How is belief in the hereafter dealt with in the Quran?

The place and importance of the hereafter in the Quran

One of the most important differences of the Quran from the divine or non-divine books of other religions is that it gives information about the issues related to the hereafter a lot. We can make the issue clear by dealing with it under various headings:

The hereafter is one of the main purposes of the Quran:

With the unanimous agreement of the interpreters, the issue of the hereafter is regarded to be one of the main purposes of the Quran.

There are various classifications [1] about the real purposes and main topics of the Quran but in many classifications, the following three purposes, which also form the foundations [2] of conveying the message of Islam by the Prophet (pbuh) in the period of Makkah are present: oneness, prophethood, the hereafter.

Ghazali says that the main purposes of the Quran, which he names as 'muhimmatu'l-Qur'an', are knowing Allah, the hereafter and the straight path; he adds that the other issues in the Quran are subordinate to those topics [3]. 

Razi says that these three essentials are not separated from one another in the Quranic verses and that they follow one another; when one of them is mentioned, the other two follows; or when two of them are mentioned, the other one follows [4]. As Razi puts it, the main purpose of the whole Quran is to teach oneness, prophethood and the hereafter.  Stories are narrated in order to express those essentials like proverbs [5]. Razi adds qada (decree) and qadar (destiny) to these three essentials [6].

Nursi adds justice to these three essentials and sometimes uses the term bodily resurrection instead of resurrection, and worship and justice instead of justice. According to him, the topic of the universe, mentioned in the Quran in addition to these purposes, is subordinate and indirect; it is mentioned in order to show the Maker (Creator) through the order of His art [7].

Dahlawi says the meanings the Quran contains are included under these five sciences: Decrees, analogy, reminding Allah's bounties and grants, reminding certain days of Allah and reminding death and beyond death [8].

In his book, al-Mahawiru'l-Khamsa li'l-Qur'ani'l-Karim (Five Axes of the Quran), Muhammad al-Ghazali says it is possible to state that the Quran deals mainly with five issues though its meaning is comprehensive and its chapters are abundant.   The five issues that also form the chapters of the Quran are as follows: Allah, who is one, the universe that shows its Creator, the stories of the Quran, resurrection, punishment and reward, education and legislation [9].

Abduh says the purposes of the sending down of the Quran are five: Oneness, promise (Paradise) and threat (Hell), worshipping, explaining the way to happiness and stories. [10].

In Fazlurrahman's book called Major Themes of the Qur'an, along with Allah, the hereafter and prophethood, the issues of man, nature, Satan and evil are explained [11].

It is seen that one of the common points mentioned in the classifications above is the issue of the hereafter. This issue is dealt with and explained concisely or in detail in almost every chapter of the Quran. As a matter of fact, when Shahata's work called   Ahdafu Kulli Suratin wa Maqasiduha (The Aims and Purposes of all of the Chapters in the Quran) is browsed, this fact will easily be seen. In this book, the existence of a spirit, which is dominant in every chapter of the Quran, which penetrates into the verses of that chapter and which is dominant over the principles, decrees, meanings and styles of that chapter [12], is mentioned; this spirit consists of oneness, prophethood, resurrection and worshipping, which are the essential purposes of the Quran. It is not difficult to find these purposes directly or indirectly in all chapters.   

Some interpreters say these purposes are gathered especially in the chapter of al-Fatiha [13].            

