting out’ and ‘confirming’ be valid?" We will answer him as follows: "Blotting out and confirming are also things written by that pen. Allah blots out the things that He determined in His qadar and qada in pre-eternity; and He confirms the others."

With the phrase "with Him is the Mother of the Book" at the end of the verse, Lawh al-Mahfuz is meant. Lawh al-Mahfuz is the book of qadar in which everything that took place and will take place is written. 

We can quote the same view of tens of scholars regarding the issue. However, we do not want to lengthen the issue and stop here.

Now, let us list in items the explanations we have made so far and try to understand the issue better: 

1. Allah has a book called Lawh al-Mahfuz;everything that took place and will take place is written in it.

2. There are two kinds of qadar writing in it: 1.Qadar al-Muallaq (conditional qadar) 2. Qadar al-Mubram (irrevocable qadar).

3. The writings in Qadar al-Muallaq can change. That is, these writings are written as follows: "If such and such a person acts in accordance with a certain cause, such and such a thing will happen; if not, something else will happen." This writing of qadar serves to save people from laziness and make them act in accordance with causes.

4. The writings in Qadar al-Mubram are a manifestation of Allah's pre-eternal knowledge and they do not change. If we accept that this writing changes, it is necessary to accept that something that is known to happen in the knowledge of Allah will not happen or something that is known not to happen in the knowledge of Allah will happen. In that case, it means to accuse Allah Almighty of ignorance, which is impossible. We mentioned the reason why the book of qadar was written while dealing with verse 8; therefore, we do not deem it necessary to repeat it here.

After listing the issue like this, we want to ask those who say, "Allah does not know the ghayb" the following questions:

1. In the verse that we analyzed, it is stated that everything that will happen is written by the following phrase: "For each period is a Book (revealed)." All scholars interpreted this verse like that. How do you, those who deny qadar, explain this verse?

2. Does the verse"Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth" not necessitate the existence of a writing that will be blotted out and confirmed? If there is no writing, what is the thing that is blotted out and confirmed?

3. All tafsir scholars interpret the verse above as "Qadar al-Muallaq" and "Qadar al-Mubram"; how do you interpret this verse?

4. All tafsir scholars interpret the verse"with Him is the Mother of the Book" as Lawh al-Mahfuz. You deny Lawh al-mahfuz; then, according to you, what is “the Mother of the Book” that is with Allah?

5. We also want to ask the following question: Do you mean the scholars like Fakhruddin ar-Razi, Ibn Kathir, Imam Zajjaj, Ibn Abbas and the others were wrong while interpreting this verse but you were right? Do you believe in this?

VERSE 11

"No misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into existence: that is truly easy for Allah." (al-Hadid, 57/22)

We wonder about this: Do those who say "Allah does not know the ghayb" not see the verse above? Can there be a clearer expression than it stating that Allah knows the future? Or, do they lay it as a condition for the veil of the ghayb to be removed and to see Lawh al-Mahfuz in order to believe that Allah knows the ghayb?

It is clearly stated in the verse that all misfortunes that hit us in the world and in our souls are recorded in a book before they come into existence. It is also stated that it is very easy for Allah. Let us think of a misfortune that will hit us. For instance,

Suppose that a car will hit you in ten years. The Quran says this misfortune is written in a book before it happens. Now let us think of this: Since this misfortune is written in a book before it happens, it means our Lord knows where you will be at the time of that incident. He knows the car that will hit you and how it will hit you. He knows all of the other details about it. He recorded them all in a book. If Allah had not known the future, would He have been able to write it?

In the light of the views above, we ask those who say, "Allah does not know the ghayb" the following questions:

1. It is stated in the verse that all misfortunes in the world and in our souls are recorded in a book before they come into existence. Does this not prove that Allah knows the ghayb and the future?

2. If Allah did not know the ghayb, how did He record the misfortunes that will happen in this book (Lawh al-Mahfuz)?

3. O those who say, "Allah does not know the ghayb"! How do you understand the following verse? "No misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into existence."

4. The verse ends with the following phrase: "…that is truly easy for Allah," According to us, what is easy for Allah is knowing everything that will happen through His pre-eternal knowledge. You deny this pre-eternal knowledge. What is easy for Allah according to you?

5. All tafsir scholars who interpreted the verse said the book in which everything is written is Lawh al-Mahfuz.How do you interpret this book since you do not believe in Lawh al-Mahfuz?

6. Will you still insist on the nonsense "Allah does not know the ghayb" despite the clear expression of the verse?

VERSE 12

"Knowest thou not that Allah knows all that is in heaven and on earth? Indeed it is all in a record and that is easy for Allah." (al-Hajj, 22/70)

We are really surprised. How can a person deny qadar and that Allah knows the future despite the clear expressions of the verses? Can there be a clearer expression? Look what our Lord says in the verse: "I know everything that is in the sky and on earth. They are all recorded in a book. It is very easy for me to know them and to record them in a book."

Allah says so but they say, "No, You do not know. There is no such book in which everything is written. It is not easy for You to do it. You can know what I will do only after I do it. You cannot know more than this." They utter these words, which we shiver while writing.

Is it not to slander and deny Allah? Is it not necessary for a person who is sane to shiver, abandon this wrong creed and repent?

VERSE 13

According to what is stated in the chapter of Yusuf, Allah taught Hz. Yusuf how to interpret dreams. In verse 4 of the chapter, Hz. Yusuf tells his father about a dream that he saw: This dream is “seeing eleven stars and the sun and the moon prostrating themselves to him.”

In verse 100 of the chapter, it is stated that Yusuf's father, mother and his eleven brothers prostrate before him. Upon this prostration, Hz. Yusuf says, "This is the fulfillment of my vision of old! Allah hath made it come true."

Another dream that Hz. Yusuf interprets is mentioned in verse 36 of the chapter. Hz. Yusuf addresses the two people who tell him about their dreams as follows: "As to one of you he will pour out the wine for his lord to drink: as for the other, he will hang from the cross, and the birds will eat from off his head."

The incident takes place in the same way as Hz. Yusuf says. One of them is hanged and the other goes to the palace and serves the king.

Another dream interpreted by Hz. Yusuf is mentioned in verse 43 of the chapter. The king narrates the dream he saw as follows: "I do see (in a vision) seven fat kine whom seven lean ones devour and seven green ears of corn, and seven (others) withered. O ye chiefs! Expound to me my vision if it be that ye can interpret visions."

Hz. Yusuf interprets this dream in verse 47 and it takes place exactly.

We want to reach the following conclusion:Since a slave knows about the ghayb with the permission and information given by Allah, is it possible for Allah not to know the ghayb?

Now, let us think about the following:

1. Hz. Yusuf's father, mother and brothers prostrated before him; Hz. Yusuf had seen it in his dream when he was a child. IfAllah had not known the ghayb, would He have shown this dream, which would come true years later, to Hz. Yusuf?

2. Hz. Yusuf interpreted the dream of two people in the dungeon; that is, he gave them some news about their future and this news came true. One of them was hanged and the other served in the palace. Does this news given by Hz. Yusuf not mean to know the ghayb? If Hz. Yusuf knows about some issues about the ghayb when Allah informs him, is it possible for his Lord, Allah, not to know all about the ghayb?

3. The dream of the king was interpreted by Hz. Yusuf and it exactly happened as he interpreted. Seven years of abundance were followed by seven years of drought and famine; after that, abundance came again.  

Now, we ask this question: Is it possible for Allah, who gives Hz. Yusuf information about the ghayb, not to know the ghayb?

There are many more verses showing that Allah knows the ghayb; we can tell you about all of them but we think that is enough. In fact, what we have written so far is too much. For, we do not believe that a Muslim can have the belief that "Allah does not know the ghayb" and we do not want to believe it. However, there are some heedless people who say so. They are the people who have been hired to distort the religion. We do not think that a Muslim will be deceived by their words no matter how ignorant he is.

We said, "We can show many more verses from the Quran."Believe this statement. We found the verses that we have mentioned up to now from the Quran in one hour. We riffled the pages of the Quran and quoted the verses that caught our eye. For, we do not take their statement, "Allah does not know the ghayb" seriously as we said before and we do not think that there will be some people who will believe in this statement. However, we wrote the answer so long in case somebody who believed in them would not question us in the hereafter by saying, "Why did you not warn me? Why did you not write the truth since you know the Quran?"

Besides, we only wrote the evidence from the Quran. We did not write any evidence from hadiths. There are tens of hadiths that can be used as evidence regarding the issue in Kutub as-Sitta books, which are the soundest resources after the Quran. We did not quote them because it is useless to quote evidence from hadiths to the people who overstep the limits by denying the verses of the Quran. What will those who deny the Quran not do to hadiths? They would just say the hadiths are "fabricated" and cast them aside without even looking at their chain of narrators.

We did not quote from the scholars except the tafsir scholars whose views regarding the verses we reported, and we did not mention the consensus (ijma) on the issue. For, they would not have uttered this wrong view if they had believed in consensus and the scholars. Which scholar would a person who denies verses and interprets them based on his own soul believe? Whose word would such a person respect? He will understand that Allah knows the ghayb only when he dies but it will be too late then.

Now, let us write answers to their evidence or rather their nonsense they put forward when they say, "Allah does not know the ghayb". However, this answer is not for them but for those poor people who are harmed by their words. We do not answer those who say so. 

Our answer is for our poor brothers who should not be wounded but who are wounded due to their ignorance and being away from the Quran and who do not have any scientific ointment to cure their wounds. Therefore, we will address them directly.  

Those who say,"Allah does not know the ghayb"cast the following three suspicions into hearts:

1. They say, If Allah knows what we will do, what is our sin? I do it because Allah knows it. If Allah had not known it, I would not have done it. Then, I cannot be guilty. Since it is written whether I will go to Paradise or Hell, how can I change my qadar? Everything has already been written. For instance, if it is written in my qadar that I will kill a person, why will I be labeled as a murderer when I kill him? If it had not been written in my qadar, I would not have killed him. If everything is written in qadar, why should we struggle and try to achieve something? Whatever is written will happen anyway. Then, if I am to be held responsible for what I do, Allah should not know the ghayb.

It is possible to increase questions. The main reason that underlies them is the fact that the issue of qadar has not been understood. Those who ask these questions do not know about the pre-eternity of Allah and the rule "knowledge is based on what is known." We, "Feyyaz Informatics Services" prepared a visual work in which you will find answers to all of your questions on qadar with the certainty of two times two equals four.

In this video, which is about four hours long, you can find answers to the questions above and the ones that come to your mind. Since the answers to these questions are given in this work, we will not deal with the issue here. You can click on the link to watch it. Besides, the scripts of the videos are recorded under each video. You can also read the scripts if you wish.  Click here for detailed information.

2. They say, If Allah knows what we will do and if everything is written in qadar, why were we created and why was this realm created?  .

According to them, probably Allah should not know what they would do for the realization of the wisdoms behind the creation of the realm. This view is enough to prove how ignorant they are. If they knew the purposes of their creation and the creation of this realm, they would know that these purposes would not disappear because Allah knew what they would do.   

It will cover a long place if we mention the purposes of our creation and the creation of this realm one by one. What we will do here is to refer you to works we prepared regarding the issue. For, it is not possible to inform you with three or five sentences in the same way as those works prepared specially for those issues containing lots of pages will do. If you really want to learn the answer to this question and understand that the purposes of our creation and the creation of this realm will not disappear because Allah knows what we will do, click on the link and study the resources we advise. We refer you to the following resources:    

A. You can watch the video in which the purposes of the creation of man and the world are explained and you can witness with the truth of certainty that these purposes do not disappear when qadar is known.  

 Click here for detailed information.

B. You can read Badiuzzaman Said Nursi's work called “On Birinci Söz (Eleventh Word)”. In this work, the purposes of the creation of man and the world are explained. If you do not have this book, you can access to it through the following link: The Risale-i Nur Collection

 Please click here:

3. One of the things that those who say "Allah does not know the ghayb" mention is the expressions like "Allah knew; Allah did it in order to know". They say, “Since Allah did it in order to know, it means He did not know about it beforehand.”

These words of theirs are evidence proving that they are very ignorant of the Quran. Now, let us explain the expressions like "Allah knew; Allah did it to know" mentioned in the Quran and refute their mischievous claim.  

The expressions like "Allah knew; Allah did it in order to know" mentioned in the Quran have two meanings: 

1. What is meant by the word to "know" here is to distinguish, to differentiate. For instance, when it is stated "Allah did it in order to know the believers and the hypocrites (munafiqs)," the word to "know" here means to distinguish; so the meaning of the verse is "Allah did it in order to distinguish between the believers and the hypocrites."When the verb عَلِمَ(know) is used with the preposition مِنْ (from) in the Quran in Arabic, all of those verses have the meaning of distinguishing. The preposition مِنْin these verses is called "min (from) of distinguishing". Let us see the usage of this preposition مِنْin an example:

The sentence يَعْرِفُ الْاُسْتَاذُ الْمُجْتَحِدَ means "The teacher knows the hardworking one." If we use the verb  عَرَفَ with the preposition مِنْ and make the sentence as,  يَعْرِفُ الْاُسْتَاذُ الْمُجْتَحِدَمِنَالكَسْلاَنِ, the meaning of the sentence is "The teacher distinguishes between the hardworking one and the lazy one." As it is seen, the verb عَرَفَ, which means "knew" when it is used alone, means "distinguished" when it is used with the preposition  مِنْ.

