Prophet Dawud [David] (Peace be upon him)
(O Muhammad!) Have patience at what they say, and remember Our Servant Dawud, the man of strength: for he ever turned (to Allah). (Sa’d, 17).
HZ. ISHMOIL (SAMUEL)
In the history of Children of Israel, the period of judges started after the death of Yusha (Joshua). The last judge of this period was Hz. Ishmoil.
During the period of Hz. Ishmoil, Children of Israel transgressed bounds and deviated. Allah Almighty sent them Jalut (Goliath), a cruel enemy as a punishment.
Jalut was a cruel and merciless king of Amaliqas with a well-built and big body. He defeated Children of Israel with a sudden attack and invaded most of the Palestinian land.1 He enslaved some of Children of Israel and imposed heavy taxes on some of them. The others had to live in a very narrow area.
Jalut also grabbed the Tabut (the Ark of the Covenant), which was the symbol of independence for Children of Israel. (*)
Children of Israel, who lost their land, property and, the most important of all, their freedom, wanted these troubles to end as soon as possible.
They thought and talked to one another about the issue. They sought ways of getting rid of the oppression of Jalut and obtaining their independence. The only solution they found was to find a wise, brave and authoritarian commander that could overcome Jalut and to fight against Jalut under the command of him.2
They applied to the Prophet Ishmoil immediately:
"Pray your Lord and ask him to send us a commander. We will gather around him. We will fight in the way of Allah all together."3
The Prophet Ishmoil knew that Children of Israel were an ungrateful and unreliable nation; so, he thought they would not be very insistent in the end. He told them about his doubt and anxiety:
"What will happen to you if you do not fight when war is rendered fard for you?"
Children of Israel answered as follows:
"Why should we avoid fighting? You see that we have lost everything. We were expelled from our homeland; we lost our families and children. Is there anything else to do other than fighting the enemy for salvation? "4
Thus, Children of Israel promised that they would fight under the command of a king that would be sent to them.
Hz. Ishmoil, prayed Allah due to the insistence of his nation. He asked Allah to appoint a king to rule them. Allah Almighty told him that He appointed Talut (Saul) among them as the king.
When the Prophet Ishmoil informed his nation about Allah’s decision, some objections arose at once. Especially, the rich and the noble people said,
"Talut is a poor and needy man. How can a poor man who is not noble rule us? We deserve to be a ruler. One of us should be the king."5
What they did was ingratitude and fickleness. They wanted a king but they opposed to the king when he was appointed. The excuse they put forward for their objection was illogical. Being a good commander and a king had nothing to do with richness and nobility.
Hz. Ishmoil answered their objections as follows:
"Allah chose him for you. He gave Talut great power in terms of knowledge, authority and courage. Know it very well that Allah gives kingdom to whomever He wishes. What you need to do is to obey him.6
Thus, he aimed to make Children of Israel think justly and conscientiously by uttering those sentences. To object Talut meant to object Allah since Allah appointed him. Besides, Talut had enough knowledge, policy, power and authority for war and administration. These were the necessary qualities for being a commander and a ruler, not nobility and richness.
It is narrated that the real name of Talut was Ibn Qays and that he was given the nickname Talut, which is derived from "tul" (tall, long) in Arabic because he was superior to others in terms of tallness.7
Children of Israel did not want to accept the kingdom of Talut. They said,
"How do we know that Allah chose him? You must show us a miracle to prove it." Hz. Ishmoil said,
"Wait for a while. This miracle will take place. The Ark of the Covenant, which contains our holy things, will be returned to you.8
THE HOLY CHEST: THE ARK OF THE COVENANT
Jalut, who grabbed the Ark of the Covenant, the symbol of independence and source of peace for Children of Israel, put it in a dirty place with the intention of insulting.
After making Talut the king, Allah Almighty sent a big misfortune to the people of Jalut. Those who urinated in front of the Ark of the Covenant caught a fatal disease and died. Amaliqas lost a lot of people because of it. Then, the people realized that the cause of the deaths was the Ark of the Covenant. They put the Ark of the Covenant on two oxen and released them. The oxen went directly to the house of Talus as an irony of fate. Talut took the Ark of the Covenant and showed it to his nation. Then he put it in its previous place.