The Place and Importance of the Hereafter in the Quran:

We can list the aspects that show the place and importance of the hereafter in the Quran as follows:  

a. There are a lot of verses related to the hereafter:

Apart from the verses that are indirectly related to the hereafter in the Quran, the number of the verses that are directly related to the hereafter is about one thousand and nine hundred; which is almost one third of the Quran [14].

b. Various aspects of life in the hereafter are mentioned widely in the Quran:

In the Quran, the issue of the hereafter is described in detail. The issues like the removal of man's spirit by angels in his deathbed, signs of the Doomsday, the horrible incidents that take place all over the universe when Doomsday strikes, the blowing of the Sur (horn), resurrection of people and their coming out of their graves, people being sent to the Gathering Place, reckoning, conversations during reckoning, distribution of the books of deeds, people being sent to Paradise and Hell in groups, detailed description of bounties of Paradise and torture in Hell, angels addressing the people in Paradise and Hell, conversations between the people of Paradise and Hell, and life in Paradise and Hell being eternal are issues that are described in detail in the Quran.

c. Some chapters are entitled some phrases meaning the Doomsday or the incidents happening on that day:

al-Qiyama (the Doomsday), al-Haaqqa (the Sure Truth), al-Qaria (the Calamity), al-Ghashiya (the Overwhelming Event), al-Infitar (the Cleaving), al-Inshiqaq (the Bursting Asunder), at-Takwir (the Folding Up).

d. In many verses, belief in Allah and belief in the hereafter are mentioned together [15]:

"Any who believe in Allah and the Last Day and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord..." (al-Baqara, 62), "but it is righteousness―to believe in Allah and the Last Day...." (al-Baqara, 177), "if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day..." (an-Nisa, 59; an- Nur, 2) In many verses like the ones above,belief in Allah and belief in the hereafter are mentioned together [16]. This shows that belief in the hereafter comes just after belief in Allah and that belief in Allah without belief in the hereafter will not be useful and it will not be regarded as real belief.

e. Allah Almighty swore and made vows regarding resurrection after death and the otherworldly things that He promised:

Allah Almighty's vows related to the hereafter are divided into three:

1. His vows through various beings related to the issues about the hereafter: In that case, the beings through which a vow is made are called muqsamun bih (things through which vows are made) and theissues regarding the hereafter are called muqsamun alayh (things on which vows are made). Some of those vows are as follows: "By the (Winds) that scatter broadcast; And those that lift and bear away heavy weights; And those that flow with ease and gentleness; And those that distribute and apportion by command― Verily that which ye are promised is true; And verily Judgment and Justice must indeed come to pass." (adh-Dhariyat, 1-6), "By the Mount (of Revelation); By a Decree Inscribed; In a Scroll unfolded; By the much-frequented Fane; By the Canopy Raised High; And by the Ocean filled with Swell― Verily, the Doom of thy Lord will indeed come to pass. (at-Tur, 1- 7 ), "By the (Winds) Sent Forth one after another (to man's profit); Which then blow violently in tempestuous Gusts, And scatter (things) far and wide;…Assuredly, what ye are promised must come to pass." (al-Mursalat, 1-7)

2. Allah Almighty swore by His own name for the occurrence of the Doomsday: The following verse is an example of it: "Then by the Lord of heaven and earth, this [17] is the very Truth, as much as the fact that ye can speak intelligently to each other" (adh-Dhariyat, 23). In this verse, Allah likens the certainty of the occurrence of the things He mentions to the certainty of the speaking of people to one another. Everybody knows that man is definitely a being that speaks. There is no need to prove it. Nobody doubts that man speaks. Similarly, what Allah Almighty tells us about oneness, prophethood, the hereafter, His names and attributes are true and as certain as the speaking of people [18]. This analogy used in the Quran is something like the phrase "it is a fact like the existence of the sun". A poet states the following regarding the issue: "If proof is asked for the existence of the day, nothing in the minds will be true; then, people will look for evidence for everything, even for the obvious facts" [19].

3. Allah Almighty also swore by the Day of Judgment itself: In this case, muqsamun bih and muqsamun alayh is the same thing; that is, the Day of Judgment. For instance, the following verse is an example of it: "By the promised Day (of Judgment)..." (al-Buruj, 2). A vow in a similar style was used for the Quran, too. Another example regarding the issue is the following verse: "La uqsimu bi-yawmi'l-qiyama (al-Qiyama,1). The meaning here is: "I do call to witness the Resurrection Day ". The reason why a vow is made for that day is to confirm its occurrence, to elevate it and to attract people's attention to that day [20].