The same thing is valid for the verb عَلِمَ. Therefore, when this verb is used with the preposition مِنْ, it is necessary to translate it as "distinguished", not as "knew". After settling the issue of the usage of the verb عَلِمَwith the preposition مِنْ, let us have a look at the places where this verb is used without a preposition:

In the Quran, the verb عَلِمَ(knew) is attributed to Allah and sentences like the following are used: "Allah did it in order to know" and "Allah has not known it yet." In such cases, the meaning is as follows: "Allah knew the thing that He knew in pre-eternity after it happened." "Allah knew the thing that He knew in pre-eternity has not known yet because this writing has not come into existence yet."

The rule here is as follows: "Pre-eternal knowledge is old but its occurrence may be new." Let us explain this issue a bit:

Allah Almighty knew what we would do in the pre-eternity, when time and matter did not exist. However, He knew them as 'to be done', not as 'been done'. (You will understand this issue better if you watch our video called "Kadere İman (Belief in Qadar)".)

When He created with His power the thing that He knew would happen, He knew it as something that happened. The change here does not take place in Allah's attribute of ilm (knowledge) but in the thing that knowledge is related to. The things that are known as 'to be realized' are known as 'been realized' after they take place. There is no increase or decrease in the knowledge of Allah. That is, pre-eternal knowledge is old but its occurrence may be new.

The phrases like "He knew" and "We did it in order to know" in the verses mean "He knew the thing that He knew would take place after it took place" and "We did it in order to know that thing We knew would happen after it took place."

We do not deem it necessary to analyze all verses in this meaning one by one. You can deal with any verse interpreting it like the word عَلِمَ.

We complete this work here and praise our Lord who used us in this service. We want to state the following in conclusion:

A person who says, "Allah does not know the ghayb" becomes an unbeliever and exits the religion of Islam. His spouse is divorced. His worshipping is annulled. The flesh of the animals that he slaughters is not eaten. His janazah prayer is not performed. He is treated in the same way as an unbeliever who denies the existence of Allah is treated. May Allah protect the ummah of Muhammad from the evil of these people! Amin!


8-) What are the attributes of Allah?

The divine attributes are divided into two groups: personal and immutable.

Personal Attributes:

1. Wujud (Existence),
2. Qidam (Pre-eternity, eternal existence in the past),
3. Baqa (Eternity, immortality),
4. Wahdaniyyah (Oneness, having no partner),
5. Qiyam bi nafsihi (The continuation of His existence stems from nothing but Himself),
6. Mukhalafatun lil hawadith (His essence does not resemble that of His servants and His attributes do not resemble those of His creatures)

Affirmative attributes:

1. Hayah (Life)
2. Ilm (Knowledge)
3. Irada (Will)
4. Qudrah (Power)
5. Sam’ (Hearing)
6. Basar (Sight)
7. Kalam (Speech)
8. Takwin (Creation, making)

The attribute of takwin (creation) is regarded as one of Allah’s attributes according to the Maturidi school of thought. The other imam of creed, Imam Ashari, does not regard this attribute as separate. Thus, there are seven immutable attributes according to this school of thought.

It is possible to see that in some Islamic sources, the divine names are also mentioned as attributes. For example, Karim (All-Munificent) is one of Allah’s names. At the same time, in terms of qualifying Allah as munificent, it functions as an attribute as well. When we say “Allah the Munificent”, we use the name Munificent as an attribute too.

Again, in those sources, the attributes of Allah Almighty are evaluated in three groups.

1. Personal attributes (They are divided into two as immutable and negative)
2. Actual attributes
3. Spiritual attributes


All of Allah’s beautiful names are based on one of these attributes. For example, the name of All-Knowing (Alim) is based on the attribute of knowledge from the immutable attributes, the name Powerful (Qadir) on the attribute of power, and the name Speaker (Mutakallim) on the attribute of speech. In the same way, the name First (Awwal) is based on the attribute of qidam (eternity in the past) from the personal attributes and the name Last (Akhir) is based on the attribute of immortality.

Most of the divine names rest on actual attributes. The name Creator (Khaliq) is based on the act of creation; the name Life-Giver (Muhyi) on the act of resuscitation; the name Giver of Form (Musawwir) on the act of shaping and the name of Giver of Death (Mumit) on the act of giving of death.

Some names are based on spiritual attributes. The name Perfectly Wise (Hakim) is based on Allah Almighty’s attribute of having wisdom, the Greatest (Kabir) on the attribute of having greatness and the name Beautiful (Jamil) on the attribute of having beauty.


9-) Is it permissible to use the word "God" instead of Allah? Is it permissible to address Allah as "My God"?

“Allah” is the proper noun/name of Allah. “Allah” is mentioned more than 2800 times in the Quran including basmalas.

The following verse in the chapter of al-Ikhlas states clearly that Allah gave Himself this name:

“Say: He is Allah the One and Only.”

It is indicated in the following verse that there is no difference between Allah and the name Rahman and that both names are proper nouns belonging to Him.

“Call upon Allah, or call upon Rahman: by whatever name ye call upon Him (it is well): for to Him belong the Most Beautiful Names.”(al-Isra, 17/110)

There are some scholars who say the name Allah is derived from “ALH” or “WLH” but according to Imam Shafii and many great scholars, it is not derived from any words; it is a proper noun used only for Allah.

Deity means a being that is worshipped. This word is used for both wrong gods/idols and Allah, who is the real being that is worshipped. The phrase“La ilaha illallah” includes both issues. However, when we want to mention the Creator with a name that will remind us all of His attributes, not with the attribute of being the worshipped one only, we use the name Allah. For, this name includes all of them.

The words deity and god cannot replace “Allah”. Therefore, the words “god” and “deity” can be changed interchangeably.

The following is stated in a verse:

"The most beautiful names belong to Allah: so call on Him by them…"(al-A'raf, 7/180)

The verse indicates that Allah Almighty has many beautiful names. These lofty names that include beautiful and divine meanings are called "asma al-husna (beautiful names)". Some of these divine names are as follows:

"Wahid (the One), Awwal (the First), Akhir (the Last), Zahir (the Manifest One), Bari (the Maker of Order), Musawwir (the Shaper of Beauty), Rahman (the All-Compassionate), Rahim (the All-Merciful), Hayy (the Ever-Living One), Qayyum (the Self-Existing One), Halim (the Forbearing), Karim (the Generous), Tawwab (the Guide to Repentance), Razzaq (the Sustainer), Muhyi (the Giver of Life), Mumit (the Taker of Life)."

Not all names of Allah Almighty are known certainly. Some scholars say there are about one thousand names of Allah. As a matter of fact, the Prophet (pbuh) prays to Allah with one thousand and one names and attributes in his special prayer called Jawshan al-Kabir. Some other scholars hold the view that there are about four thousand names of Allah. Only Allah Almighty knows most of these names. Angels know some of them; angels and prophets know some of them; and believers know the ones that they learned from the Prophet (pbuh).

In the hadiths reported in hadith books like Ibn Majah and Tirmidhi about asma al-husna, the Prophet (pbuh) mentions these names one by one and expresses their virtues. The beginning of the hadith in which asma al-husna are listed is as follows:  

"Allah has ninety-nine names, one hundred less one, for Allah is One and loves the odd (numbered). Allah Almighty will put anyone who mentions or learns them by heart to Paradise." (Ibn Majah, Dua 10; Tirmidhi, Daawat 83)

However, it is not enough tomention or learn them by heart in order to attain this glad tiding. One should not forget to think of the lofty meanings that those divine names have and to observe their manifestations on the universe. For instance, he should know and think that Allah is Razzaq and should not be worried about sustenance. He should look for halal sustenance and be contented. To contemplate that Allah Almighty grants sustenance to not only to man but also to billions of animals from the smallest microbe to elephants, from fish as small as fingers to whales of many tons and plants in the best way without confusing and ignoring any of them is one aspect of reading the name Razzaq.

The names of Allah Almighty are divine. Most of these names are mentioned in the Quran and the others are informed to us by the Prophet (pbuh).

Since the Prophet (pbuh) informs us the names by learning them from his Lord, it is necessary to be careful while using these names for Allah Almighty. That is, Allah wants us to pray to him with the names he informed us in the Quran and through His Messenger. The verse mentioned at the beginning indicates this meaning.

It is clear that mentioning Allah using some fake names is an inappropriate deed because Allah Almighty has the name "Allah", which fills the hearts and makes the universe meaningful when it is uttered and ninety-nine blessed names and attributes. However, it is permissible to use the names that are equivalent to the name deity in different languages. The phrase "My God" can be used in the sense of "My Deity".

Accordingly, the word "god" does not substitute the word "Allah". However, a person can use the word Deity or God with the intention of Allah and meaning a creator.


10-) How can we answer a person who says Allah –God forbid- is a sadist?

We can learn Allah’s ethics only from Him. We have no other choice. For, there are a few possibilities regarding the issue:

a) If a person who does not believe in Allah mentions Allah’s attributes, it means he is doing something nonsensical.

b) If a person who believes in Allah but does not believe in the religion of Islam mentions Allah’s attributes, it shows his ignorance. For, to know Allah does not mean to know Allah’s existence, His attributes and ethics.

Acting upon the fact “A needle cannot be without a master and a letter cannot be without a writer”, man can believe in the creator of this universe with his mind.

However, nobody knows/can know all of the attributes of Allah and His ethics.

c) A person who believes in the Quran as he believes in Allah needs to learn Allah’s ethics from the Quran. The Quran states that Allah will never wrong His slaves and that He is not a sadist.

d) A "sadist" is a person who gets pleasure from torturing others materially/spiritually. First of all, Allah prohibits His slaves from torturing others and He states that He never does something like that.

“Whoever works righteousness benefits his own soul; whoever works evil, it is against his own soul: nor is thy Lord ever unjust (in the least) to His Servants. (Fussilat, 41/46)

In the verse above, Allah renders injustice and oppression haram for His slaves and for Himself.

e) Sadism is a disorder; it is a psychological obsession. A creator whose spiritual beauty and perfection is witnessed by the beauty and perfection of the universe is away from such a bad trait a billion times

f) What shows the greatness of a state - in the universal sense - is the following two things:

Firstly: To protect people through compassion and mercy.

Secondly: To punish duly the evil criminals who commit crimes in order to protect the greatness, honor and dignity of the state and the peace and security of the citizens.

It is not naivety for the state to approach good people with compassion and it is not sadism for it to punish criminals.

Although Allah organized the earth in the form of a table of boons, sent the sun, moon, rain and food, and sent instant milk to babies through the breasts of mothers, made people and even all living beings help one another by placing mercy and compassion in their hearts, and showed His infinite mercy to His creatures through many similar boons, it is absolutely unjust to attribute the results of some oppression, injustice, and ruthlessness, whose wisdom we do not know and which are generally committed monstrously by human beings, to Allah.

for more information please click on the links given below;

Is Allah - God forbid - a sadist since He allows animals to be savaged?

Why does Allah give people so much hardship like torture, cruelty, brutality, disability, blindness and rape?


11-) Is it impossible for Allah to have a form and shape?

- Form and shape are things that are related to material beings.

Allah does not resemble anything.

“There is nothing whatever like unto Him; He is the One that hears and sees (all things).” (ash-Shura, 42/11)

As it is indicated in the verse above, Allah sees and hears but He does not resemble any of His creatures.

Similarly, Allah’s existence is definite but His existence does not resemble to any being.

Since form and shape are characteristics of material beings, they cannot be Allah’s characteristics.

- People try to understand what they do not see by likening them to what they see. No matter what we think about the Sacred Being, whose nature is unknown by us, He is definitely some material things that we see or imagine.

Islamic scholars formulate these facts with the following principle: “No matter what people think or imagine about Allah, it is definitely not about Allah and cannot describe Him.”


12-) Will the dwellers of Paradise see Allah (Ru'yah)? What is the view of Islamic scholars about Ru'yah?

Man, who benefits from this universe created by Him throughout his/her life with the body granted again by Him, and who has become the addressee of many truths and realities through his/her intelligence, heart and feelings each of which is a Divine blessing, by all means, craves to see his/her Lord who has bestowed all those blessings on him/her. The answer to that desire embedded in human heart will be given in Paradise and thus man will attain the supreme blessing which exceeds all other pleasures of Paradise. There have been many discussions about ru'yah (seeing Allah in Paradise). We will not delve into details. Overall, the scholars of Ahl as- Sunnah wal-Jama’ah (the mainstream Islamic sect; followers of the Prophet's Sunnah/Practice) have agreed that ru'yah is right and permissible, but that its essence cannot be understood. Mu'tazila, one of the sects of misguidance, does not accept ru'yah.

Man, who tries to solve every problem with intelligence, has taken a lot of pains trying to understand how that great manifestation will take place. In reality, that platform belongs not to intelligence but to heart, not to thought but to pleasure. However, the intellect still wants to perceive some things however far they may be, and wants to grasp some cues and to get satisfied. How can we understand Paradise, which is, as is stated by Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, a land “that eyes have not seen, that ears have not heard of and that have not occurred to human heart (imagination)” and how can we fathom in this world the greatest Divine mercy, ru'yah? Yet, the human mind does not behave itself. It demands in this world a reasonable explanation of a truth that will be bestowed in the next world and that will be enjoyed there only.