Upon this incident, Children of Israel had to accept the kingdom of Talut.9
ALLAH TESTS TALUT'S ARMY THROUGH A RIVER
Talut ordered Children of Israel to prepare for the war. They started to make preparations immediately. A big army was formed soon. Hz. Dawud, his father and children were also in the army. At that time, Dawud was a little child. He joined the army to give water to soldiers, to cook food and to look after the wounded soldiers during the war.
Just before the army moved, Talut addressed them as follows:
"O Children of Israel! Allah will test you at a river; those who drink of its water abundantly are not of me. Those who do not drink are of me. Allah will definitely reward them. Drinking a mere sip out of the hand is excused."10
Allah was going to test Talut's army through a river. Their obedience to their commander was going to be tested. An army that was not going to obey its commander would be of no good.
Talut was able to cross the river with a few soldiers that obeyed him. (*) Most of the army remained on the other side of the river and could not cross the river because they drank a lot from the water of the river.11 Those who could not cross the river addressed those who crossed the river as follows:
"Today we do not have enough strength to fight Jalut and his soldiers. Give up fighting them.”12
With those words, they wanted to discourage the believers who crossed the river and to make them give up fighting . For they would not have any shares if they won the war. They envied those who crossed the river and did not want a victory in which they did not contribute.
The obedient soldiers who crossed the river answered them as follows:
"A small group often overcame a big one by Allah's will. Allah is with those who steadfastly persevere.”13
HZ. DAWUD ENCOUNTERS JALUT
After a while, Talut’s small but sincere and determined army encountered Jalut’s army. The enemy army was really crowded and well armed.
When they saw the situation, the soldiers in Talut's army started to pray Allah by opening their hands:
"O Lord! Give us patience. Increase our resistance and courage. Help us against this group of deniers.”14
* * *
According to the war tradition of that time, it was necessary for one person from each army to fight each other before the war started. Jalut himself proceeded from the enemy army. He had an imposing and terrifying appearance. He had his armors and weapons on. He addressed Talut's army confidently:
"O Talut! why should we kill our soldiers in vain? Send one of your soldiers to fight me. If I beat him, you will be regarded to have lost the war. If I lose, you will be regarded to have won."
Talut turned toward his soldiers and asked,
"Who wants to fight Jalut?"
Nobody wanted to fight. Everybody was afraid of the terrible strength and big body of Jalut. Nobody dared to fight him.
Meanwhile, something unexpected happened. When little Dawud saw that the soldiers were afraid and cringed, he came forward among the ranks of the soldiers.15 He shouted,
"O Jalut! I will fight you!" Jalut looked at the small child facing him and laughed. He said,
"O little child! Go back! I do not want to kill you. Tell the older ones to encounter me." Thus, he made fun of Talut's army. The little Dawud insisted:
"No, I will fight you. If you have courage, attack me."
THE SLINGSHOT STONE THAT KILLED JALUT
Jalut got angry and said,
"I will crush you like a fly." He attacked little Dawud furiously. Little Dawud was a good slingshot user. He picked a big stone and placed it on his slingshot. He took aim and threw it toward Jalut, who was coming toward him furiously. The stone Dawud threw with his slingshot hit Jalut on the forehead, making him fall down unconsciously. Little Dawud did not miss this opportunity. He ran toward him, climbed on him and killed him with his sword.16 After that, he cut off Jalut's head and put it on the tip of his sword. Then, he raised it.
When Amaliqas saw that their king Jalut’s head was cut off, they panicked. They started to flee from the battlefield by crushing one another.
After that, Children of Israel managed to purge the enemy that panicked from the holy land of Palestine. They became independent again.
Hz. Dawud came from the descendants of Yahuda, son of Hz. Yaqub.17 His father's name was Isa.18 He herded sheep and used his slingshot very well. He was chivalrous and courageous.19
Hz. DAWUD BECOMES THE KING AND A PROPHET
Hz. Dawud, who killed Jalut, became a national hero at once. He attained the love of Children of Israel. Talut took him to his palace. When Dawud grew up, Talut married his daughter off to him.20
When Talut died, Hz Dawud became the king of Children of Israel as Talut bequeathed. He started to rule Children of Israel.