In the following three verses, the Prophet (pbuh) is ordered to make a vow about the hereafter and reward and punishment: "They seek to be informed by thee: "Is that Sana o [21] true?" Say: "Aye! by my Lord! It is the very truth! and ye cannot frustrate it..."(Yunus, 53), "The Unbelievers say "Never to us will come the hour": say "Nay! but most surely, by my Lord, it will come upon you― by Him Who knows the unseen "(Saba, 3),  "The Unbelievers think that they will not be raised up (for Judgment). Say: "Yea, by my Lord, ye shall surely be raised up..." (at-Taghabun, 7)

 f. In the Quran, issues regarding the hereafter are not dealt with in terms of dogmas only; it is stated that resurrection after death is rationally possible and the causes and evidences showing its occurrence are mentioned.  

In many verses, the doubts and claims of those who deny resurrection after death are answered and the causes that lead man to deny the hereafter are dealt with. This shows that the Quran is not a book of dogmas only. It is also a book of evidence. That is why the Quran is also called the Wise. 

Phrases Related to the Doomsday, Resurrection and the Hereafter:

Many phrases are usedrelated to the doomsday, resurrection, hereafter and life in the hereafter in the Quran. We can divide these phrases into three:

a. Phrases related to the strike of the Doomsday and the destruction of the universe:

The phrase, the strike of the Doomsday, which is used to express the destruction of the system of the universe and the end of this worldly life, is expressed in several ways in the Quran. The most common one among them is the word as-saah (hour). This word lexically means a short while [22]. To use the word hour for the astounding and horrifying things that happen on the Doomsday is a nice expression peculiar to the conciseness of the Quran [23]. The reason why the Doomsday is expressed by the word as-saah is due to the fact that it runs toward us by covering times and breaths not distances. Thus, when a person dies, his hour reaches him and Doomsday strikes for him before the big hour. The big hour (the big Doomsday) is like days compared to the life of man" [24].

The word al-Haaqqa, which is used to express the strike of Doomsday, means something that will definitely and doubtlessly happen [25].

The word al-Qaria is used for the Doomsday because it terrifies and horrifies man, the sky is cleft asunder, the earth and mountains are dispersed and the stars are scattered as their light go out [26].

The words al-Azifa, as-Sahha, al-Ghashiya and at-Taamma are also used for the Doomsday. Azifa means close or near. There are various explanations why this word is used but the most famous one is that the Doomsday is close compared to the age of the world [27]. Sahha means something that is listened because it terrifies people [28]. The word ghashiya is used because the fear of the Day of Judgment fills people or hellfire suffuses unbelievers. Taamma means covering [29].

As it is seen, all of these definitions have a sound that jars ears, throbs and makes a loud noise. This state originates from meaning-sound harmony, which is one of the miraculous features of the Quran. These words are so suitably chosen in terms of letters and meter that they virtually transfer the terror and fear of the Day of Judgment to ears.  

b. Phrases related to the dead being taken out of their graves and being sent to the Gathering Place:

In the Quran, the resurrection of the people are expressed through various terms like ba'th (resurrection), ihya (revival), iada (returning), taba'thur (turning upside down), hashr (gathering), nashr (resurrection) and nashatul-ukhra (second creation).

Ba'th lexically means to move and remove something from its place. The reason why the Day of Judgment is called the day of ba'th is the fact that people are removed from their graves and are taken to the place of reckoning on that day [30]. It is stated that the main meaning of ba'th is irsal (sending) [31], that ba'th and irsal are synonymous and that both ba'athtu rasulan and arsaltu rasulan (I sent a messenger) were used [32]. In the Quran, this word is mainly used in the sense of reviving the dead and sending a prophet [33] but it is also used in the sense of inspiration, awakening, giving power and appointing [34].

