What are the situations that women can encounter during hajj (pilgrimage) and what are they supposed to do in those conditions?

The pilgrimage is fardh (obligatory) for all women and men who are healthy, wise and who can afford it. A woman must try to perform the pilgrimage when it is fardh for her as Muslim men do.
The pilgrimage has an important and special part in a womans life. As it is told in a hadithThe pilgrimage is the jihad of the women (1)

Among the conditions of the pilgrimage, women have a different and more special condition. That is; a woman who is about to have a journey for the pilgrimage is bound to have her husband or somebody whom she is never allowed to marry like her father, son, brother, uncle, son-in-law or her nephew with her.

According to the sect of Hanafi, it is not obligatory for a woman who has none of the people mentioned above with her to perform the pilgrimage and the journey is not religiously allowed. That restriction is not just for air flights. It is wrong for a woman to go somewhere that is religiously regarded as a journey without her husband or one of her close relatives.

However, it is different according to the sect of Shafii. According to that sect, it is enough for a woman to have her husband, or one of close relatives or two or more trustable women with her to have the journey for the pilgrimage. She can have the journey with them and perform the pilgrimage. A woman having no male close relatives with her can imitate the Shafii sect regarding that issue.(2)

Another problem that women may encounter during the pilgrimage is whether they will perform tawaf, say, waqfa, and similar duties when they are in the state of menstruation or puerperium.

In Sunan Tirmizi, in a hadith reported by Ibni Abbas, the Prophet says:
A woman who is in the state of menstruation or puerperium should have a shower, wears her pilgrimage dress, performs all of hajj duties, but cannot circumambulate the Kaaba till she gets clean.(3)

As it is clearly understood from the hadith, a woman who is in the state of menstruation or puerperium performs all her duties except tawaf. She does waqfa, which is one of the fundamentals of the pilgrimage, the say and stoning the devil. She performs her duties in Mina and Muzdalifa. However, she cannot get into any mosques, especially Masjid Haram. Essentially, women finish all the duties during the menstruation; after they get clean, they carry out tawaf ziyarah, which is an obligatory condition of the pilgrimage.

However, she may feel uneasy when she cannot get into mosques and haram sharif when the menstruation does not stop and causes to delay tawaf ziyarah and to leave the group. So, she had better take some measures so that she can do all the duties easily and will not have any trouble.

It can be done by taking some medicine to delay the menstruation. She can do that by taking a medicine advised by doctors who are specialists. It is possible and religiously allowed. That method used in the era of bliss (during the time of the Prophet)). At those times, a kind of water called araq juice was used to delay it. Abdullah bin Umar says there is no harm to use that water. Nowadays, it is possible to delay menstruation by using medicine.

References

(1) Ibni Majah, Manasik:8
(2) al-Mazahibu'l-Arbaa,1:636
(3) Tirmizi, Hajj:100

Reference: Mehmed Paksu Çağın Getirdiği Sorular( the problems that the age has brought)

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