All of the twelve clans of Children of Israel accepted the kingdom o f Hz. Dawud.
After a while, Allah Almighty gave Hz. Dawud the duty of prophethood too.21
Thus, Hz. Dawud became the first prophet who was also a king.
When Hz. Dawud became the king, he formed a big army. He purged the enemy from Palestine completely. He made Quds (Jerusalem) the capital city. He also conquered several cities and regions like Amman, Aleppo, Nusaybin and Armenia.22
Allah Almighty gave Hz. Dawud a holy book called the Psalms so that he would guide his nation.23
The Psalms is one of the four great books. It consists of 150 chapters; it does not have commands and prohibitions or parts related to decrees. It generally contains advice, glorifications, dhikrs and hymns.24
The Psalms was sent to the Prophet Dawud in Hebrew in Ramadan.
The Prophet Dawud ruled his nation in accordance with the shari'ah of Hz. Musa like the other prophets of Children of Israel.
A PROPHET THAT MADE HIS LIVING BY MANUAL LABOR
Hz. Dawud was a righteous prophet who had taqwa and sought Allah's consent in everything he did. He liked worshipping a lot. He fasted every other day. He woke up in the middle of the night to beg and pray Allah.25
This enviable and nice lifestyle of Hz. Dawud was praised in the Quran and advised as exemplary for the ummah of Muhammad (pbuh) as follows:
"…And remember Our Servant David, the man of strength: for he ever turned (to Allah).”26
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following regarding the issue:
“The most beloved fasting is the fasting of Hz. Dawud; he fasted every other day. The most beloved prayer (salah) for Allah is the prayer of Hz. Dawud. He slept in the middle of the night, woke up in one third of the night and slept again in one sixth of the night.”27
Dawud sometimes walked around in disguise among people and asked the people he met,
"Are you pleased with the administration of Dawud?" Thus, he learned the ideas of the people about his administration and acted accordingly.
Once, he changed his clothes and started to walk in disguise. He met a person with a luminous face. He asked him the same question:
"What kind of a person is Dawud? Are you pleased with him?" He received an unexpected answer from the man:
"Dawud is a good man but he has a fault. He receives the money for his and his family's sustenance from the Treasury. I wish he earned his living himself."
This statement caused confusion in his brain and made him feel embarrassed and he bowed.
When he looked up in order to ask him what he should do, he saw that the person had disappeared. It was obviously a divine warning. Allah Almighty sent him an angel to remind him that 'the best earning for man was what was earned through his own efforts'.
He started to pray Allah Almighty to show him a way of earning his living. Thereupon, Allah Almighty put iron under his command as a miracle. He taught Dawud how to soften and forge iron like dough using his hands.28 Hz. Dawud started to soften iron with his hands and made armors, swords and various weapons. Then, he sold them to earn his living. He did not receive any money from the Treasury after that.
It means the best way of earning one's living is doing something with your hands. Therefore, the Prophet (pbuh) said,
"Hz. Dawud earned his living by his hands and efforts.”29
THE MIRACLES GIVEN TO THE PROPHET DAWUD
Allah gave the Prophet Dawud several miracles and equipped him with various merits. Some of them are as follows:
l. Beautiful voice:
Allah Almighty gave the Prophet Dawud such a beautiful and moving voice that when he started to glorify Allah by reciting the Psalms, all beings including mountains, stones and birds started to glorify together with him.30
This issue is indicated as follows in verse 10 of the chapter of Saba:
“O Mountains! Sing back the Praises of Allah with him! And birds you also.” Thus, we granted him bounties.
Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır states the following while interpreting this verse:
"Hz Dawud was given such a nice voice and such a wonderful style that the mountains and birds joined him when he glorified Allah in the morning and in the evening.
It means nice voice and beautiful style was a special characteristic of Hz. Dawud and a miracle of his, which enthused mountains and stones and which gathered birds. Therefore, both Dawud's voice and mizmars (songs with a melodious voice) are famous.