The verb ba'thara mentioned in the verse "wa idhal quburu bu'thirat" (and when the graves are turned upside down) is used in the sense of dispersing, turning and turning upside down [35]. It is stated that this word is the combination of ba'th and isara. Raghib does not find this view inappropriate and says that it contains these meanings [36].

The difference between ba'th and nushur is as follows: ba'thu'l-khalq means to remove people from their graves to the place of gathering as it is mentioned in the chapter of Yasin: "Who hath raised us up from our beds of repose?" (Yasin, 52) Nushur means the appearance of those who are resurrected and their deeds and showing them. This meaning is seen in phrases like nashartu ismak (I showed / spread your name) and nashartu fadilata fulan ( I showed / narrated the virtue of a person) [37].

Iada means to turn / return. Maad means the place to return, the hereafter [38].

Nashatul-ukhra (second creation) is used acting upon the term nashatul-ula (first creation) in the Quran. Thus, it is presented as an evidence for the possibility of the resurrection. For, the one who creates something out of nothing can create it again.

Ihya (reviving after death) is a term that is often used in the Quran. It is used in the sense of both giving spirit to living beings during first creation and reviving after death. The term ihya in the following verse is in the sense of giving spirit to living beings during first creation: "Ye were without life, and He gave you life." (al-Baqara, 28) The term ihya in the following verse is in the sense of reviving after death:  "...Has not He, (the same) the power to give life to the dead?" (al-Qiyama, 40). Apart from these two senses, the term ihya is also used in the sense of guidance, letting living beings live and animating the earth with plants [39].

The term nashr, which is used in the sense of taking those who are resurrected to the Gathering Place, lexically means to expand and spread something. It is the opposite of rolling up. In the Quran, it is used in the sense of both ba'th and ihya, also in the sense of dispersing and spreading [40].

Hashr means to gather. It lexically means to remove a group of people from somewhere due to war or some other reasons. It is used only for groups [41].

As for the difference between jam' and hashr, hashr means to gather by dispatching. The phrase yawm al-hashr (day of gathering) is used in this sense. For, the creatures are gathered on that day and are sent to the Gathering Place. It is not true to say that the word hashr is used for disliked things. For, Allah states the following in a verse: "The day We shall gather the righteous to (Allah) Most Gracious, like a band presented before a king for honors." (Maryam, 85) As it is seen, gathering for something nice is mentioned in this verse [42].           

c. The phrases used in the sense of the Day of Judgment:

In the Quran, the terms al-yawm (today) al-akhira (the hereafter), al-yawm al-akhir (the last day) are usually used to express the Day of Judgment.

Akhira, which is derived from taakkhur (lagging behind, staying behind) [43], indicates that there is something before it, which is the world [44]. Worldly life comes before it; therefore, it is named the hereafter compared to the world. That is, the world and the hereafter are named liked that compared to each other. It is like the concepts husband-wife, father-son and right-left. Therefore, when the word "the world" is uttered, the hereafter comes to the mind. This association is always taken into consideration when the Quran uses these terms [45].

It is stated that the reason why the hereafter is called al-akhira is because it was created after the other creatures [46]; this explanation is similar to the ones above.   

That the term al-akhira is used instead of al-yawm al-akhir  (the last day) or ad-dar al-akhira (the last land) is regarded as the overwhelming attribute [47].

The term al-yawm al-akhir is a general name and various otherworldly states are meant by it. The strike of the Doomsday, the end of this world, the resurrection of the dead, hashr, nashr, reckoning, distribution of the books of deeds, mizan (scales), Sirat, hawd, shafa'ah (intercession), Paradise and Hell are covered by this term [48].

