The King of Umman and His Brother are invited to Islam

(8th year of the Migration, the month of Dhulqada)

The Prophet returned to Madinah with the joy and peace brought about by the conquest of Makkah and the victory of Hunayn with his Companions. The polytheism was defeated badly and the tribes started to enter Islam in groups. The Muslims virtually had a new excitement and spirit of jihad. The fact that the honorable flag of Islam started to wave almost everywhere in Arabia made them peaceful and happy.

However, there were still some kings who had not received the invitation of Islam yet. When the Messenger of God returned to Madinah, he sent Amr b. As to Umman. His duty was to give Jayfar, the king, and his brother Abd the letter that was given to him and to invite them to Islam.[1]

Umman was a big city on the coast of Yemen-India Sea where the Persian Gulf narrows. Azdis ruled this city, which was famous for its date groves and crops. There were also some people of different races there.

Amr b. As arrived in Umman as he was ordered and gave the letter to the king and his brother. When they opened the letter, they saw that the Messenger of God addressed them as follows:


From the Messenger of God Muhammad b. Abdullah to Jayfar and Abd, sons of Julanda!

Peace be upon those who follow guidance!

After greeting you, I tell you this:

I invite both of you to Islam. Be Muslims so that you will attain salvation.  

I am the Messenger of God that He sent to the humanity so that I will warn them about the torture in the hereafter and to apply the decrees of God about the unbelievers.

If you embrace Islam, you will remain as the rulers; if you do not embrace Islam, you will definitely lose your sovereignty; cavalrymen will invade your land and my prophethood will beat your kingdom and sultanate.”[2]

At first, Jayfar and his brother hesitated; then, they overcame their hesitation and became Muslims, affirming the prophethood of the Messenger of God. They also invited the people to Islam. When the people heard their invitation, they accepted Islam readily.[3]

Thereupon, Amr b. As undertook the duty of administrative affairs of this city as the Prophet had told him. Amr was ordered by the Prophet to collect zakah and sadaqah from the rich and to give them to the poor; he was also ordered to collect jizyah from fireworshippers and settle the cases among the Muslims.[4]

Amr stayed in Umman to carry out these tasks until the death of the Prophet.[5]


[1]Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 4, p. 254; Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, Vol. 1, p. 262.

[2]Ibn Qayyim, Zadu’l-Maad, Vol. 3, p. 73; Qastalani, Mawahibu’l-Ladunniya, Vol. 1, p. 294.

[3]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 263; Ibn Qayyim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 74; Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, Vol. 3, p. 303.

[4]Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 139.

[5]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 263.

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