There were some people who thought this fine art, reciting something with a melody, was dispraised in Islam. However, it is necessary to know that what is dispraised is the music that excites carnal and sensual desires. Reading the Quran with a nice voice and intonation is something ordered by the shari'ah. There are a lot of hadiths regarding the issue in sound books.
Since sound is vibration of air, the effect and excitement caused by music on man directly is an organic and neural effect like a kiss. It is not spiritual. Taghanni (reciting in a melodious voice) can have a spiritual property only when it serves to convey the meaning of a word to the spirit. Sinners always seek material excitement through sensual issues; so, they kill the meaning and seek bodily effects through melodies that excite carnal feelings. This kills spiritual consciousness. Maybe it is a pleasure for a sinner to be an unconscious drunk by leaving consciousness behind. However, this is not the pleasure that the religion and the shari'ah want to give; they want to make man lead a holy and conscious life with a nice meaning.
The owner of the shari'ah (Allah) wants the voice to be beautified with taghanni while the Quran is being recited. However, one should not read by distorting the verse, forgetting the meaning, and following the beauty of the voice only through the voices and melodies of sinner; it is necessary to read the Quran without distorting the tajwid and fluency of the words and by conveying the meaning with the subtleties of its rhetoric to make people lead a conscious life; it is defined as "luhun al-arab" in the science of the hadiths of the Prophet and "tajwid" in the science of reading the Quran.
Thus, when we read the Quran with taghanni, we experience the miracle of Hz. Dawud. As a matter of fact, the Prophet praised a person who read the Quran in a nice way by saying, “He was given a mizmar (sweet melodious voice) of Hz. Dawud’s mizmars (mazamir).”31
This miracle of Hz. Dawud’s, which fascinated mountains and stopped flying birds, was not abstract melodies consisting of a simple sound game but holy glorification presented to Allah by the spirit.”32
In the book called İşaratül-i’caz (Signs of Miraculousness), when the phrase "wa ala sam’ihim" (and on their hearing) in verse of the chapter of al-Baqara is interpreted, the decree of shari'ah about music and melodious sounds is determined as follows:
"Some sounds were rendered halal and others haram by the shari'ah. Yes, the sounds and voices that induce lofty sorrows and divine love are halal. The sounds and voices that excite orphan-like sorrows and carnal feelings are haram. The parts that were not determined by the shari'ah are decided based on the effect they have on the spirit and conscience.”33
2. Softening iron in his hand and forging it as he wished:
Allah Almighty taught the Prophet Dawud the art of softening iron like doughand forging it as he wished.
Thanks to this, the Prophet Dawud made armors and weapons; he sold them to earn his living.
Iron was started to be melted before the time of the Prophet Dawud but the deed of forging iron and making fine things like armors started with the Prophet Dawud. Therefore, it is possible to regard him as the founder of ironmongers.
The Prophet Dawud softened iron in his hand without melting it as a miracle. Other people melted iron and forged it in a way that is similar to Hz. Dawud's miracle.
Allah Almighty praised the art of making armors in the Quran and encouraged people to learn the art of making instruments of defense. For, this art serves to protect man, who is the most honorable creature in the eye of Allah, from death. Therefore, a person who makes armor is regarded to be better than a person who makes attacking weapons like swords. Those who invent a new weapon may be regarded as useful for humanity but those who find a way of protection from that weapon are more useful.34
One of the chapters of the Quran is called al-Hadid. Hadid means iron. The following is stated in verse 25 of this chapter:
“...And We sent down Iron, in which is (material for) mighty war, as well as many benefits for mankind...”