That the term al-hayawan (life) is used for the hereafter in the following verse is due to the fact that the realm of the hereafter is endless, uninterrupted, immortal and eternal: "But verily the Home in the Hereafter that is life indeed" (al-Ankabut, 64) [49]. According to this expression, the realm of the hereafter is virtually the very life itself [50]. This meaning originates from the fact that the word hayawan, which indicates more than one meaning and multitude, is used instead of the word hayy. With this expression, Allah Almighty attracts attention to the fact that the valid life is life in the hereafter [51]. We can also say that this verse indicates that life in the hereafter is a full, active life to live both spiritually and bodily.

Razi states the following while explaining this term: When it is stated through the following verse that there is increase and development in the hereafter: "to those who do right is a goodly (reward)― yea, more (than in measure) " (Yunus, 26) and through the following verse that the hereafter is a full and real place of understanding: "the Day that (all) things secret will be tested", the hereafter is given the name al-hayawan, the name of growing and understanding beings [52]. Therefore, it is said that the stones and soil in the hereafter understand and listen to people.       

Apart from the ones above, some nouns, verbs and phrases are used together with the name al-yawm to form many compounds and phrases to express the Day of Judgment. We can list the compounds including the word al-yawm and why they are used so as follows: 

Al-yawm al-ba'th (the day of resurrection) because humans are resurrected with new bodies on that day;

Al-yawm al-khuruj (the day of exiting) because humans exit from their graves and go to the other realm;

Al-yawm al-qiyama (the day of standing) because people stand to be reckoned in the presence of Allah;

Al-yawm ad-din (the day of the religion) because humans are rewarded or punished based on their deeds;

Al-yawm al-fasl wal-yawm al-fath (the day of separation and conquest) because humans will be judged by justice and separated into groups;

Al-yawm at-taghabun (the day of mutual disillusion) because the oppressed becomes superior to the oppressor and the people of Paradise to the people of Hell or because that day is unknown by people;

Al-yawm al-hashr wal-yawm al-jam' (the day of gathering and coming together) because all living beings will gather in the gathering place;

Al-yawm al-hisab (the day of the reckoning) because people will be called to account based on their deeds;

Al-yawm al-waid (the day of the threat / warning) because unbelievers will suffer from what Allah threatened them;

Al-yawm al-hashr (the day of sorrow) because unbelievers and rebels repent for what they did;

Al-yawm al-khulud (the day of eternality) because life is eternal there;

Al-yawm al-azifa (the day of approaching) because we are approaching that day gradually;

Al-yawm at-talaq (the day of meeting) because it is the day of meeting and encountering;

Al-yawm al-waqt al-ma'lum (the day whose time is known) because Allah definitely knows when it is.

Besides, there are adjectival phrases formed by the word yawm and an adjective. We can list them as follows: Yawmun asir (hard day), yawmun alim (sorrowful day), yawmun azim, yawmun kabir (great day), yawmun ma'lum (known day), yawmun majmuun lahu'n-nas (day when humans gather), yawmun mashhud ( observed / witnessed day), yawmun muhit (surrounding day), yawmun thaqil (heavy day).

There are also phrases with the word dar (land, place) indicating the material aspects of the life in the hereafter: for instance, dar al-akhira (land of the hereafter),  dar al-qarar (place to stay permanently), dar al-khuld  (land of eternity) [53].

Footnotes

[1]. Suat Yıldırım, Fatiha ve En'am Sureleri Tefsiri, Çevik Printing House, İstanbul, 1989, p. 7.

[2]. Abu'l-Ala Mawdudi,Tafhimu'l-Qur'an, 2nd imp., İnsan Publ. İstanbul, 1991,  VII, 7.

[3]. See Abu Hamid Ghazali, Jawahiru'l-Qur'ân, inv., M. al-Kabbabi, 2nd imp., 1986, p. 78.

[4]. Razi, XXV, 41.

[5]. Razi, XXVIII, 30.

[6]. See Razi, XX, 179 ; XXVI, 109.

