What are the Times of the Five Daily Prescribed Prayers?

Every sane, adult Muslim must perform the five daily prescribed prayers each within its own time. The Quran mentions these times. For example:
Establish the prayer at the beginning and the end of the day, and in the watches of night near to the day. Assuredly, good deeds wipe out evil deeds. This is advice and a reminder for the mindful who take heed. (11:114)

Establish the prayer from the declining of the sun to the darkness of the night, and (be ever mindful of) the Qurans recitation at dawn. Assuredly, the Qurans recitation at dawn is witnessed (by angels and the whole creation awakening to a new day). (17:78)
Bear patiently what they say, and glorify your Lord with His praise before the rising of the sun, and before its setting, and during some of the hours of the night glorify Him, and at the sides of the day, that you may become pleased with the reward which God shall give you. (20:114)

Glory be to God whenever you reach evening and whenever you rise in the morning. All praise is for Him in the heavens and on Earth, in the late afternoon, and whenever you reach the noon. (30:17-18)
These verses circumscribe the five prescribed prayers. The prayers to be established at the sides of the day, at its beginning and end from the declining of the sun to the darkness of night, are the noon and afternoon prayers. The original word for watches of night near to the day is zulef, which is plural. In Arabic, plural includes at least three things, so it can be concluded that it refers to the three prayers to be established during night (e.g., the evening, late evening, and dawn [early morning> prayers). These five prayers were prescribed for the Muslims during the Messengers Ascension in the ninth year of his Messengership, 4 years before the Hijra.

Verse 17:78 also alludes to the daily five prescribed prayers and each ones time. Declining of the sun means the suns passing its zenith, and therefore hints at the noon prayer. After the noon prayer, comes the afternoon prayer. Immediately after sunset and after night has fallen, the evening and late evening prayers are performed, respectively. The verse specifically mentions the dawn prayer because of its importance, and draws attention to reciting the Quran during it, for the Messenger, under Divine Revelation, used to lengthen his recitation during that prayer.

Some of the hadiths (i.e., Tirmidhi, Salat, 1) narrate the Messengers statements about the exact time of each prayer. According to these hadiths, as well as the practice of the Prophet and his Companions, the time of each prayer is as follows:
The fajr (dawn or early morning) prayer is performed from the break of dawn until sunrise.
The zuhr (noon) prayer is performed when the sun passes its zenith until a persons shadow is the same length as his or her height.
The asr (afternoon) prayer is performed when a persons shadow is the same length as his or her height and continues until the yellowing of the sun.
The maghrib (evening) prayer is performed as long as twilight lasts until the suns complete disappearance.
The isha (night) prayer begins with the end of twilight and continues until a short while before the break of dawn.
The Jumua prayer is performed during the time of the noon prayer on Friday.
The time of the Iyd (religious festive days) prayers is some three quarters after sunrise on Iyd days. Their time continues until the sun reaches its zenith.

The Times When Prayers Cannot Be Performed
During sunrise and sunset.
From sunrise until the sun has completely risen to the length of a spear above the horizon (approximately three quarters after sunrise).
When the sun is at its zenith until it moves slightly to the west.
After the afternoon prayer till the sun sets.
Prayers must not be offered during the approximately three quarters in the last three times in which praying is forbidden. However, if one has not been able to perform the afternoon prayer during its time, one can perform it until the sun begins to disappear in the west.

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