The reason why iron is mentioned so much in the Quran is to draw attention to it and to encourage man to work on iron. Thus, the Quran draws attention to iron, which forms the basis of industry and national defense today, and to arts related to iron 14 centuries ago.35
The following is stated in Sözler (Words) regarding the issue:
“These indicate that the softening of iron is one of the greatest of Divine bounties, through which is shown the virtue of one of the greatest Prophets. Indeed, softening iron, that is, making it soft like dough, and smelting copper, and finding minerals and extracting them is the origin and source, and basis and foundation of all man's material industries. And so, this verse indicates: "A great bounty bestowed on a great Prophet and Divine Vicegerent on Earth in the form of a great miracle was the softening of iron. And making it soft like dough and fine like a thread and smelting copper are the means to most of the general industries." Since wisdom was given to the tongue of one who was both Prophet and Vicegerent, that is to one who was both a spiritual and material leader, and craft and industry were given to his hand, just as it is explicitly urging towards the wisdom on his tongue, so too there is a sign that it is also encouraging towards the craft in his hand. Through the allusive tongue of this verse, in meaning Almighty Allah is saying:
"O Sons of Adam! I gave such wisdom to the tongue and heart of one of My servants who obeyed my commands and obligations that he passed judgment on everything with perfect clarity and displayed the truth. And I gave him such art that he could turn iron into every shape in his hand like wax. It obtained important power for his vicegerency and kingship. Since it was possible, it was given. It is both important, and you are in much need of it in your social life. If you too obey my commands in creation, that wisdom and craft will be given you too. In the course of time you will reach it and draw close to it."
Thus, man's greatest progress in regard to industry, and his achieving greatest power in regard to strength, is through the softening of iron and smelting of copper.” (Sözler, 238-239)
3. His administration is strengthened by Allah:
It was understood by the following incidence that Hz. Dawud received Allah's help in his administration:
Once, a man applied to Hz. Dawud and accused his neighbor of stealing his ox. The neighbor refused this accusation. The plaintiff had no witnesses or evidence.
Hz Dawud was ordered to kill the defendant in his dream. This order was repeated three times. Hz. Dawud informed the defendant about the order. The man said nobody could be killed without a witness, evidence and trial. Hz. Dawud said that the order was definite. When the defendant saw that he had no hope of salvation, he made the following confession:
O Prophet of Allah! I did not steal this man's ox. I am innocent in this case. However, I had killed his father beforehand. Nobody knew that I was the murderer. Allah ordered you to kill me because of this secret murder, not because of the stolen ox.
Upon this confession, the man who was accused of theft was sentenced because of murder. With his execution, justice was done.
The incident was heard by all Children of Israel soon. The people thought that Hz. Dawud knew about all crimes whether they were committed secretly or openly.
The strongest state of that time was the state of Hz. Dawud. It is stated that Hz. Dawud had a lot of guards and that they protected his throne.36
4. Hz. Dawud divided his time into four:
a — He allocated one day for his worship, prayer and dhikr. He did not do anything else on that day unless there was something urgent.
b — He allocated one day for dealing with the legal issues of his nation. Defendants and plaintiffs came to him on that day and he decreed about them. Everybody returned home happily as their cases were settled.
c — He allocated one day for preaching and advising people.
d — He allocated one day for doing his personal work.
DEATH OF THE PROPHET DAWUD
Hz. Dawud was both a king and a prophet for 40 years. Allah Almighty granted him many bounties during this period. The biggest bounty was his son Sulayman (Solomon). When the Prophet Dawud died, Sulayman was 12 years old.37
It was stated by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) that Hz. Dawud died at the age of 100.38
STORIES ABOUT THE PROPHET DAWUD
REMARKS OF WISDOM
According to a narration, Allah said to Hz. Dawud,
"Make my slaves love Me." Hz. Dawud asked,
"How shall I do it?" Allah said,
"By reminding them the bounties I granted to them. For, they like only those who do them favors."39 As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a proverb:
“Man is the slave of a grant.”
Allah said to Hz. Dawud, “I will find a way to any person who relies on me and does not seek the help of others even if everything is against him.”40
* * *
Allah said to Hz. Dawud:
"O Dawud! The time that my slave needs me the most is when he turns his face away from me. This is the time when I pity him the most. The time when I elevate him the most is the time when he turns toward me.”41
* * *
Allah said to Hz. Dawud:
"If a person who says he loves me sleeps all night, he is regarded to have lied. A person wants to see his beloved one when nobody is around.”42
* * *
The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,
"The like of the bounties given to Hz. Dawud are given to a person who are given the following three things:
1) Justice when one is furious and calm.
2) Thriftiness when one is in welfare and in hardship.