[7]. See Said Nursi. Ishşaratu'l-I'jaz fi Mazanni'l-Ijaz, inv., Ihsan Qasim as-Salihi, Sözler Publ., İstanbul, 1990, p. 29; as-Sayqalu'l-Islami, Matbaatu'n-Nur, Ankara,1958,  p. 9.

[8]. Waliyyullah Ahmad b. Abdurrahim ad-Dahlawi,al-Fawdu'l-Kabir fi Usuli't-Tafsir, Trnsl from Persian by Salman al-Husayni an-Nadwi, Daru'l-Bashairi'l-Islamiyya, Beirut, 1987, 2nd imp., p.19.

[9]. Ghazali,  Muhammad, al-Mahawiru'l-Khamsa li'l-Qur'ani'l-Karim, p. 20.

[10]. Muhammad Abduh. Durusun mina'l-Qur'an, Daru Ihyai'l-Ulum, Beirut, 1987, 4th imp., p. 26-27.

[11]. See Fazlurrahman, Ana Konularıyla Kur'an, Fecir Publ, Ankara, 1987

However, it is not possible to agree with the following view of Fazlurrahman: "The main purpose of the Quran is not Allah but man and his acts and deeds."  (ibid, p. 44) For, the most important purpose of the Quran is to make people know Allah and to tell them about oneness. Man is the being that the Quran addresses. Here lies his importance. 

[12]. SeeAbdullah Mahmud Shahata,Ahdafu Kulli Suratin wa Maqasiduha fil Quranil Karim, al-Hay'atu'l-Misriyyatu'l-Amma, Cairo, 1980, 2nd imp., I, 6-7.

[13]. For instance Razi states the following while interpreting the chapter of al-Fatiha: al-Hamdu lillah indicates the existence of the Free Creator; Rabbi'l-alamin indicates oneness; ar-Rahmani'r-Rahim indicates Allah's mercy in the world and the hereafter; Maliki yawmi'd-din indicates His perfect wisdom and mercy since He created the hereafter. At this point, the things that are required for the knowledge of His Lordship are completed. The part from Iyyakana'budu to the end of the chapter indicates the things that are required to know regarding expressing His worshipping."(Razî, I, 216) M. Abduh states that there is oneness in al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbi'l-alemin, promise in ar-Rahmani'r-Rahim, both promise and threat in Maliki yawmi'd-din, worshipping in Iyyaka na'budu, news and stories in siratalladhina an'amta alayhim; thus, this chapter gathers all of the main purposes of the Quran (Abduh,Durusun mina'l-Qur'an, p. 27-28). Nursi says each big part of the Quran is placed in small parts hence these purposes are hinted or alluded to in every word; he explains how these purposes are placed in bismillah and al-hamdu lillah as follows: Since “Bismillah” was revealed in order to instruct the Most High’s servants, ‘Say!’ (Qul) is implicit in it and essentially it is implied by all of the words of the Quran. So, according to this, there is in ‘Say!’ an indication to prophethood; and in “Bismillah” a sign to the Godhead; and in the prefixing of the preposition “bi-” of “bismillah” a sign to oneness; and in “the Most Merciful (ar-Raman)” an allusionto the order of the universe, and therefore to justice and beneficence; and in “the Most Compassionate (ar-Raim)” a hint to the resurrection of the dead. Likewise, in “all praise be to Allah (al-ḥamdulillah)” is an indication to the Godhead; and in the lam of specification (the “li-” of “li-llah”) a sign to oneness. And in “Lord and Sustainer of all the worlds (Rabb al-‘alamin)” is a hint to justice, and also to prophethood, for the education of mankind is given by the prophets. And in “Master of the Day of Judgement (Maliki yawm ad-din)” is an explicit statement of resurrection.(Nursi,a.g.e, p. 30-31).

[14]. See Fawi, p. 14.