In the Words, from the Risale-i Nur Collection, the following is stated: “The eye is such a sense that the spirit watches this realm through this window.” It is implied that the spirit can watch other realms without needing this eye. The best example of it is dream. In  Mesnevî-i Nuriye, from the Risale-i Nur Collection, the following is stated: “The works and deeds of the awliya (saints), whose spirits have overcome their material being, take place with the speed of spirit.” As is known, directions are valid only for the body. For the spirit, such words as front, back, right and left are not used. So, when the spirit overcomes the body, directions become irrelevant and the spirit can see all directions together. Similarly, Allah's Messenger (PBUH) could see those behind him as easily as he could see those in front of him. The spirits of the dwellers of Paradise are victorious over their bodies. They can be present in many places at the same time. And the sight of the dwellers of Paradise is much more improved than in this world. There is a great difference between the two sights like the difference between a real object and its shadow. The human eye, which can see only material beings in this world, will start seeing the angels from the grave onwards.

When the light of Divine closeness in ru'yah is added to it, that perfect spirit will be overwhelmed with blessings, and by watching his/her Lord without direction, distance and figure, s/he will lose consciousness with over-excitement and his/her heart will turn into a sea with waves of spiritual pleasures and that elated slave will take such a great pleasure through seeing his/her Lord as beyond comparison to the pleasures s/he took from Paradise and s/he will be entranced.

Badiuzzaman describes the Order of Wahdatul-Wujud (the unity of the being) as “Submersion in unity.” Just as the senses, eating and drinking and shortly everything in this transitory world are only like shadows when compared to those in the abode of eternity; so too will the real form of 'submersion in unity' be experienced in ru'yah, with such a sublimity as beyond any description. A verse giving the good tidings of ru'yah is as follows:

“Some faces that Day will beam (in brightness and beauty); Looking towards their Lord.” (al-Qiyamah, 75:22-23)

One of the great scholars of the last century, Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, states the following while interpreting that verse:

“The scholars of Ahl a-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah have understood that “look” as “seeing” and proved that in the Hereafter Believers will see Allah's jamal (beauty). Acting upon the verse “By no means canst thou see Me (direct).” (al-A'raf, 7:143) Mu'tazila interpreted that look as “waiting”. However, as the result of waiting without reaching its aim will not be joy, but disappointment and sorrow, it will not be appropriate to deduce only the meaning of “waiting” from the verse.”

The expression “You cannot see Me”, which is mentioned in verse 143 of the chapter of al-A'raf, is said by Allah as an answer to Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, who asked for ru'yah. The esteemed man of knowledge, Ahmed Avni Bey, who explained Fusus, says that the request of the Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, for ru'yah is a proof of ru'yah and states the following: “If ru'yah was impossible, the Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, would not make such a request.”

Ahmad Avni Bey points out significant signs about ru'yah by saying that in ru'yah, the person will be entranced, there will not be any existence left to him/her, and that s/he will be submerged in Divine reflection and closeness.

A verse about ru'yah:

“To those who do right is a goodly (reward)- Yea, more (than in measure).” (Yunus, 10:26)

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) explained the expression “still more” in the verse as “looking toward the jamal (beauty) of the All-Merciful”

After this short explanation, we advise you to read the following article on Ru’yatullah written by the scholar Mehmet Kırkıncı:

RU'YATULLAH

Ru’yatullah means (for believers) to see Allah Almighty in Paradise free from time and space.

One of the important issues discussed by scholars of kalam is ru’yatullah.

Different views have been put forward about ru’yah. While some people say that ru’yah will never be possible, others attribute a body to Almighty Allah; thus, they go to extreme ends and deviate.  Some members of madhhabs like Mu’tazila deny ru'yatullah. Their views are a definite error and great ignorance. Denying something does not mean that it does not exist.

The Ahl as-Sunnah community follows the true path regarding ru'yatullah as in all issues and say that Allah Almighty can be seen by believers in the hereafter but that its state and nature cannot be known. Ahl as-Sunnah scholars agree unanimously that ru'yatullah is possible. They say, "Since Allah exists, He will be seen. For, everything that exists is seen; therefore, Allah Almighty will also be seen, but the state and nature of seeing Him is unknown." Nothing prevents ru’yatullah; and it is definite by the intellect, verses, hadiths and ijma (consensus)

Yes, we need eyes to see in this world, but we can watch other realms in dreams without needing eyes when we sleep. The Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Complete your ranks. I see you from behind too." [1]

Thus, he told us that it was possible to see without eyes. It means ru’yah is not something that takes place only through eyes.

As much praise as the number of the atoms of the both worlds from pre-eternity to post-eternity be to Allah, who promised that he would show his jamal to us. Since He has promised, He will show his jamal to us. For, it is impossible for Him to break His promise. For a believer, it is impossible to think of a greater happiness than to be able to see the jamal of “Allah Almighty, who is the beloved one Himself without any reason and who owns perfection and beauty” [2]. This boon is definitely superior to Paradise. May Allah Almighty enable us to attain this great boon with His grace and generosity! Amin!  

“Man stands in need of most of the varieties of beings in the universe and is connected to them. His needs spread through every part of the world, and his desires extend to eternity. As he wants a flower, so he wants the spring. As he desires a garden, so does he also desire everlasting Paradise. As he longs to see a friend, so does he long to see the All-Beauteous One of Glory.”[3]

It is doubtless that Allah Almighty cannot be seen in this world and through the worldly eyes. The evidence that ru’yah will be possible and will take place in the hereafter is the following verse:  

"When Moses came to the place appointed by Us, and his Lord addressed him, He said: ‘O my Lord! Show (Thyself) to me, that I may look upon thee.’ Allah said: ‘By no means canst thou see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide in its place, then shalt thou see Me.’ When his Lord manifested His glory on the Mount, He made it as dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. When he recovered his senses he said: ‘Glory be to Thee! To Thee I turn in repentance, and I am the first to believe.’"[4]

That Hz. Musa (Moses) wanted to see Allah Almighty is evidence that He can be seen. For, he clearly said, "O my Lord! Show (Thyself) to me." If ru’yah were not possible, Hz. Musa, who was one of the greatest prophets, would not ask something that was impossible. When Hz. Nuh (Noah) wanted to save his son, who was dragged by flood, and when Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa (Eve) ate from the fruit of the forbidden tree, Almighty Allah warned them; however, when Hz. Musa wanted to see Him, He did not warn him; He did not say to him what He said to Hz. Nuh:"So ask not of Me that of which thou hast no knowledge! I give thee counsel, lest thou act like the ignorant." If Hz. Musa had wanted something contrary to the laws of Sunnatullah imposed by Allah Almighty, he would definitely have been warned by Allah like the other prophet.

Hz. Musa knew it very well that Allah Almighty could not be seen in this world. However, the reason why he demanded something like that was not his own desire but his ummah’s request from him:  "Show us your Lord." By doing so, Hz. Musa proved to his ummah through revelation that ru’yah was not possible in this world; at this point, he combined mental evidence with divine evidence. Otherwise, a prophet like Hz. Musa would definitely have not demanded anything that was impossible. For, it is absurd to demand something impossible and it does not fit a prophet. To demand something that is not possible is done only by ignorant people.

If Hz. Musa had said, "You cannot see Allah in this world", it would have been enough. It was wajib for him to prevent his ummah from demanding something unworthy of divine beauty and majesty. Sons of Israel had previously wanted many groundless and impossible things. For, the persecution and ignorance of Sons of Israel, who killed many prophets, are so grave.

Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen, the great scholar, states the following in the interpretation of the verse above related to ru’yah:

“Hz. Musa is a great prophet. If ru’yah were something impossible, he would have known it and would not have requested something like that. If ru'yatullah were impossible, Allah Almighty would have said, 'I cannot be seen', not 'You cannot see me.' In addition, divine ru’yah was related to the existence of an order, that is, the stability of the mountain.  What is meant by the manifestation in this verse is a kind of ru’yah. Thus, the mountain was given a kind of life and the ability of ru’yah but it was broken into pieces due to the influence of its greatness and magnificence. Therefore, ru’yah is possible for human beings, but people do not have the ability to tolerate this ru’yah in this world. Believers will attain this great blessing in the hereafter. As a matter of fact, the Messenger of Allah attained the honor of ru’yah in this world on the Night of Mi’raj (Ascension), which was a kind of otherworldly life.”[5]

The great thinker, Ahmet Avni Konuk, who translated Fusus al-Hikam into Turkish, states the following:

“That Hz. Musa demanded ru’yah is evidence that ru’yah is permissible. As he puts it, “The demand of ru’yah by Hz. Musa is evidence for the permissibility of ru’yah. If ru’yah were impossible, Hz. Musa would not have demanded it.”

Attaining the ru’yah of Allah Almighty will take place in the hereafter. Badiuzzaman Said Nursi said, "He entered the eternal realm through Miraj." [6] Thus, he stated that the Prophet (pbuh) saw Allah Almighty in the hereafter, indicating that it is not possible in this world. Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet (pbuh) said "I saw my Lord with my eyes." This hadith was also reported by Hz. Anas, Hz. Abu Dharr, Hz. Kab and Zuhri.

We should state that the Prophet (pbuh) attained the honor of ru’yah of Allah Almighty only after, as Badiuzzaman Said Nursi puts it, "passing through various stages". The Messenger of Allah passed the seven layers of the sky through Miraj, met many prophets, and after leaving kursiyy (chair) and arsh (throne) behind, he reached Sidratul-Muntaha (Lote Tree of the furthest boundary) and Qab Qawsayn (two bows' length), that is the most private end of divine meeting; after observing the endless secrets, he attained the honor of seeing the jamal of Allah Almighty.

In order to attain such a high honor, believers will go there after passing through many stages like the grave, barzakh, gathering place, mizan (scales) and sirat (bridge) with the journey of death and after attaining a state worthy of Paradise; all of their faculties, feelings and emotions will develop so much, as it is expressed in a hadith, that they will see Allah Almighty without a veil as they see the full moon easily on a clear night. Hz. Musa wanted to see Allah without going on a journey of development like that; therefore, he could not stand even the manifestation of ru’yah on the mountain and he fainted.

Among the people who were sent to this guesthouse of the world, those who believe in Allah Almighty, those who love him truly, those who live in accordance with His consent, those who behave as He Wishes, and those who improve their souls by obeying His orders and prohibitions will attain endless boons and blessing in an eternal life. The believers who enter into the spiritual presence of Allah Almighty at least five times a day by adorning their hearts with prayer will attain the honor of seeing Him in Paradise with the permission of Allah. Yes, the believers whose dhikr is Allah and whose love is praising and respecting Him will definitely ru’yatullah, which is the greatest boon. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a verse:

“Some faces, that Day, will beam (in brightness and beauty);- Looking towards their Lord”[7]

Ahl as-Sunnah scholars say one of the strongest evidences of ru’yatullah is the verse above.

The scholar Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen states the following in the interpretation of the verse:

“Those happy slaves will look at their Lord. They will attain the honor of seeing their generous Lord free of time and space. Attaining such a manifestation will be superior to all spiritual pleasures.” [8]

The scholar Hamdi Yazır Efendi states the following in the interpretation of the same verse:

“So many faces are bright on that day. They shine with the joy of achievement in happiness. For, they will look at their Lord إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ. They will look at His jamal (beauty). Ahl as-Sunnah scholars regarded this looking in the sense of seeing and proved that believers would attain ru’yah of Allah’s jamal in the hereafter. Acting upon the verse لَن تَرَانِي(you cannot see Me), Mu’tazila interpreted this looking as waiting. However, the outcome of waiting that will not attain its purpose will be disappointment and pain, not joy; therefore, to interpret looking as waiting here is not appropriate.” [9]

The great scholar Mehmed Vehbi of Konya states the following in the interpretation of the same verse:

“It means the faces of many people will be bright, shiny and joyful because of the boons they see. The greatest boon is to have the blessing of observing the jamal of Allah Almighty."

"As Fakhruddin Razi states, this verse states that there is no rational drawback to some people seeing Allah in the hereafter. For, Allah Almighty exists; it is possible for man to see what exists; and seeing Allah is necessary according to the verses. For, there are many divine verses indicating that ru’yatullah will take place. Therefore, it is wajib for believers to believe that they will see Allah Almighty. This is the view of Ahl as-Sunnah. However, Mu’tazila, which is one of the heretic groups, denies ru’yah in the hereafter taking into consideration the conditions that are necessary for ru’yah in the world. In fact, the conditions that are necessary for ru’yah in the world are not necessary in the hereafter. For, ru’yah takes place in the hereafter with a power whose creator is Allah. He creates competence and power to see in His slaves whom He wishes to give the honor of seeing His jamal. Therefore, the ru’yah in this world cannot be compared to the ru’yah in the hereafter; so, the conditions that are necessary for the ru’yah in this world are not necessary in the hereafter.”[10]

The following is stated in another verse:

“To those who do right is a goodly (reward)- Yea, more (than in measure).”[11]

The word "more" mentioned in the verse is interpreted as "looking at Allah". When Ubayy b. Ka'b was asked the meaning of "more" in terms of attribution, he said, the Prophet (pbuh) said, it is "looking at the jamal of ar-Rahman." Besides, this hadith was also narrated by famous people like Hz. Abubakr, Hudhayfa Ibn Yaman, Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Said Ibn Musayyab, Hz. Ikrima, Amr Ibn Sad and Qatada.