3) Fearing Allah when he is alone and when he is with others.”43
* * *
Zayd bin Arkam narrates the following:
One of Dawud's children died and he felt very sorry. Thereupon, Allah asked him,
"How valuable was this child to you?" He said,
"As much gold as the earth's surface can hold that I can spend in the way of Allah." Allah said to him,
"You will be given the same amount of reward in the hereafter due to the misfortune that hit you in the world." 44
* * *
Luqman often visited Hz. Dawud. He saw Hz. Dawud making armor out of iron. Luqman had not seen something like that before; he wondered what it was. He wanted to ask but his understanding of wisdom prevented him. He could not ask Dawud about it. When Hz. Dawud finished making it and put it on, he said,
"This is a nice armor for wars." Thereupon, Luqman said,
"Silence is wisdom but the number of the people who know to keep silent is very few. Thanks to silence, a person finds out about the thing he wonders without asking any questions."
According to a narration, he visited Hz. Dawud for a year in order to find out what he was making.45
* * *
Once, Hz. Dawud said to Allah Almighty,
"O Lord! There is no hour in which a person from Children of Dawud does not worship you. They either perform prayers, fast or mention your name." Thus, he boasted about his family. Allah warned him as follows:
"O Dawud! Why was this given to them? It is only my grace. If it were not for my help, they would not be able to do any of them on their own.”46
* * *
Allah revealed the following to Hz. Dawud:
"O Dawud! Tell Children of Israel that I do not look at their prayer and fasting. I look at whether they abandon something they doubt for my sake or not. I help those who do so and I praise them in the presence of my angels."47
* * *
Hz. Dawud said,
"O Lord! What should I do in order to attain the love of people without preventing my commitment to you?”
"Get on with people according to their abilities. As for us, do not abandon doing good things." The following is stated in another narration: "Get on with the men of the world based on worldly ethics; get on with the men of the hereafter based on otherworldly ethics."48
* * *
"Music affects the heart. A person who is not affected by music is ill and his mood is bad. The apathy and coarseness of this man is worse than birds, camels and all animals. For, all of them are affected by melodies. As a matter of fact, birds stood over Dawud's head in line in order to listen to his beautiful voice."49
* * *
When Hz. Dawud started to preach, he would cry and make the listeners cry; he would feel so sad and make his listeners so sad that sometimes some listeners would die. He cried both by words and sounds. It is acceptable because it leads people to good deeds. Anything that leads to good deeds is acceptable. Therefore, it is not forbidden for a preacher to recite poems that soften the heart with a beautiful voice. It is permissible for a preacher to cry and try to make the listeners cry.50
* * *
Allah addressed Dawud as follows in the Psalms:
"O Dawud! If a plaintiff and a defendant appear before you, do not incline toward either of them. Do not think, 'I hope this one or that one will win.'
O Dawud! I sent my prophet to people like camel shepherds herding camels. For, they know how to act with justice and how to control people. Their duty is to fix what is broken and to lead the weak ones to water and meadows."51
* * *
Allah revealed the following to Hz. Dawud:
"O Dawud! Show patience when you face a trouble so that Allah’s help will reach you."52
* * *
Hz. Dawud advised his son as follows:
"O my son! Do not underestimate your enemy even if there is one enemy. Do not overestimate your friends even if you have one thousand of them."53
* * *
It is reported that Hz. Dawud addressed his son as follows:
"Three things indicate that a person has taqwa:
1. To rely on Allah for things that he has not obtained yet.
2. To be content with what he has.
3. To show patience and tolerance when he loses something.54
* * *
The following is one of the prayers of Hz. Dawud:
"O Allah! I want four things from you and I take refuge in you from four things:
What I want:A tongue that mentions you, a heart that thanks you, a body that shows patience and a spouse that helps me.
From what I take refuge in you:A shameless child that acts as if he is my master, a disobedient wife that makes me old ahead of time, a property that is a load of sin for me and a bad neighbor that conceals my good deeds and reveals my bad deeds."55
* * *
According to what Daylami reports from Ibn Umar, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “It does not fit anyone to say I am a more obedient servant than Dawud.”