[15]. See M. Fuad Abdulbaqi, al-Mu'jamu'l-Mufahras li-alfazi'l-Qur'ani'l-Karim, al-Maktabatu'l-Islamiyya, İstanbul, 1982, p. 21; see also  Mevlüt Güngör, Kur'ân Penceresinden İmân, Amel, Hayat, Ahiret ve Kâinâta Bakış, Kur'ân Kitaplığı, İstanbul, 1995, p. 83

[16]. For other verses, see al-Baqara, 228, 232, 264; Aal-i Imran, 106; an-Nisa, 38, 39, 162; at-Tawba, 18, 29, 44, 45, 99; al-Ahzab, 21; al-Mujadala, 18; al-Mumtahina, 6.

[17]. It is stated that what is meant by the pronoun innahu (it) in this verse is the religion conveyed by our Prophet, the issues mentioned there and the things promised to the people mentioned in the previous verse. (Mawardi, V, 368; Ibnu'l-Jawzi, VII, 28) The issue of the hereafter is one of them.

[18].  Abu Abdillah Muhammad Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, at-Tibyan fi Aqsami'l-Qur'an, inv., M. Sharif Sukkar, Daru Ihyai'l-Ulum, 1988,  p. 539.

[19].Wa laysa yasihhu fi'l-adhhani shay'un

Idha'htaja'n-naharu ila dalilin (Ibn Qayyim,at-Tibyan, p. 539)

[20]. Ibn Qayyim,at-Tibyan, p.120, 170.

[21]. The pronoun huwa (it) in this verse refers to the resurrection or the torture in the hereafter (See Mawardi, II, 438).

[22]. Abu'l-Qasim al-Husayn b. Muhammad ar-Raghib al-Isfahani. al-Mufradat fi Gharibi'l-Qur'an, inv. Muhammad Sayyid Kaylani, Daru'l-Ma'rifa, Beirut, n.d., p. 248.

[23]. Muhammad as-Sadiq Ibrahim Urjun. al- Qur'anu'l-Azim Hidayatuhu wa I'jazuh, 2nd imp., Daru'l-Qalam, Damascus, 1989, p. 287 .

[24].  Muhammad b. Ali al-Khatami b. Arabi.  al-Futuhatu'l-Makkiyya, Daru Sadir, Beirut, n.d. II, 82.

[25]. Abu'l-Barakat Abdullah b. Ahmad an-Nasafi, Tafsiru'n-Nasafi (Madariku't-Tanzil wa Haqaiqu't-Ta'wil), Daru'l-Fikr, n.d. IV, 285.

[26]. Razi, XXX, 90.

[27]. See Razi, XXVII, 44.

[28]. Mawardi, VI, 209.

[29]. Mawardi, VI, 199, 257.

[30]. Tabari, I, 330.

[31]. Mawardi, I, 123.

[32]. Jamaluddin Muhammad Ibn Manzur, Lisanu'l-Arab, Daru Sadir, Beirut, 1968, II, 116;  Ibnu'l-Jawzi,Nuzhatu'l-A'yuni'n-Nawazir fi Ilmi'l-Wujuhi wa'n-Nazair, inv. M. Abdulkarim Kazim ar-Radi, Muassasatu'r-Risala, Beirut, 1987, 3rd imp., p. 204.

[33]. Ali Ekber Qurashi, Qamus al-Qur'an, Daru'l-Kutubi'l-Islamiyya, Tehran, 1367, 5th imp.,  I, 202.

[34]. For examples, see Ibnu'l-Jawzi,Nuzhatu'l-A'yun, p. 204-205.

[35]. Ibn Manzur, IV, 72.

[36]. See Raghib, al-Mufradat, p. 53

[37]. Abu Hilal al-Askari. al-Furuq fi'l-Lugha, 4th imp., Daru'l-Afaqi'l-Jadida, Beirut, 1980, p. 284.

[38]. Ibn Manzur, III, 317.

[39]. Ibnu'l-Jawzi,Nuzhatu'l-A'yun, p. 254.

[40]. See al-Anbiya, 21, az-Zukhruf, 11; