What are the Essentials of the religion-Islam? Can you explain?

The essence of the religious evidence is the Book of God-the Glorious Quran-and the Sunnah. Sunnah is the action, which Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) did or sanctioned. Prominent judgments of our religion are taken from these two sources. In the time of our Prophet (PBUH) religious judgments were taken and learned directly from him. After the verses, which are the first wing of the religious evidence, were revealed, these verses were explained by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in person. Out of these explanations of our Prophet emerged the Sunnah, which is the second wing of the religious evidence. Because of the new issues that arose after the passing of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), two pieces of evidence were needed, namely ijma- uniting and agreeing upon an issue of the mujtahids that come in the same century and comparison. This became compulsory with the changing of time and events. If the judgment is clearly present in the Book-the Quran-then it is practiced accordingly; but if it is not, the Sunnah is applied to; if there too it is lacking, ijma and comparison are sought.

1- The Glorious Quran:

The first wing of the evidence of religion is the Quran. It is a divine Book and an endless source of salvation, which is the guide of the humanity. It is through obedience to the judgments, commandments and recommendations of this sacred book that humanity can achieve eternal bliss and guidance, because the religion of Islam has reached perfection with the Quran. The basis of the Sharia- the Islamic Law- is the Glorious Quran. The general rules of Islam are preset in it concisely. With the changing of time and place it experiences no chance whatsoever. As it has come from the pre-eternity, it will go to the past-eternity.

With the words of Bediüzzaman the Glorious Quran is:

The revealer of the treasuries of the Divine Names hidden in the heavens and on the earth, and the key to the truths concealed beneath the lines of events, and the tongue of the Unseen World in the Manifest World, and the treasury of the post-eternal favor of Divine Mercy and of the pre-eternal addresses of Divine Glory, which come from the World of the Unseen beyond the veil of this Manifest World; it is the sun, foundation, and plan of the immaterial world of Islam, and the sacred map of the worlds of the hereafter, and the expounding word, lucid exposition, decisive proof, and clear interpreter of the Divine Essence, Attributes, Names, and functions; it is the instructor of the world of humanity, and the light and water of Islam - the macroanthropos, and the true wisdom of mankind, and the true guide and leader urging humanity to prosperity and happiness

and it is both a book of law, and a book of prayer, and a book of wisdom, and a book of worship, and a book of command and summons, and a book of invocation, and a book of thought, and a unique, comprehensive Sacred Book, comprising many books, to which recourse may be had for all the needs of all mankind... So the Glorious Quran is not comprised only of the verses of Sharia and judgments. Only 500 verses out of 6666 are related to religious judgments. It is not possible to clearly find all the details of religious judgments and new issues that will arise in future, because they are recounted concisely and as general judgments. These verses in a form of essence were issued with their explanations through firstly Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and then through ijma and comparison.

2- The Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):

The biggest basis of Islam after the Quran is Hadiths of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his Sunnah. The Sunnah takes its power from the Quran and is the first-hand explanation of it. Mujtahids have derived religious judgments from Hadiths as they derived from the Quran. For this reason, the biggest real source of the religion of Islam is the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) after the Quran.

The need to handle this issue more extensively arose because some people who do not accept the Sunnah as religious evidence either because of their ignorance or because of their treachery have much disturbed the minds of believers.

The religion of Islam is based on two foundations, namely the Glorious Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet. The Harijis wanted to deny the Sunnah of the Prophet by saying We do not heed anything other than the Quran. It is enough for us. The Harijis are the first to acknowledge the Quran and deny the Sunnah. They did this because of their lack of perception. Some toady enemies also supported the same view with the intention of harming Islam by leading Muslims to doubt. They first tried to defame the Quran. As they failed in this, they slandered the personality of our Prophet as a new intrigue. They tried to pinpoint so-called defects and disgraces in his life. As they failed also in that, they resorted to disgracing the Sunnah by saying, the Quran is enough for us. These kinds of people are oblivious of the fact that God will protect the Quran and its explanation, the Sunnah of the Prophet; as is stated in the verse:

We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption). (Al-Hijr Surah, 15:9)

It is highly difficult to understand the Quran without first understanding the Hadiths and the judgments they put forth. In understanding the Quran, Hadiths and Sunnah are pre-requisite, because the Quran is the book of the judgments and rules, principles and methods of the Sharia. The Sunnah, on the other hand, is the explanation of it. For this reason, the way a mujtahid must take in finding the judgment of a problem is performing ijtihad with the help of these two independent sources, because the judgments the verses with general meanings include and the limitations of the ones revealed specifically are explained in Hadiths.

Some of the judgments in Quran are general while some others are specific. They do not contain explanations about details. Our Prophet, Hazrath Muhammad (PBUH) explained these verses. He clarified the judgments that are not clearly stated in the Quran, because one of his duties was to explain the Quran.

Abu Hanifa said, No one would understand the Quran if there was no Sunnah.

Shatibii says, The Sunnah explains the Quran; whoever sticks to the Book without knowing the Sunnah goes away from the Quran as well as from the Sunnah.

Ahmad Amin, on the other hand, makes this statement: There are many verses which have either close or open meanings. The words and practice of the Prophet explain these. The conduct of the Prophet explains the prayers-performed five times a day-, its time and nature, which are mentioned in the Quran as a summary. The Quran has forbidden wine; its intention with wine and its measures are explained by Hadiths.

The expression and meaning of the Quran came from God through revelation; however, the expression of the Sunnah belongs to the Prophet. The Sunnah and Hadiths explained many verses.

In the Glorious Quran, many verses that declare daily prayers five times a day and zakaat- distribution of one fortieth of one's income as alms (one of the five pillars of the Islamic faith) compulsory are briefly stated. Explanations about how these should be performed are not present in the Quran. We can find these explanations in the Sunnah.

In one of his Hadiths, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) says, Pray the way you see I am praying. This means that the fashion Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) prays is the explanation of the commandment of prayer in the Quran.

Imran bin Husayn said to someone who denied the Sunnah: Can you see in the Quran that the night prayer is composed of four series, the evening prayer three series, the Morning Prayer two series, and the noon and afternoon prayers are composed of four series each? He answered no. Imran said, Where did you get these? Have you not taken these from us and we from the Prophet? Imran said again, Can you find in the Quran giving one sheep out of forty as zakaat? The man answered again: no. And Imran said again: Where did you get this? Have you not taken it from us and we from the Prophet? and increased the examples. Then he recited the verse: Take whatever the Prophet has given you and refrain from whatever he has forbidden you from. and said: We have taken many unknown things from the Prophet.

If the Sunnah had not explained the Quran, then it would have stayed as a theoretical book and would have been open to the arbitrary evaluation of people. Thus, discord would be the result instead of unity. This perspective is clear in the Quran. For this reason, the need of the Quran for the Sunnah is no less than the need of the Sunnah for the Quran.

Therefore, both the Quran and the Hadiths are the fruits of revelation. However, the Quran came in the highest rank of the revelation, because as both the expression and the meaning of it are from God, it is of the first rank; however, in understanding and practicing it, Hadiths and the Sunnah are prominent. That is because it is possible to understand the essential truths that Quran brought about only through the Sunnah. Therefore, it is also compulsory to stick to the judgments Hadiths and the Sunnah have brought about and to apply them to our personal and social lives, because the Sunnah is the explanation and declaration of the Book-the Glorious Quran.

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