1 Ahmet Cevdet Paşa, Kısas-ı Enbiya, I/33
(*) The object expressed as Tabut (the Ark of the Covenant) in the Quran is a big chest containing some things that are regarded as holy by Children of Israel. It was handed over from person to person from the time of Hz. Musa and symbolized the independence and freedom of Children of Israel.
2 ibid, I/33; M. Vehbi, I/44; Muhammed Hamdi Yazır, I/828
3 al-Baqara, 246
4 al-Baqara, 246
5 al-Baqara, 247
6 al-Baqara, 247
7 M. H. Yazır, ibid, I/830
8 al-Baqara, 248
9 Muhammed Hamdi Yazır, I/831; Bilmen, I/257; Mehmed Vehbi, I/447-448.
10 al-Baqara, 249.
(*) Al-Bara says, "Hz. Prophet said that the number of the Companions that took part in the Battle of Badr was the same as the number of the people that crossed the river with Talut, that is, over 310. (Bukhari, Maghazi, V, 5)
11 Muhammed Hamdi Yazır, I/835
12 al-Baqara, 249.
13 al-Baqara, 249
14 al-Baqara, 249... Thousands of historical incidents witness that so many communities with very few people overcame communities with so many people lacking unity and solidarity thanks to a real and sincere unity and solidarity. One of those historical incidents is the war between the armies of Talut and Jalut. (For the explanation of the secret of sincerity and solidarity, see Lem’alar (Flashes), 150-151)
15 al-Baqara, 250
16 al-Baqara, 251
17 A.C. Paşa, Kısas-ı Enbiya, I/34
18 Tajrid trnsl., IX/156
19 M. Vehbi, Hülasatü’l-Beyan, I/454
20 M. Vehbi, ibid, I/454
21 al-An’am, 84; an-Nisa,163; al-Isra, 55.
22 A.C. Paşa, ibid, I/34
23 see: al-Isra, 55; an-Nisa, 163; al-Anbiya, 105
24 A.C. Paşa, ibid, I/34; M. Vehbi, ibid, VIII/3009, III/1114; Tajrid, IX/156
25 M. Vehbi, ibid, XII/4777
26 Sa’d, 17
27 Tajrid, IX/157; at-Taj, II/98... According to what is understood from this hadith, Hz. Dawud divided the night into six: He slept in three parts, that is, half, of it. Then, he woke up and worshipped in the 4th and 5th parts, that is one third of the night. He slept again in the sixth part of it, that is, just before the dawn. The reason why Hz Dawud allocated the fourth and fifth parts of the night to worshipping is that this time period is when prayers are accepted. (see Tajrid trnsl., IV/54)
28 al-Anbiya, 80
29 M. Vehbi, ibid, XI/4491; Tajrid trnsl., IX/155-156; see also: Ahmed Nuri Çebi, Dersler, 49-51
30 Sa’d, 21-24; Baydawi, II/184; Tajrid trnsl., IX/156, ff; see also: Sözler (Words), 241.
31 see Tajrid, IX/243-244... Mizmar is a musical wind instrument like clarion and clarinet. In the hadith, it is used in the sense of nice voice melody and harmony. It is used in this sense due to the connection between musical instruments and musical harmony.
32 Muhammed Hamdi Yazır, ibid, V/3948-3949
33 Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, İşaratü’l-İcaz (Signs of Miraculousness), 71.
34 M. H. Yazır, ibid, V, 3949-50
35 see Sözler (Words), 266.
36 M. Vehbi, ibid, XII, 4779-80
37 A.C. Paşa, ibid, I/34.
38 Ibn Sa’d, I/29; al-Bidaya, I/89.
39 Ihya, IV, 307; Mawardi, 243
40 Ihya, IV, 450
41 Ihya, IV, 586
42 Ihya, IV, 598
43 Ihya, IV, 644-645
44 Ihya, IV, 872
45 Ihya, III, 259
46 Ihya, III, 797
47 Ihya, II, 297
48 Ihya, II, 400
49 Ihya, II, 689
50 Ihya, II, 692
51 Ihya, II, 850
52 Tanbihu’l-Mughtarrin, 236
53 ibid, 309
54 Tanbihu’l-Mughtarrin, 495
55 ibid, 472
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