Fakhruddin Razi states that "ziyadah" (more) was something different from the boons of Paradise as follows:

"When something added to another thing is determined with a certain amount, 'ziyadah' needs to be of the same kind. However, if it is not determined with a certain amount, 'ziyadah' needs to be something different. For instance, if somebody says, 'I gave you ten kilos of wheat and ziyadah (more)', it is understood that this ziyadah is wheat. However, if he says, 'I gave you wheat and ziyadah (more)' without determining an amount, this 'ziyadah' here must be and is something different from wheat." [12]

Yes, in the verse, the phrase "Paradise (a goodly reward) and more" is used. Then, the boon in question must be something different from Paradise; and it is ru’yah.

The following is stated in a sound hadith reported from Abu Said and Abu Hurayra, included among famous hadiths of Bukhari and Muslim: Some Companions asked,

“O Messenger of Allah! Are we going to see our Lord on the Day of Judgment?” The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“Do you feel disturbed when you see the sun and the moon on a cloudless day? When they said no, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

“You will see your Lord like that.”

According to what is reported from Jarir Ibn Abdillah, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) looked at the full moon one night and said,

"Certainly you will see your Lord as you see this moon and you will have no trouble in seeing Him. So if you can avoid missing a prayer before the sunrise and a prayer before sunset, you must do so.” [13]

That the moon is likened to seeing here indicates that ru’yah will take place without veil and direction and that it will take place clearly. Abu Hanifa states the following in his book called “al-Wasiyya”: “The people of Paradise will see Allah free of conditions, aspects and comparison.”

Yes, aspect and direction are in question for the body. Allah Almighty is free from matter and body; and His nature does not resemble any nature. He is free from the imaginations of thought, estimations of the mind, encompassing of ideas and intellect; and He is free from time and space. For, He is necessarily existent, pre-eternal and post-eternal.

“That is, He has no like, equal, peer, or partner in either His essence, or His attributes, or His actions. Indeed, it is not possible for the Most and Holy One who holds the universe with its circumstances and functions in the grasp of His dominicality and regulates, administers, sustains and nurtures it with perfect order as though it were a house or a palace to have any like, equal, partner, or peer; it is impossible.”[14]

Allah Almighty has no beginning and end. He has no equivalent, partner, peer or similarity in deity and divinity.

Yes, the nature of the Creator is different from the nature of the creature. It is a known fact that no work resembles its master. For instance, a clock does not resemble its maker in terms of its being, nature, attributes or deeds. There is such a big difference between them in terms of nature though they are both created beings; then, it is definite that the sacred nature of Allah Almighty, who is the Creator of all beings, will not resemble the nature of any being. As Badiuzzaman Said Nursi puts it,

“The Necessarily Existent One does not resemble creatures in His nature or deeds.” [15]

The Prophet (pbuh) states the following in another hadith:

"When the people of Paradise enter Paradise, Allah will say to them, ‘Do you want anything else from me? I will give it to you too.’ They will say,

'Have You not brightened our faces? Have You not put us in Paradise and saved us from Fire? (What else can we ask from You?) Then, the veil is removed. Nothing dearer was given to them than the sight of their Lord, the Glorious.” [16] 

Suhayb said, “After that, the Messenger of Allah read the following verse: ‘To those who do right is a goodly (reward)- Yea, more (than in measure).’” [17]

Hadith scholars explained the hadith above as follows: 

“There is nothing more enjoyable, delicious and better than looking at Allah Almighty for the people of Paradise. Ru’yatullah will be possible from anywhere in Paradise. The degrees in Paradise are different; similarly, the degrees of the people of Paradise are different. Therefore, every believer will attain the blessing of ru’yatullah based on their belief, worshipping, piety, good deeds and charity; some of them once a week; some of them twice a day, etc. This ru’yah will take place behind seventy thousand veils. If the veils are removed, His light will burn everything that the eyes see.”

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, who is the founder of Hanbali madhhab, which is one of the four big madhhabs, says, “Abu Muawiya reported us from Abdullah Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah said, “The one with the lowest degree of the people of Paradise looks at his own land, which is as vast as two thousand years, his wife and his maids. The one with the lowest degree of the people of Paradise looks atAllah twice a day.”

Badiuzzaman states that the biggest blessing is ru’yatullah as follows:  

“The result of faith and love of Allah. It is proved by the consensus of the people of unveiling and verification, by certain Hadith,1 and by the Qur’an that a thousand years of happy life in this world is not worth one hour of life in Paradise, and that a thousand years of heavenly life is not worth one hour’s vision and contemplation of the All-Glorious One, Who possesses incomparable beauty and perfection. Everyone may perceive in his conscience a great longing for the vision of a personage famous for his magnificence and perfection, like the Prophet Solomon (Peace be upon him), and a great yearning to behold a personage distinguished by his beauty, like the Prophet Joseph (Peace be upon him). And so, if you can, compare how longed-for, sought after, and desire-arousing is the vision of One, one manifestation of Whose beauty and perfection are all the virtues and perfections of Paradise, which are thousands of times more elevated than all the virtues and perfections of this world...”[19]

Badiuzzaman also states that one of the fruits the Prophet (pbuh) brought from Miraj is ru’yatullah as follows:

“Fourth Fruit: Just as he himself sampled the fruit of the vision of Divine beauty, so did he bring to jinn and men the gift of this fruit being attainable by all believers. You may understand from the following how delightful, pleasing, and exquisite a fruit this is. Everyone of fine perception loves one who possesses beauty and perfection and is benevolent, and his love increases proportionately to their degrees; it reaches the degree of worship and a pitch whereat he would sacrifice his very life. On seeing that person only once, his love becomes such he would sacrifice the world. However, in relation to the beauty, perfection, and benevolence of Allah Almighty, the beauty, perfection and benevolence of all beings are not the equivalent of even a few tiny sparks in relation to the sun. That is to say, if you are a true human being, you may understand how delightful and fine a fruit it is and what happiness and joy it brings to receive in eternal happiness the vision of the All-Glorious One of Perfection, Who is worthy of boundless love, infinite longing, and being gazed upon eternally.”[20]

The difference between idrak (grasp) and ru’yah (seeing)

Some people, especially the members of Mu’tazila madhhab, show the verse "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision" [21] as evidence for the impossibility of ru’yatullah. The word idrak (grasping) mentioned in the verse does not mean to understand something with all of its aspects but to encompass something that is limited. Therefore, idrak and ru’yah are not the same things. What is meant to be emphasized in the verse is “Not every owner of eyes can grasp Him.” Ibn Kathir states the following "These eyes cannot grasp" does not mean that they cannot see Allah on the Day of Judgment. For, Allah will be visible to His believing slaves as He wishes. However, eyes cannot grasp the greatness and magnificence of Allah with their nature.”

Allah Almighty’s grasping is knowing each creature that He created truly. He knows every subtle thing and grasps eyes. For, he is the one that gives the eyes.  “For example, the one who bestows the eyes, both sees the eye, and, a subtle meaning, sees what the eye sees, then he bestows them.” [22]

“And whether ye hide your word or publish it, He certainly has (full) knowledge, of the secrets of (all) hearts. Should He not know,- He that created? and He is the One that understands the finest mysteries (and) is well-acquainted (with them).”[23]

As it is known, subtlety (fineness) is the opposite of denseness. Allah Almighty, one of whose names is “Latif” (the Subtle One) knows every aspect of the creatures He created with all of their subtleties; He grants and bestows things on them and treats them very compassionately and mercifully.

Yes, man cannot grasp everything that he sees. When a person who is not an expert on water looks at a river, he only sees water in it; however, an electrical engineer sees waterfalls and electric current behind that water. A person who looks at an ocean cannot grasp what is in the depths of that ocean; he cannot see the expensive gems like oysters, corals and rubies. Similarly, when an ordinary person looks at the sun, he thinks it is as big as an apple but an astronomer knows and sees that the sun is bigger than the world one million and three hundred thousand times and that so many explosions occur in it.

An ordinary person sees blood as a red liquid but a doctor can see billions of white blood cells and red blood cells.

A person who is unaware of botany looks at a plant ordinarily but a person who has studied and is specialized in botany finds many hidden wisdoms behind it and a pharmacist makes drugs using them.

Fakhruddin Razi explains the difference between idrak and ru’yah as follows:

“Ru’yah is divided into two: Firstly: when something that has limits and an end is seen with those limits and that end, it can be expressed by the word idrak. In that case, there might not be any difference between them.

Secondly: when something that has no limits and end, it does not mean that it has been grasped (idrak). Accordingly, it is possible to say ru’yah sometimes takes place with idrak and sometimes separately from idrak. If it is possible to use the word ru’yah in both cases and even if a person means both ru’yah in isolation and ru’yah together with idrak by saying, “I saw something”, it does not show that ru’yah is meant in isolation without idrak.

We understand from it that ru’yah is general and idrak is specific. Every idrak is ru’yah bot not every ru’yah is idrak.”[24]

We should say that the eye cannot see everything and the mind cannot understand and grasp everything. Man hears a voice and feels a smell but cannot see them. Allah Almighty could have created man with an ability to see but it is also a great blessing that some things cannot be seen. For example, if a person saw microbes in his hand, he could never eat or drink. If he heard the sound of the ants, this world would become a noisy house that always disturbed him.

Yes, the eye cannot see everything and the mind cannot grasp everything. For, the mind is also something created; it is finite and limited. A mind with a limited ability to grasp cannot comprehend or know exactly the infinite power, knowledge, greatness and will of Allah Almighty. As Badiuzzaman Said Nursi puts it, this vast universe, "the magnitude of which cannot be measured in figures should they stretch from pole to pole" [25]; it is not possible to express the magnitude of this vast universe in figures. However, no matter how great the universe is, it is finite and limited but all attributes of Allah Almighty is infinite like His knowledge, will and power.

Minds are too weak to grasp the greatness of Allah Almighty, who is perfect with his greatness of perfection and perfect greatness. As a matter of fact, Hz. Abubakr said, “To know one’s weakness about knowing Allah means to know Allah.”

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi expresses this fact as follows:

“O Kabir! (Allah, whose greatness has no end!) You are such a majestic being that minds are too weak to describe your majesty and ideas are too hopeless to grasp your greatness.” [26]

“Tongues become speechless when they try to describe His attributes. Minds become too weak to know Him as it is necessary.” [27]

The power of Allah Almighty is infinite; His knowledge is infinite; His will is infinite; His grants and generosity are infinite. His knowledge has surrounded everything from pre-eternity to post-eternity. He knows the nature of things truly.   Every being that has been created and not created, the skies and the earth, the past and the future are like a small dot in His presence and knowledge. All of the attributes of Allah Almighty are pre-eternal, post-eternal and absolute. For, He is necessarily existent; that is, His existence originates from His self; He is pre-eternal and post-eternal. It is necessary for Him to exist; His non-existence is impossible.

Man is “possible to exist” like all creatures. That is, his existence and non-existence is equal. Once, we were non-existent; today, we are existent; tomorrow, we will move to the realm of the hereafter.

Therefore, a being that is possible to exist cannot grasp the greatness of Allah Almighty. For,

“Absolute reality cannot be comprehended by restricted views.” [28]

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi indicated that man’s duty was not to understand the secrets of Lordship and that he did not have the ability to do it by saying, "The mind’s duty is to fulfill the duty of worshipping; its duty is not to grasp (understand) the secrets of Lordship.”

Man cannot know the nature of his spirit, mind and even very simple plant life fully. Only Allah knows the nature of things. For, He is the Master and Creator of the beings.

According to what Ibn Abbas narrated, some people wanted to meditate on Allah Himself. Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) said,   

“Mediate on Allah’s creatures. Do meditate on Allah Himself. You do not have power to meditate on Allah Himself.” [29]

As a matter of fact, the Prophet (pbuh), who is the one with the most advanced intellect and knowledge, who is a sea of perfection in knowing Allah Almighty, who is the perfect mirror of divine names, the greatest crier of the divine sultanate, the source of divine secrets and the sun of the two realms, ascended to the sky from the earth after reading all creatures and finishing the school on the earth. He passed the seven layers of the sky and reached Sidratul-Muntaha and Qab Qawsayn, that is, the most private end of divine meeting between possibility and necessity. He saw Paradise and Hell, learned infinite secrets, read the wonderful works and so many realms there. He saw Allah Almighty, who is free from space and time, with his eyes. This issue is expressed as follows in the Quran: 

“(His) sight never swerved, nor did it go wrong! For truly did he see, of the Signs of his Lord, the Greatest.”[30] 

What a lofty and great rank. Man is too weak understand it. Badiuzzaman Said Nursi expresses it as follows:

“Muhammad the Arabian (pbuh) has achieved such a rank and degree that if all minds were to gather together and become one mind, it could not completely comprehend it.”[31]

However, the Prophet (pbuh) recited the following magnificent call in that lofty rank, expressing his weakness in the face of the greatness of Allah, resonating the earth and the seven layers of the sky and making the angels and spiritual beings say labbayk:

“Subhanaka maabadnaka haqqa ibadatika ya mabud (Glory to You we can never worship You as You deserve O Worshipped One).

Subhanaka maarafnaka haqqa marifatika ya maruf (Glory to You we can never know You as You deserve Recognized One).

Subhanaka maabadnaka haqqa ibadatika ya mabud (Glory to You we can never worship You as You deserve O Worshipped One).

Subhanaka madhakarnaka haqqa dhikrika ya madhkur (Glory to You we can never mention You as You deserve O Mentioned One).

Subhanaka mashakarnaka haqqa shukrika ya mashkur (Glory to You we can never praise You as You deserve O Praised Thanked One).”

It is definitely not possible for us to understand this issue with our mind since the Prophet expressed his weakness like that. As a knowledgeable person expresses it, “Those magnificent realities cannot be weighed by the scales of our small mind.

"This small mind cannot grasp those high realities.
For, this scale does not weigh such a big weight.”[32]

Yes, this world is a realm of shadows; the original ones will be in the hereafter. A person who lives with the shadows cannot understand the original ones from the world. As the Prophet puts it, “Neither eyes have seen something like it nor ears have heard something like it; the heart of man cannot think of it either”, the real nature of Paradise cannot be understood; the real nature of ru’yah, which is a blessing beyond Paradise, cannot be understood in this world, which is like a shadow compared to the hereafter.

I would like to quote some statements from the translation of the book called “Tefekkürname” written in Arabic by Badiuzzaman Said Nursi:

“O Sacred Being, who is free and away from all mistakes and incomplete attributes!

We cannot praise You truly and cannot mention all of Your attributes of perfection. You are such a majestic being that You praise Yourself in the Quran, Your beloved Prophet praises You with Your permission and all of Your creatures praise You with the permission of speech given to them by You.

O Recognized One, who is free and away from all mistakes and incomplete attributes!

We have not been able to recognize You as it is necessary. You are such a Wise Owner of Majesty that You can describe Yourself with the miracles of Your works, description of all of Your creatures and the definition of all of Your beings.

O Mentioned One, who is free and away from all mistakes and incomplete attributes!

We have not been able to mention You as it is necessary. You are such a Lord of Majesty that You are worthy of dhikr (being mentioned) by prayers presented to You by the special tongues of all of Your creatures, the souls of all of Your beings, which are the words of the book of the universe, the lives of the living beings, which are your creatures, and by the regular leaves of the trees and plants that mention you by fluttering.

O Thanked One, who is free and away from all mistakes and incomplete attributes!

We have not been able to thank You as it is necessary. You are such a Merciful Owner of Majesty that You are worthy of thanking with the praise of all of Your grants on the cities that are seen, with poems of all of the fruits of Your boons and mercy in the market of the universe and with the praise of regular and tidy flowers and clusters on the thin and delicate branches of trees and plants.

O majestic being, whose works are extremely great, and who owns a beauty that is extremely obvious! You are free and away from all kinds of mistakes and deficiencies.

O Worshipped One, who is free and away from all mistakes and incomplete attributes!

We have not been able to worship You as it is necessary. You are such a Beautiful Deity of Majesty that You are worthy of all kinds of worshipping of all angels, living beings, elements and creatures that they perform with full obedience, devotion, agreement and enthusiasm.

We have not been able to glorify You as it is necessary. In fact, as the verse شَيْءٍ إِلاَّ يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدَهِ وَإِن مِّ   indicates, all of the skies and the earth and everything in them glorify You. There is nothing that does not glorify You with praise. I also bless You with all of their glorification.

I also glorify You with the glorification of all of the works in the sky and earth and the praise of all creature. I also bless you with all of their glorification and praise.

Both the earth and the sky praise and glorify You with the glorification of all of your prophets and saints (peace be upon them). I also bless you with all of their glorification and praise.

The universe glorifies You with all of the glorification of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and his praise (peace be upon him and his family). I also bless you with all of his glorification and praise.

O Majestic Being!

This universe praises and glorifies You with the sounds of the glorification Muhammad (peace be upon him). You are free and away from mistakes and incomplete attributes.

Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is such a person that the sounds of his glorification have been resonating on nations for centuries with majesty.

O Allah! Make the sounds of the glorification Muhammad (peace be upon him) permanent on the pages of the universe and leaves of time until Doomsday.

O Majestic Being!

The world praises and glorifies you with the works of the shari’ah of Muhammad (peace be upon him). You are free and away from mistakes and incomplete attributes.”

In conclusion, there is no doubt that the people of Paradise will attain the ru’yah of Allah Almighty. What matters is to illuminate all of our faculties like the mind and heart with truths of belief, to polish them with worshipping, to make them deserve Paradise and attain ru’yatullah.

We want to finish this issue with the following wonderful supplication of Abdulqadir Ghaylani:

“O Allah! Make us among those who see your existence with the eye of the heart in the world! Make us among those who look at your jamal with the eyes on our faces!” [33]

Click for additional information: 

RU'YATULLAH

References:

Taftazani, Sharhil-Maqasid,  Alamul-Kutub Beirut
Umar Nasafi, Aqaidi an-Nasafi,
Abu Hanifa,  Fiqhul Akbar,
Jawaharatut-Tawhid, Sheikh Ibrahim Bajuri
Mehmed Vehbi Efendi, Akaid-i Hayri Tercümesi,  İstanbul, 1340 Ahmet Kâmil Matbaası
Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen, Kur’an-ı Kerim’in Türkçe Meali Âlisi ve Tefsiri,  İstanbul,  Bilmen Yayınevi
Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, Hak Dini Kur’an Dili,
Mehmed Vehbi Efendi, Hulasatul Beyan
Şamil İslam Ansiklopedisi, Şamil Yayınevi, İstanbul
Ibn Muhammad Maruf Bin Hazin, Tafsirul-Hazin
Prof. Dr. Alaaddin Başar, Risale-i Nur’dan Kelimeler ve Cümleler, Zafer Yay. Vol. 2. p. 73
Ahmet Avni Konuk,  Fusûsül Hikem Tercemesi ve Şerhi, İFAV Yay. İstanbul
Ebusuud Tefsiri, 1311 Beirut Impression
Konyalı Mehmed Vehbi Efendi, Hulâsat’ül Bey’an, Fi Tefsir’il Kur’an, Üçdal Neşriyat, 1969 İstanbul

Footnotes:

[1] Bukhari, Vol. 1, p,177, Kitabul-Adhan, Bab:75
[2] Şualar
[3] Nursi, B.S Sözler (23. Söz)
[4] al-A’raf  7/143
[5] Bilmen, Ömer Nasuhi, Kur’an-ı Kerim’in Türkçe Meali Âlisi ve Tefsiri, Vol. 2, page 1087, İstanbul,  Bilmen Yayınevi
[6] Nursî, B.S Mesnevî-i Nuriye (Şemme)
[7] al-Qiyama, 75/22-23
[8] Bilmen, Ömer Nasuhi, Kur’an-ı Kerim’in Türkçe Meali Âlisi ve Tefsiri, Vol. 8, page 3909, İstanbul,  Bilmen Yayınevi
[9] Yazır, Hamdi, Hak Dini Kur’an Dili, Vol. 8, page 5483
[10] Vehbi, Mehmed, Hulâsat’ül Bey’an, Fi Tefsir’il Kur’an, p. 6262 Üçdal Neşriyat, 1969 İstanbul
[11] Yunus, 20/26
[12] (ar-Razi, Tafsir al-Kabir, IV, 333).
[13] (Buhari, Mawaqitus-Salat 6, 26, Tafsir, Qaf 1, Tawhid 24; Muslim, Masajid 211, (633); Abu Dawud)
[14] Nursi B.S. Lem’alar
[15] Nursi, B.S Mesnevî-i Nuriye (Zerre)
[16] Muslim, Iman 297, (181); Tirmidhzi, Jannah 16, (2555)
[17] Yunus, 10/26
[18] As it is stated in the hadith, "That seeing (ru’yah) is so superior to all of the pleasures of Paradise that it makes them forgotten. The beauty of the faces of the people who see Him increases so much that when they return, their families in their palaces will hardly recognize them."
[19] Nursî, B.S Sözler (32. Söz, 3. Mevkıf, 9. İşaret)
[20] Nursî B.S Sözler ( 31. Söz)
[21] al-Anam 6/103
[22] Şualar 2. Şua, (Birinci Makamın Birinci Meyvesi)
[23] al-Mulk 67/13-14
[24] ar-Razi, Tafsir al-Kabir, Akçağ Yayınları, Ankara
[25] Nursî, B.S Şualar (7. Şua)
[26] Nursî, B.S 29. Lem’a (Tefekkürname)
[27] Imamı Zaynul-Abidin, Sahifa as-Sajjadiya, Translated by Prof. Dr. Abdülaziz Hatip, Nesil Yay. İst.
[28] Nursî, B. S Sözler
[29] Majmauz-Zawaid, 1/81, Kanzul-Ummal, h. No: 5705-5707
[30] an-Najm 53/17-18
[31] Nursi, B.S Mektubat ( 24. Mektup)
[32] Nursi, B.S Sözler (28. Söz)
[33] Fathur-Rabbani, 52nd Discourse.


13-) Will you give information about Ru'yatullah?

RU'YATULLAH

Ru’yah: “believers’ attaining the honor of seeing the jamal of Allah Almighty in Paradise.”

The greatest glad tiding for believers: They will be so lucky as to watch the beauty of Allah.

The issue of Allah Almighty being seen by believers on the Day of Judgment as verses and some hadiths reported from the Prophet indicate. There are various views put forward regarding the issue as it is the case in various issues by Islamic schools (madhhabs) due to viewing the issue from different viewpoints. Some scholars and schools state that ru’yah is not possible, regarding the belief in ru’yah as something non-Islamic while others attributed a body to Allah Almighty in addition to accepting its possibility; thus, they showed extremism in both ends. The school of Ahl as-Sunnah follows the moderate way as it is the case in general and states that Allah can be seen by believers in the hereafter but that how it will take place cannot be known.

Man, who benefits from this universe Allah created with his body, who encounters many realities with his mind, heart and feelings, each of which is a divine grant, desires to see his Lord, who bestows upon him so many boons, like a lover. The response to this desire placed in the heart of man will be given in Paradise; and man will attain the best grant, which will be superior to the pleasures of Paradise. We do not deem it useful to delve into their details. To conclude, according to Ahl as-Sunnah, ru’yah is true and permissible. According to Mu’tazila, which is one of the heretic madhhabs, ru’yah is not accepted.  

A believer who believes in ghayb believe this incident related to ghayb too. However, people who trust their souls and who base everything on their minds cannot believe easily.

Man, who tries to settle everything with the mind, has thought a lot about how this great manifestation will take place. As a matter of fact, the multitude of the questions from our readers and friends regarding the issue forces us to think more about the issue.

Indeed, this area is the field of the mind, not the heart, and the field of pleasure, not the thought. However, the mind wants to understand something, to find some clues and to be satisfied. It is not possible to express Paradise, which is a realm “that eyes have not seen, that ears have not heard of and that have not occurred to human heart (imagination)”, as the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) expresses it, with words in this world. In that case, how can we understand and grasp ru’yah, which is a divine mercy that is endlessly beyond Paradise and the blessings there? As a matter of fact, Ahl as-Sunnah scholars unanimously agree that ru’yah is true and that its nature cannot be known.  

However, human mind feels restless. He wants logical explanation of something that will be bestowed and that can be enjoyed only in the hereafter in this world. We need eyes and light to see in this world. We can see and watch this realm, in which we live, to the extent that our eyes allow us. When we sleep, we lose connection with our eyes and light. Another realm opens for us then.  

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi says, “The eye is a sense, a window through which the spirit looks out on this world.” Thus, he indicates that the spirit can watch other realms without needing this eye. The best example of it is dream. Nursi states the following in another book: “The works and deeds of the awliya (saints), whose spirits have overcome their material being, take place with the speed of spirit.” (Mesnevî-i Nuriye)

It means doors are opened to different realms in dreams when our eyes are deactivated; similarly, we could do so many things that seem impossible if our spirit became dominant over our body when we are awake. The secret of the incident of expansion of time and folding of space (place) is hidden in this sentence. Those who capture this secret and break the code do deeds that can be done in years in a very short time and move to a very distant place and even places at once.

As it is known, aspect and direction are in question for the body. Words like front, back, right and left are not used for spirit. Then, when the spirit becomes dominant over the body, directions and aspects become deactivated and the spirit can see all directions at the same time. As a matter of fact, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) could see the people who came from behind easily like the people at the front.  

After reminding another fact, we can deal with the issue of ru’yah. The following prayer exists in Risale-i Nur Collection: “Show us the source and origin of these examples and shadows You have shown us.” When we interpret this prayer for ru’yah, the following meaning comes to mind: “Our seeing in this world is like shadow; the real seeing will be granted to us in Paradise.” The spirits of the people of Paradise are dominant over their bodies. As a matter of fact, they will be able to be in many places simultaneously. The seeing of the people of Paradise is much more advanced than that of the people of the world. The difference between them is the difference between the origin and the shade.   

When the light of the divine closeness in ru’yah is added, that mature spirit will be overwhelmed with prosperity, will watch its Lord in a way that is free from direction, distance and form in a decent state and will be entranced; then, it will be transformed into an ocean where so many hearty spiritual pleasures sail; that lucky spirit will enjoy a pleasure that cannot be compared to the pleasure taken from Paradise, which is something created, when he sees his Lord and will be entranced. 

When we think of the incidence of ru’yah, we should not forget that we can only see material and condense things in this world and that we cannot see the spirit, mind, memory and even tastes and smells. We should not confuse the ru’yah of Allah Almighty, one of whose names is an-Nur (Luminous Light) and all of whose names and attributes are luminous with the incident of seeing in this world.

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi says “it is immersion in oneness” for the school of wahdatul-wujud (unity of existence). Everything in this ephemeral world, including seeing, hearing, eating and drinking, is like shadow compared to those in the land of eternity; the state of immersion in this world will be seen in the incident of ru’yah in its original form and in a loftiness that cannot be described.
The following verse gives the glad tiding about ru’yah:

“Some faces, that Day, will beam (in brightness and beauty);-  Looking towards their Lord”. (al-Qiyama, 22)

Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, one of the great scholars of the last century, states the following in the interpretation of this verse:
“Ahl as-Sunnah understood this looking as ru’yah and proved the ru’yah of the jamal of Allah by believers in the hereafter. Acting upon the phrase ‘lan tarani’, Mu’tazila interpreted this looking as waiting.However, the outcome of waiting that will not attain its purpose will be disappointment and pain, not joy”

Lan tarani means “you cannot see me”. Allah Almighty said this phrase to Hz. Musa, who wanted to see Him.

Ahmed Avni Bey, the esteemed man of knowledge, who explained Fusus, says that the request of the Prophet Moses, peace be upon him, for ru'yah is a proof of ru'yah and states the following: “If ru'yah was impossible, the Prophet Moses, (pbuh) would not make such a request.”

Another determination of his is also wonderful:

“Allah Almighty said lan tarani (you cannot see me). He did not say, ‘I am not seen.’ He said, ‘you cannot see me.’ He attributed lack of ru’yah to Hz. Musa. For, during this addressing, Hz. Musa was in a conversation. The statement of Allah Almighty lan tarani means you cannot see Me when you are alive.

With this statement, Ahmad Avni Bey points out significant signs about ru'yah by saying that in ru'yah, the person will be entranced, there will not be any existence left to him/her, and that s/he will be submerged in Divine reflection and closeness.

Imam Rabbani states the following regarding the issue in his book called Mektubat: “As for haqq al-yaqin (truth of certainty), this consists of watching Allah Almighty after taayyun (seeing) is eliminated. This takes place after the elimination of the one who sees. This means watching Allah Almighty with truth not with himself.”

The incident of ru’yah took place in the station of Qa’b Qawsayn. Badiuzzaman Said Nursi uses the phrase “between possibility and necessity” for this station; it means the incident of ru’yah will take place in a station like that in Paradise. The hadith mentioning that when people return from ru’yah their spouses will not recognize them informs us about such a station.    

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi states that Allah Almighty becomes manifest with His personal manifestation and at the highest level of asma al-husna. The word manifestation in this statement is very important. That is, ru’yah will take place in the form of Allah Almighty making Himself visible, not in the form of looking at a being that is in a certain direction.  

Nursi describes Miraj as “being honored by Allah Almighty’s conversation and address through His Name of Sustainer of All the Universe and title of Creator of All Beings”. In the previous statement, His personal manifestation and the highest level of asma al-husna are mentioned but this last sentence has a different importance since it states that it took place ”through His Name of Sustainer of All the Universe”.  
Only Allah knows the ghayb.

Our scholars write that it is possible for all beings to be visible and that it is not possible to see what is non-existent. In that case, it is possible for ru’yah to take place, that is, for Allah Almighty to show Himself to His slaves.
Ahmed Avni Bey deals with the manifestation of Allah Almighty in two parts:

“Manifestation takes place related to the being Himself or His attributes. When attributes become manifest, the being that sees the manifestation is existent… Therefore, speech and grasping exist at that level; so, the being that sees the manifestation is addressed by the deity. The manifestation in the form of fire that became visible to Hz. Musa is related to that part of the manifestation.”

The following is stated in the same book: “When Allah Almighty becomes manifest on something with His being, He destroys and eliminates the appearance of that thing. While thinking about ru’yah the following statement of Nursi’s come to mind: “Absolute reality cannot be comprehended by restricted views.” That is, it is not possible for the mind to understand a reality that cannot be limited because the mind is limited.

The main purpose of that statement is to teach that it is impossible to understand Allah’s being and His endless attributes through the limited human mind. However, we can regard the word “view” in the statement as “seeing” and say that it is impossible for man to encompass Allah’s personality with his limited seeing. No matter how much man’s vision develops and advances in Paradise, it is still limited. Ru’yah will take place with this limited view and based on the ability of man. Otherwise, it is not possible to understand ru’yah as encompassing Allah’s personality and His endless attributes.  
As a matter of fact, the following is stated in the chapter of al-Anam:

“No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.” (al-An’am, 103)

This verse does not teach us that ru’yah will not take place; on the contrary, it states that ru’yah will take place but that eyes will not be able to grasp Him. He will be seen but He will not be grasped and encompassed.  
The following is stated in another verse about ru’yah:

“To those who do right is a goodly (reward)- Yea, more (than in measure).” (Yunus, 26)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) interpreted the word “more” in the verse as “looking at the jamal of ar-Rahman”.
The following hadith of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) gives glad tiding about ru’yah:

“You will see your Lord as you see the full moon at night without feeling cramped.”

It is interesting that the phrase “You will see your Lord” is used instead of “You will see Allah” in the hadith. Hz. Musa also said, “My Lord! Show Yourself to me so that I may look upon You.”

It is important that the following is stated in the verse informing us that unbelievers will not be able to see Allah Almighty on the Day of Judgment: “Verily, from (the Light of) their Lord, that Day, will they be veiled” (al-Mutaffifin, 15)

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, who followed the way of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), maintained the same subtlety in the explanation of the phrase “wa ilayhil masir” (unto Him is the final goal/return) and said, “Everybody will directly know and find their own Creator, Deity, Lord, Master and Owner.” Since we know our Lord in the sense of “belief” in this world, that this blessing will take place in the hereafter can only be explained by “ru’yah”.

It is stated that different people who eat the same boons in Paradise will take different pleasures. Everybody will benefit from the same Paradise and the same boons, take and feel pleasure based on their belief, sincerity, deeds and piety. This decree about the boons of Paradise is also valid for ru’yah. The phrase “your Lord” also teaches us the same thing;, the name Lord (Rabb) will be manifest on us based on the degree of our spirit, heart, feelings and faculties being educated by listening to His Quran, and obeying the Messenger of Allah (pbuh); similarly, we will benefit from the boons of Paradise and the honor of ru’yah based on it.   

In that case, instead of trying to find out how ru’yah will take place, let us give importance to the education of our spirits and hearts. Let us beg and pray to our Lord so that He will make us worthy of Paradise and our spirits ready for ru’yah; let us try to do our best for it.
Let us remember that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who attained the honor of ru’yah with the miracle of Miraj miracle, said, “Glory to You I could never know You as You deserve, O Recognized One” after he attained that lofty honor and enjoyed the best pleasure. Considering that this statement of the Prophet also means “I could never see You as You deserve”, let us try to cover the distances to attain this great honor.    
Let us spend our lives progressing in divine knowledge and love day by day.

Prof. Dr. Alaaddin Başar

The following can be read for more detailed explanations:

The word "ru’yah" is a noun derived from the word (ra-a-ya) in Arabic. There are various meanings of this word in dictionaries. We can mention to see, look, believe, know, think, think about the outcome of something, meditate, plan and dream among them. A verb having such various meanings is based on certain states and the rules of Arabic. The meanings change based on the preposition used with the verb. There are various examples of it in the Quran. Although this verb has a wide range of meanings, it is generally used in the sense of seeing. This shows that the general structure of the verb is related to seeing.

Terminologically, when the word ru’yah is used, the issue of Allah Almighty being seen by believers in Paradise comes to mind first in Islamic literature. This issue has been one of the most discussed issues in the science of Kalam. Some Kalam books regarded it as something related to the essence of Allah and dealt with it under the heading of the issues related to the essence of Allah (Ghazzali, al-Iqtisad fil-Itiqad, p. 41-48) while others dealt with it in the chapter of the issues that are permissible and impermissible about Allah (Amidi, Ghayatul-Marami fi Ilmil-Kalam, p. 159-179).

The issue of ru’yah is generally dealt with in two points. Firstly, whether it is possible in the world; secondly, its happening in the hereafter. Some rational explanations are used as evidence for the first one and verse 143 of the chapter of al-A'raf is put forward as evidence. However, it is interesting that both those who claim that ru’yah is possible and those who claim that it is impossible use the same verses as evidence. The issue is interpreting and understanding those verses differently. This shows us the difference between the issues that are essential in the religion of Islam and that are not included among the essentials. For, none of them who claim that ru’yah is possible or impossible can be accused of unbelief according to Islam. For, this issue is something that is not regarded about the essence of the religion; it is an issue that can be understood differently based on interpretations, understanding and basic principles. Therefore, both groups used the same verses as evidence. If it were one of the basic issues of Islam, such liberty and tolerance would not be possible and the same verses could not have been used by the same groups.

The Possibility of Ru’yah in the World: We know that rational evidences are used more in this issue. According to them, ru'yatullah is rationally possible. If the mind is left alone, away from temporary reasons, it decrees that ru’yah is possible, not impossible. For, the property of being visible is one of the common properties of things. Man naturally wants to see his Sublime Creator, whom he desires very much and who continues his life with this desire. In that case, the requirement of proving is valid for those who claim that He cannot be seen, not for those who claim that He can be seen. On the other hand, the discussion whether Allah Almighty can be seen or not is the proof of His visibility from another aspect.

There is another evidence regarding the issue of the possibility of ru’yah rationally called the evidence of wujud (existence); it can be explained as follows:

Man sees the being in the universe with his eyes and discriminates the differences with his eyes. For instance, he discriminates a between a person and a horse, between white and black with his eyes. We can reach this point from it: A common reason is necessary for the validity of ru’yah; they must be wujud (existence), huduth (creation) and imkan (possibility). We cannot think of another reason. We cannot reach a conclusion by saying a jawhar (substance) is a jawhar and an araz (attribute) is an araz. For, the occurrence of ru’yah cannot be proved through various reasons.

As for the issue of which one of these three reasons can be the common reason,

If we think of the reason of huduth, it consists of wujud though the previous form of huduth is regarded as non-existence. Adam (non-existence) cannot be a part of the reason. And huduth is transition from non-existence to existence; it is formation (happening). That is, it needs existence, in other words, wujud, during transition to existence. Therefore, the common reason in question cannot be huduth.   

As for imkan (possibility), it is related to both existence and non-existence. Non-existence cannot be seen. It is not possible for imkan, which is related to non-existence, that is, invisibility, to be the common reason. For, in imkan, both existence and non-existence is present equally.

In both huduth and imkan, non-existence is considered. Since it is clearly known that non-existence cannot be seen, neither huduth nor imkan can be the common reason.  

There remains only the reason of wujud; the possibility of seeing in the realm of senses originates from “existence”, not from any other thing. Since Allah Almighty exists and there is no doubt about it, Allah will be seen. His being seen is possible. On the other hand, a discussion is made about something that exists whether it can be seen or not. A discussion is not made for something that does not exist. If such a discussion is made, it indicates the property of visibility of that thing. (For a detailed discussion about this evidence, see Sırrı Paşa, Naqdul-Kalam fi-Aqaidil-Islam, İstanbul 1324, p. 147 ff.)

It will be appropriate to say the following here: The main point of discussion in this issue is the possibility of Allah being seen. That is, the issue of whether He has the property of being seen. It is not the claim that He will definitely will be seen in the world and by eyes. The discussion is whether it is possible in the world, not about its occurrence in the hereafter. This point especially needs to be stated and known.

Let us deal with verse 143 of al-Araf, which is used as evidence for the possibility of ru’yah in the world:

That verse mentions Hz. Musa's demanding ru’yah from Allah; the text of the verse is as follows:

"When Moses came to the place appointed by Us, and his Lord addressed him, He said: ‘O my Lord! Show (Thyself) to me, that I may look upon thee.’ Allah said: ‘By no means canst thou see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide in its place, then shalt thou see Me.’ When his Lord manifested His glory on the Mount, He made it as dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. When he recovered his senses he said: ‘Glory be to Thee! to Thee I turn in repentance, and I am the first to believe.’"

This verse is dealt with in two aspects in terms of proving and refuting ru’yah.

The First Aspect: It included Hz. Musa's asking for ru’yah and the discussions about it.

Hz. Musa's asking Allah to see Him is evidence that He can be seen. For, he clearly said, "Show Yourself to me so that I may look upon You." If ru’yah were impossible, Hz. Musa would have asked something that was not permissible for Allah; asking for something that is impossible for Allah is not an appropriate deed for a prophet.

It is possible to think of this wish of Hz. Musa's based on two possibilities:

1st possibility: Hz. Musa knew that it was impossible to see Allah but he asked for it; this is a very weak possibility since Hz. Musa is a prophet and it is impossible for him to be ignorant about oneness.

