Is the existence of qadar and spiritual beings proved in the Quran?

The Details of the Question

- If yes, will you write about those verses and their interpretations?
- If no, is it not a deficiency for the Quran?

The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

a) The issue of qadar is dealt with in various verses in the Quran:

“Verily, all things have We created in proportion and measure.” (al-Qamar, 54/49),

“To every people is a term appointed: when their term is reached, not an hour can they cause delay, nor (an hour) can they advance (it in anticipation).” (al-A'raf, 7/34)

The verses above show that everything was determined beforehand.

Qadar is a part of Allah’s pre-eternal knowledge. It is a prerequisite for the infinite knowledge to know how something happened and will happen. Allah designed (so to speak), predestined and determined in His pre-eternal knowledge how and when everything would happen before creating them.

“Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth: with Him is the Mother of the Book.” (ar-Rad, 13/39)

“…Nor is a man long-lived granted length of days, nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Decree (ordained). All this is easy to Allah.” (Fatir, 35/11)

“He it is created you from clay, and then decreed a stated term (for you). And there is in His presence another determined term…” (al-Anam, 6/2)

In the verses above, those two types of ajal (determined period of life) are indicated. There are different interpretations of tafsir scholar regarding the issue. We have preferred this view. (see Alusi, Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of the verse in question)

“Have We not created you from a fluid (held) despicable?- The which We placed in a place of rest, firmly fixed, For a period (of gestation), determined (according to need)? For We do determine (according to need); for We are the best to determine (things).” (al-Mursalat, 77/20-23)

It is clearly emphasized in the verses above that man’s creation in the mother’s womb and his term there were predestined by qadar.

“And there is not a thing but its (sources and) treasures (inexhaustible) are with Us; but We only send down thereof in due and ascertainable measures.” (al-Hijr, 15/21)

It is emphasized in the verse above that the key to the treasure of everything is with Allah and it is indicated that everything was determined in due and ascertainable measures in Allah’s infinite knowledge.

Qadar is clearly emphasized in the statement “We only send down thereof in due and ascertainable measures”.

For instance, the treasure of rain is within the scope of Allah’s infinite knowledge and is with Him. However, divine qadar determined its annual, monthly and daily amounts.

For instance, the number of spirits exists in Allah’s infinite knowledge. This treasure, that is, the group in this spiritual realm, was determined by Allah’s wise qadar related to when and how many of them would be sent to bodies.  

For instance, the amount of good deeds and misfortunes to be sent to individuals and societies is certain in Allah’s infinite knowledge However, their annual, monthly and daily amounts are based on the amounts predestined in the pre-eternal knowledge.   

- The information about qadar exists in detail in our website in the form of answers to different questions and with different aspects. There is no need to repeat them; it is possible to refer to them.

b) Spiritual beings like jinn and angels are clearly mentioned in the Quran:

- There is a chapter called “JINN” in the Quran.

“He created man from sounding clay like unto pottery, And He created Jinn from fire free of smoke.” (ar-Rahman, 55/14-15)

It is clearly mentioned in the verses above that jinn were also created by Allah like men.

- There are many verses related to angels. One of them is as follows:

“Therein come down the angels and the Spirit by Allah´s permission, on every errand.” (al-Qadr, 97/4)

Spiritual beings are also mentioned along with angels in the verse above.  The word “Spirit” mentioned in the verse is generally stated to be “Jibril” but according to some scholars, it is a special being/community that is a being of a spiritual realm and that is called Spirit. (cf Mawardi, Razi, the interpretation of the verse in question)

- The existence of human spirit is mentioned in many verses:

“He Who has made everything which He has created most good: He began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay, And made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised: But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him something of His spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (and understanding): little thanks do ye give!” (as-Sajda, 32/7-9)

The human spirit and hence the existence of the realm of spirits are mentioned in the verses above.

- “They ask thee concerning the ‘Spirit’ (of inspiration). Say: ‘The Spirit (cometh) by command of my Lord: of knowledge it is only a little that is communicated to you, (O men!).'(al-Isra, 17/85)

Spirit is mentioned clearly in the verse above and it is emphasized that its real nature cannot be known by people.

“It is Allah that takes the souls (of men) at death; and those that die not (He takes) during their sleep: those on whom He has passed the decree of death, He keeps back (from returning to life), but the rest He sends (to their bodies) for a term appointed verily in this are Signs for those who reflect.” (az-Zumar, 39/42)

It is indicated in the verse above that spirit is not material, that it is a command of law, that it will be removed during that death and will not be sent to the world again, that it is removed for a certain period during sleep and released again – up to a certain period/to the time of death – , that spirit, hence, is an independent being, that it will not die with death and that it will remain eternal as Allah makes it eternal.

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