How was the Quran reproduced and how did the Prophet send envoys to other countries?

Details of the Question

The Quran was reproduced and sent to other countries during the caliphate of Hz. Uthman. To whom were the copies delivered and how was it reproduced since there was no printing press?  How were the people of the world informed about the Prophet and how were the envoys sent?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

Answer 1:

There are various phases of the verses of the Quran being brought together. The Companions memorized the verses that were sent down during the Era of the Prophet. They were sometimes written on various things that could be found. When the religion was completed and revelation ended after the death of the Messenger of Allah, the idea of bringing the whole Quran together was put forward. This idea was supported more as the hafizes of the Quran died one by one due to various reasons and when new Arab tribes that accepted Islam started to pronounce the verses of the Quran in a way different from their original revelation due to the differences of dialect. Those incidents took place during the caliphate of Hz. Abu Bakr; as a result of Hz. Umar’s insistent proposition, a committee headed by Zayd b. Thabit managed to put all of the verses of the Quran together.    

About ten to twelve years passed before Hz. Uthman became the caliph; as a result of the conquests of new countries, the need for the copies of the Quran arose. The number of the people who entered Islam increased day by day in states like Basra, Kufa, Damascus and Egypt. The differences in pronunciation of the Quran in the places that were far away from the center and where Arabic was not the mother tongue caused confusion. Hz. Uthman made a right decision and demanded the copy of the Quran, which was put together during the caliphate of Hz. Abu Bakr and which had been kept by Hz. Hafsa, in order to reproduce it. He gave Zayd b. Thabit, Abdullah b. Zubayr, Sa'd b. As, Abdurrahman b. Harith b. Hisham the duty of reproducing the Quran. He sent the copies of the Quran that were reproduced to the main Islamic cities.

If it is taken into consideration that the holy books of Jews and Christians, which were sent as true religions before Islam, were distorted and changed, the service done by Hz. Uthman by reproducing the copies of the Quran as preventive measures is absolutely great. For, disagreements that start with minor points increase in the course of time and become impossible to solve in the end. When the disorders, revolutions and wars that affected the destiny of humanity in history are analyzed, it will be seen that minor disagreements underlay them in the beginning. If those disagreements occurred about a holy religion that would be valid until Doomsday, they would affect the origin of that religion.

Thus, with that thought and similar thoughts based on worries, Hz. Uthman reproduced the Quran. His service has been appreciated by many people. As a matter of fact, Abdurrahman b. Mahdi expressed his appreciation as follows:  

"Hz. Uthman had two features that distinguished him from Hz. Abu Bakr and Hz. Umar:

1) The attitude he showed until he was martyred.

2) Uniting Muslims on one Mushaf."

Answer 2:

The Prophet started to spread the religion of Islam to other cities and countries.

The Muhajirs among the Companions stood up and said,

"Send us wherever you wish. We will fulfill your order. By Allah, we will not oppose you about anything. Order us and send us wherever you wish."

Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) sent

1. Dihya b. Khalife al-Kalb to the Byzantine king Kaiser,

2. Abdullah b. Hudhafa as-Sahmi to the Persian Shah Kisra,

3. Amr b. Umayya ad-Damri, to the Abyssinian king Negus,

4. Khatib b. Abi Baltaa to the Alexadrian king Muqawqis,

5. Shuja' b. Wahb to Ghassan king Hawza b. Ali.

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