2nd possibility: Hz. Musa asked something like that without knowing that it was possible or not. This can happen in two ways:

a) Hz. Musa wanted something like that though he knew that it was not possible. It can be said that to say this cannot be thought for a prophet as it has just been mentioned. On the other hand, there are some verses in the Quran showing how Allah reproached some prophets who wanted things that were contrary to Allah’s law. For instance, When Hz. Nuh wanted to save his son from the deluge and when Hz. Adam and Hawwa wanted to eat from the fruits of the forbidden tree, Allah warned and reproached them. Something like that is not in question here in the wish of Hz. Musa. For, Allah did not reproach Hz. Musa when he wanted to see Him. He did not address him as He addressed Hz. Nuh: "Do not want something like that from me! I advise you. Do not be an ignorant person."

b) Hz. Musa wanted something like that knowing that it was possible. For, Allah did not address Hz. Musa as He addressed Hz. Nuh and Hz. Adam as it has just been mentioned. This indicates that Hz. Musa demanded something like that knowing that ru’yah was possible; this demand is an important evidence for the possibility of ru’yah.  

The Second Aspect: It includes the ru’yah being attributed to the stability of the mountain and the discussions about it.

As it has just been mentioned, Allah did not accuse Hz. Musa due to his wish unlike the incident of Hz. Nuh. He said, "You cannot see me but look at that mountain. If it remains stable, you will see me." This expression is evidence for ru’yah from another aspect.

Let us deal with this expression: The answer that Allah Almighty gave is interesting. If it were impossible for Allah to be seen, the answer to be given to the wish, “I want to see you” would have been “I am invisible” according to the rules of Arabic. Or the following answers could have been given: "It is not permissible and possible for me to be seen." "How do you want something that is not permissible and possible for me?" "I am not visible." Then, it is understood that the negativity here is not related to the deed but to the incomplete state in the demand and the person demanding it. The negativity of the state of the person is in question. (Jawharatut-Tawhid, p. 186; Ruhul-Beyan, III, 232-33). As a matter of fact, when Allah became manifest on the mountain, the mountain could not put up with it and broke into pieces.

If ru’yah had been rejected generally, such an answer would not have been given. For, if somebody said to a person who is holding a stone, "Give me that stone so that I will eat it" the answer to be given to him would be "This stone is not edible." The answer would not be "if such and such a person eats it, you can eat it too" or "do not eat this stone" as it is attributed to the stability of the mountain here. For, stone is not eaten.

Attributing ru’yah to the stability of the mountain is an evidence for proving ru’yah in another aspect: The mountain remaining in its place is something possible; before the manifestation, the mountain remained in its place. It is possible for the mountain to remain in its place or not. There is a rule of logic regarding the issue: "Everything that is attributed to something that is possible and permissible to happen is possible." Attribution to something that is possible is in question here. If attribution to something impossible like "It will take place if the fish climbs a poplar tree (if pigs fly)" or as it is mentioned in the Quran "It will take place ifthe camel can pass through the eye of the needle" (al-A 'raf, 7/40), were in question, it would be different. It is attributed to something that is possible and permissible here. In that case, ru’yah is possible and permissible.

We hold the view that ru’yah can be permissible in the world based on the explanations mentioned here and similar ones. What should not be forgotten is that the discussion about ru’yah is the permissibility of it; that is, the issue of possibility. We do not say that ru’yah will definitely take place while we are in this state. Such a claim necessitates very strong evidences; as it can be seen above, the deduction related to the verses is based on different explanations; the same verse is used by both parties. The conclusion they reach is based on different explanations.

The Necessity of Ru’yah in the Hereafter: Some verses are used as evidencerelated to the necessity of ru’yah in the hereafter. The reason why the necessity of ru’yah in the hereafter is mentioned here is because the state of the hereafter and Paradise are mentioned in those verses:

Allah Almighty states the following: "Some faces, that Day, will beam (in brightness and beauty);- Looking towards their Lord" (al-Qiyama, 75/22-23).

The strongest evidence about the necessity of ru’yah in the hereafter according to Ahl as-Sunnah is this verse. When the verses before this verse are viewed, and even the name of the chapter is considered, it will be seen that they mention the states of the hereafter. For, the name of the chapter is "al-Qiyama". The states of the hereafter are mentioned at the beginning of the chapter; the tragic states of the polytheists are mentioned up to one or two verses before this verse; then, believers and the states of Paradise are mentioned; this verse, which is related to ru’yah is mentioned there; it is stated that believers are very happy and joyful on that day. Thus, the occurrence of ru’yah is mentioned clearly.  

As for the discussions and views on the verse, it is possible to summarize them as follows:

Those who claim that ru’yah is not permissible – Mu’tazila madhab is the leading advocate of this view – state that the word "nazar" mentioned in the word needs to be interpreted as waiting not looking and that there are many examples of it in the Quran.

Ahl as-Sunnah says the word "nazar" is used in the sense of many other words along with waiting like hoping, showing compassion, taking a lesson, thinking and judging. However, the word "nazar" mentioned in this verse has a specialty because the preposition ila (at) and the word wujuh (human faces) are used together in the same sentence; as all linguists agree, this means seeing (ra-a-ya); it is accepted unanimously. Due to this unanimous agreement, Mu’tazila says the word ila mentioned in the verse is not a preposition but a noun meaning “boon”. For, they also know that there is an agreement on it. On the other hand, in terms of logical coherence, it is not possible to use this word in the sense of waiting, showing compassion, etc. For, Paradise is not a place of waiting; it is a place of blessing where rewards are given. Besides, waiting brings about boredom and weariness. However, the existence of such things in Paradise is unthinkable. The meaning compassion is not possible in terms of the usage of the phrase. For, according to the wording of the phrase, the slaves need to show compassion to Allah, which is a possibility that is impossible to think.    

In conclusion, as this verse indicates, ru’yah is necessary in the hereafter and believers will see Allah in a way that is not certain. We say in a way that is not certain because it is not possible to describe things that will happen in the hereafter and to say that they will be like this and that. The Prophet stated the following regarding the issue: "In Paradise, there are boons thateyes have not seen and that ears have not heard of." It is not appropriate to qualify and describe something that eyes have not seen and that ears have not heard of up to now. Such a description would only be a guess.

Another verse mentioned used in order to state whether ru’yah is possible or not is verse 103 of the chapter of al-Anam:

"No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision." This verse is put forward as a strong evidence by both Ahl as-Sunnah and Mu’tazila. The discussion originates mainly from the word "idrak" (grasping), which has several meanings. Idrak means to surround something that is limited. Something limited has boundaries and an end. Idrak takes place with these boundaries. Things like color, taste, pleasure and smell are like that. Each of them has aspects and boundaries peculiar to them.  To grasp them becomes possible only with it. In brief, idrak means seeing the boundaries of something and ru’yah means seeing in general. It is understood from the explanations that idrak is specific and ru’yah is general.

Fakhruddin Razi explains the relationship between idrak and ru’yah and their difference as follows:  

Ru’yah is divided into two: Firstly: when something that has limits and an end is seen with those limits and that end, it can be expressed by the word idrak. In that case, there might not be any difference between them. 

Secondly: when something that has no limits and end, it does not mean that it has been grasped (idrak). Accordingly, it is possible to say ru’yah sometimes takes place with idrak and sometimes separately from idrak.

If it is possible to use the word ru’yah in both cases and even if a person means both ru’yah in isolation and ru’yah together with idrak by saying, “I saw something”, it does not show that ru’yah is meant in isolation without idrak. 

We understand from it that ru’yah is general and idrak is specific. Therefore, the proof of something specific necessitates the proof of the general but the negativity of something specific does not necessitate the negativity of the general. Every idrak is ru’yah bot not every ru’yah is idrak.

If we view the relevant verse under the light of these explanations, we will see that Allah negates idrak in this verse but its negation does not necessitate the negation of ru’yah. In this verse, Almighty Allah states that He has no directions and boundaries and hence that eyes will not be able to grasp Him even if they see him. To see does not mean to grasp. For, if we grasped, Allah would be a limited being, which is something unthinkable for Allah. He has no boundaries and limits and He is beyond what we can think. In that case, the meaning of the verse can be expressed as follows: "Eyes cannot encompass the reality of Allah. He sees all eyes and encompasses them."

Another aspect that the verse is used as evidence is the aspect of Allah praising Himself. There is almost a unanimous agreement regarding the issue. If ru’yah were impossible, a praise with the statement "No vision can grasp Him" would not be in question like “non-existence”, which is not an issue of praise because it is impossible to see. If something is possible to see but if it is not seen because the conditions are not suitable, a praise is in question then. How can praise be in question if it is not possible to see? Besides, it is not possible to see according to that understanding.

In that verse, it is shown that He is visible but it is also indicated that the eyes to see Him are too weak to see Him under the circumstances of this world. What makes the eyes too weak to see him is Allah Himself. This is the point that necessitates praise. Accordingly, that eyes are too weak to see Him does not necessitate him being invisible. However, the eyes being unable to see Him though He is visible becomes a means of praise and pride fitting His power and majesty. He is the one that makes eyes too weak to see Him. However, He is also the one that will save them from weakness and give them the power to see Him when He wishes. It will take place in the hereafter. It will be the greatest blessing for believers.   

Another verse put forward as evidence for ru’yah is verse 26 of the chapter of Yunus:

“To those who do right is a goodly (reward)- Yea, more (than in measure).”

The reason why this verse is thought to indicate ru’yah is the phrase "more" mentioned in the verse being interpreted as "looking at Allah". This interpretation became stronger due to attribution to the Prophet and some Companions.  

When Ubayy b. Ka'b was asked the meaning of "more" in terms of attribution, he said, the Prophet (pbuh) said, it is "looking at the jamal of ar-Rahman."

Acting upon this attribution and similar ones, Ahl as-Sunnah scholars accept this verse as evidence for ru’yah.

As for the etymological interpretations on the verse, it is possible to summarize them as follows:

The word "al-Husna" mentioned in the verse has ‘al’ (the) before it; that is, it is a definite word. Therefore, it refers to a noun mentioned in the previous verse. The meaning of this verse together with the previous verse is as follows: But Allah doth call to the Home of Peace: He doth guide whom He pleaseth to a way that is straight. To those who do right is a goodly (reward)- Yea, more (than in measure)."

The place Allah invites people to is Darus-Salam (Home of Peace); that is, Paradise. Therefore, there is Paradise for those who do good deeds. As a matter of fact, the word husna is interpreted as Paradise by hadiths. In that case, “more” to be given to man with Paradise must be something different from Paradise. For, Paradise is given to man including all of its boons. Ziyadah (more) is something else. Otherwise, if what is meant by more was Paradise as Mu’tazila says, the same thing would be expressed with the same word, which would an unnecessary repetition.    

Fakhruddin Razi has a nice explanation about “ziyadah” being something different from the boons of Paradise:

"When something added to another thing is determined with a certain amount, 'ziyadah' needs to be of the same kind. However, if it is not determined with a certain amount, 'ziyadah' needs to be something different. For instance, if somebody says, 'I gave you ten kilos of wheat and ziyadah (more)', it is understood that this ziyadah is wheat. However, if he says, 'I gave you wheat and ziyadah (more)' without determining an amount, this 'ziyadah' here must be and is something different from wheat." (ar-Razi, Tafsir al-Kabir, IV, 333).

The phrase "Paradise (a goodly reward) and more " exists here. In that case, such a boon must be different from Paradise; it is ru’yah.

Another evidence is verse 15 of the chapter of al-Mutaffifin: "Verily, from (the Light of) their Lord, that Day, will they be veiled."

According to Ahl as-Sunnah, this verse also indicates ru’yah. The word “hijab”, which means to cover and to prohibit, is mentioned in the verse in order to threaten and frighten those who deny resurrection and the day of Reckoning. Something mentioned as a means of threat and fear for unbelievers cannot be thought for believers. Therefore, unbelievers will be prevented from seeing their Lord on the Day of Judgment. However, believers will see him. 

Ahl as-Sunnah and Mu’tazila accept that the word "mahjub" (veiled) in the verse means "mamnu" (prohibited) but they disagree about in which issue they are mahjub. Mu’tazila seems to accept that preventing someone from going over to a person and from seeing him is expressed by the word hijab but they do not accept the verse that expresses the same meaning fearing that it will lead to tajsim (embodiment) and tashbih (likening); they understand the verse as follows: "Unbelievers will be away from Allah's mercy and thawab. For, according to Mu’tazila, ru’yah is understood as the pupil of the eye turning toward a direction. In order to turn the eye toward something, that thing should be an object. Then, Allah needs to be an object in order to be seen. In that case, He cannot be seen. 

Acting upon the principle "it is not possible to abandon the apparent meaning of a verse unless there is definite evidence and to move away from it", Ahl as-Sunnah regards it as evidence for ru’yah by explaining the meaning as ru’yah. For, Ahl as-Sunnah scholars also agree that Allah is not an object and neither group has any doubts about it. However, Ahl as-Sunnah scholars hold the view that “the possibility of something being seen or not being seen does not depend on that thing’s being an object or not. As a matter of fact, colors are seen though they are not objects. What is not permissible to see is only "ma'dum" (what is non-existent). Since Allah is existent, it is not impossible for Him to show Himself to us.

There is an important point here; Ahl as-Sunnah has given a lot of importance to this issue. For, seeing the moon is an involuntary deed. We will see the moon willingly or unwillingly. It is like the difference between seeing and looking; seeing takes place involuntarily. There is no drawback to creating ru’yah; that is, Allah showing Himself. Allah creates it; if He wishes, He can create the deed of seeing. For, the issue is in the phase of permissibility here, not obligation. We do not have the right to introduce a drawback to it. On the other hand, His being invisible should not be seen as a deficiency.   

In conclusion, the issue of "ru'yatullah", which has an important place in Islamic creed, originates from the worry oftajsim and tashbih. For, Ahl as-Sunnah says, "Allah is visible" while Mu’tazila says "He is invisible."; both has the same worry and fear: the worry and fear of attributing tajsim and tashbih to Allah, which is an objectionable state in terms of the principles of creed. In other words, good will and the thought of not blemishing the majesty and loftiness of Allah lie in the mentality of both of them. Therefore, it is necessary to regard and evaluate the discussions and the views that are put forward about the issue within themselves and based on their wholeness.

On the other hand, this issue is not among the principles of tawhid (oneness), nubuwwah (prophethood) and ma’ad (resurrection), which are regarded as the essentials of the religion; they are not among the issues that are contrary to those principles. It can be said that if an issue is not included in one of these three principles, to think about it is encouraged in order to understand the wisdom behind it. For, the Quran displays quite a free and wide approach regarding the issue and it deals with these issues within the framework of encouraging “the understanding of the true nature of things”. What matters is the framework of thought to be within the framework of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet.

Abdurrahim GÜZEL

Will the people of Paradise speak to Allah?

- There are narrations that people of Paradise will be addressed by Allah and that they will speak to Him from time to time.

“Some faces, that Day, will beam (in brightness and beauty);- Looking towards their Lord” (al-Qiyama, 76/22-23),“Verily, from (the Light of) their Lord, that Day, will they be veiled.”(al-Mutaffifin, 83/15) Acting upon the verses above and some hadiths at the degree of mutawatir, Ahl as-Sunnah scholars agree unanimously that Muslims will see Allah in Paradise. Logically, seeing also necessitates speaking. 

As a matter of fact, the speaking of Allah with the people of Paradise are in question in the following two hadiths:
- Hz. Suhayb narrates: The Messenger of Allah said, “"When the people of Paradise enter Paradise, Allah will say to them, ‘Do you want anything else from Me; I will give it to you too.’ They will say, 'Have You not brightened our faces? Have You not put us in Paradise and saved us from Fire? (What else can we ask from You?) Then, Allah will remove the veil. Nothing dearer was given to them than the sight of their Lord, the Glorious.” [16] Suhayb said, “After that the Messenger of Allah read verse 26 of the chapter of Yunus: ‘To those who do right is a goodly (reward)- Yea, more (than in measure).’” (Muslim, Iman, 297-298)

- According to what Abu Said al-Khudri narrates, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “Allah will say to the people of Paradise, ‘O, Dwellers of Paradise!’ They will say in response, ‘At thy service and pleasure, our Lord! The good is in Thy Hand. He (the Lord) will say, ‘Are you well pleased now?’ They will say: Why should we not be pleased, O Lord, when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures? He will say, ‘Shall I give you (something) even more excellent than that? And they will say, ‘O Lord! What thing can be more excellent than this? And He will, I shall cause My pleasure to alight upon you and I shall never be afterwards annoyed with you.‘”(Muslim, Jannah, 9).

It means Allah will talk to people of Paradise though we do not know how.


14-) What are the Evidences of Existence of Allah? How can we prove the Existence of Allah?

Proving the existence of something is lot easier than proving the non-existence of something. We can prove the existence of the apple species on earth by showing only one apple. However, someone who claims the non-existence of something can only prove it by looking everywhere on earth and in the universe. And this is almost impossible. So we can say, non-existence cannot be proved.

No one can claim that it is impossible to enter a palace, which has 999 open doors and 1 closed door. A denier constantly wants to show that one closed door. In fact, that door is closed for the spiritual world of that denier and people like him/her due to the veil drawn before their eyes. There is no closed door for the believer unless he/she closes his/her eyes. Besides, 999 doors are open for everyone; they are wide open.

Let us present that door and some evidences:

The Evidence of Possibility: Possibility means having equal chances of existence and non-existence. In daily conversations, we use the Word “possible” to mean that something might or might not happen. All of the created beings expresses this reality: My existence and non-existence were equal (before I was created). If I do exist, it is because of the One who preferred my existence to my non-existence. And that can be only Allah.

The Evidence of Huduth (Being Created Later): Huduth means being created later. The biggest evidence of Huduth is change. If there is change in a being, there must be an initial point of this motion. Before that initial point, that thing was not in the field of existence. Since that thing is incapable of existing in non-existence on its own, it means this existence took place by the creation of Allah. According to laws of thermodynamics, incidents like matter constantly drifting toward non-existence, the universe constantly getting larger, the sun rapidly moving toward elimination demonstrate that this realm of existence had a beginning.

Art: From an atom to a human, from a cell to galaxies, there is a stunning art that stands out in the whole universe. Every work in the universe has the below listed qualities.

- It has a great value of art.
- It is very precious.
- It is done easily in a short time.
- It is in great numbers.
- It is miscellaneous and has varieties.
- It is constant.

In fact, there should not be art and value in things that are done easily, in great numbers, in a short time and in mixed ways.   However, if the maker is Allah, things change and complete opposites can come together.

Impossibility of dawr (circle) and tasalsul (chain of events): The impossibility of dawr is explained through the following the example: You ask a man who claims that the chicken made the egg, “Who made the chicken?” He will give the answer Egg. According to this claim, if we remove the chicken, the maker of an egg will be another egg, which is impossible. Tasalsul (chain of events), on the other hand, is a method of proving the existence of Allah by tracing something back to its first point in the chain and asking who made the first being. That is to say, this fruit was made by that tree, that tree came from a prior fruit, and that originated from a prior tree Thereby, we reach the first tree or to the first fruit and ask, ‘Who created this?’

The method of the Quran is far different from dawr, and tasalsul. The answer to the questions “Who made the egg?” or “Who made the fruit?” is directly “Allah created.”

It is proved that the causes (chicken, tree) that have no share from science, will, compassion, and mercy, that do not know man and that are not aware of wisdom and art have no effect on the creation of the consequences. Thereby, the evidence of dawr or tasalsul is not needed.

The Evidence of Wisdom and Purpose: There is a proper purpose, aim and usefulness in every being; no purposelessness, meaninglessness or anything that can be considered as wasting is observed in anything. However, there is no consciousness and cognizance in the realm of matter, in the world of plants and animals or in objects and incidents to follow this chain of purposes. In that case, the only reasonable way is to attribute this conscious functioning wisdom and purposes in the universe to God.

The Evidence of Solidarity: This realm is full of solidarity from rain helping the earth, to the sun helping eyes and to the air helping to clean the blood. The parties that help one another do not know one another. Therefore, causes cannot be the maker of these incidents.

Cleanliness: Cleanliness and purity in the universe as an independent proof tells us about God who is also called as al-Quddus (The Holy, The One who is pure from any imperfection). The bacteria that clean the earth, bugs, ants, and so many raptors; wind, rain, snow, icebergs and fish in the oceans, atmosphere in the sky, black holes in space, oxygen that cleans blood in our bodies and spiritual breezes that save our spirits from distress inform us about the name al-Quddus and manifest the Holy Being behind that name.

Faces: No human face resemble exactly to any of the billions of people who lived before him/her. This rule is valid for the people to come after him/her.  It is a mighty announcement that introduces God Almighty, who definitely knows every being He created down to their smallest details and who has the power to shape them however He wishes to the deafest ears, to draw billions of pictures that are similar to one another in one aspect and different from one another in another aspect, and to distinguish them from billions of pictures that can be like them  and put things in order out of infinite possibilities.

The Evidence of Nature and Conscience: There are numerous evidences and signs of knowing Allah in the nature and inborn characteristics of man; some examples are as follows: Human nature and conscience know that every blessing it receives  requires gratitude. If he/she has met a prophet or found the way of guidance, he/she expresses gratitude to Allah. Otherwise, he/she worships wrong deities. This worshipping takes place by the urging of human conscience.

The feeling of appreciation also exists in the human nature. Shows, exhibitions take place because of that feeling. As a necessity of his creation, man watches the stars displayed in the sky, the flowers and trees appearing on the ground, the gazelles and lions in the forests, the fish in the oceans and appreciates the perfection of the divine arts demonstrated on them.

History: The history of religions witnesses that humanity has never had an age without a religion. They believed in a religion, no matter whether it is wrong or even ridiculous, in almost every age and followed a spiritual system. Allah placed this feeling of belief in human nature and he is held responsible to believe in Him (Allah).

The Quran: Every evidence that proves that the Quran is the word of Allah also proves the existence of Allah. There are hundreds of evidences that the Quran is the word of Allah. They are all available down to the smallest detail in the related Islamic sources. All of these evidences say, “Allah exists” with their tongues peculiar to them.

Prophets: Every evidence that proves the existence of prophets and especially of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), who is the master of the two realms should be added to the evidences that prove the existence of Allah. For, the purpose of the existence of prophets is to announce tawhid, that is, the oneness and existence of Allah). Then, every evidence that proves the prophethood of every prophet proves the existence of Allah at the same time. Every evidence expressing that a prophet is a true prophet declares that “Allah exists and is one” with the same strength or even more.


15-) Will Allah give up punishing?

Do you think something like that can happen?

Wa’d means to promise in general, to promise about a good deed, bad deed, reward and threat, and about anything. As a term used in Creed and Kalam, it means the realization of what Allah promised.

The promises expressing evil or threat are called "Waid".

Paradise is Allah's wa’d and Hell is His waid.

- Scholars have different interpretations regarding the issue.

There are some scholars who think there is no difference between Wa’d and Waid and who say Allah needs to keep His promise regarding both cases.

There are also some scholars who hold the view that Wa’d and Waid are different and who say it is permissible for Allah not the keep His promise regarding Waid so as not to punish His slaves. (see at-Taftazani, Sharhul-Maqasid, 2/225-238)

- It is possible to mention the following evidence in order to support those who say Khulful-Waid (forgiving the punishment) is permissible for Allah:

a) Breaking Wa’d (the promise of giving rewards for good deeds) is something bad. Therefore, it is not possible to think of something like that for Allah. For, it is contrary to the understanding of justice.    

Khulful-Waid (forgiving the punishment) means to pass from justice to grace and grant. It means to pass from punishment to forgiveness. It is something nice and is permissible for Allah. (see Sharhul-Maqasid, ibid, Sheikh al-Usaymini, Majmuul-Fatawa, 8/220-221)

b) The promise of “punishment” mentioned in the Quran is for unbelievers only. The promise of reward is for believers.

Accordingly, those who regard Khulful-Waid (forgiving the punishment) permissible may have meant forgiveness for believers. 

Those who do not regard it permissible may have meant forgiveness for unbelievers.

Thus, it becomes possible to reconcile the views of the scholars in both groups. (see Sharhul-Maqasid, ibid, al-Usaymini, ibid)

c) “Allah forgiveth not (The sin of) joining other gods with Him; but He forgiveth whom He pleaseth other sins than this: one who joins other gods with Allah.” (an-Nisa, 4/116) It is stated in the verse above that all of the sins except polytheism/unbelief can be forgiven. Major sins are also included in this forgiveness. In that case, a major sin like killing is also included in it.

However, it is stated that the punishment for killing a believer unjustly is remaining in Hell forever. (an-Nisa, 4/93)

This shows that the punishments that the people who die as believers deserve can be forgiven. It means Khulful-Waid is permissible. (see Abu Talib al-Makki, Qutul-Qulub, 1/323)

d) According to a narration, the Prophet said, “Allah definitely keeps His promise of reward about a good deed. If He wishes, He keeps or breaks His promise of punishment about a bad deed.” (AbuYa’la, Musnad, 6/66; Abu Talib al-Makki, Qutul-Qulub, 1/323; Abul-Qasim at-Tabari, al-Lalakai, Sharhu Aqaidi Ahlis-Sunnati wal-Jamaa, 6/ 1154)

It is understood from this hadith that Khulful-Waid is permissible for Allah.


16-) What is the meaning and explanation of "Jalla Jalalauhu"?

Jalla jalalauhu is said when the name of Allah is uttered in order to show respect; it is peculiar to Allah. It means "His glory is so high."


17-) How can we know that Allah loves us? They say Allah loves us and that He loves us more than our mothers. Will you give information regarding the issue?

Ibn Umar narrates:

"We were with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in one of the expeditions. We stopped by a tribe. He asked them,

"Who are you?"

"We are Muslims," they said.

A woman was busy with putting wood into the oven in the ground and she had her son with her. When the flames rose, she moved her son away. Then, the woman approached the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and said,

"You are the Messenger of Allah. Is that right?" The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Yes!" The woman said,

"May my mother and father be sacrificed for you! Is Allah not the most merciful of the merciful?" The Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Yes!" The woman said,

"Is the mercy of Allah to His slaves not more than the mercy of a mother to her child?" The Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Yes, definitely!" The woman said,

"A woman will never throw her child into fire. How will Allah, who is more merciful, will throw His slaves into fire?"

Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) lowered his head crying. Then, he raised his head and said,

"Doubtlessly, Allah will not punish His slaves except the ones who deviate from the right path, who do not obey Him and who avoid uttering kalima at-tawhid."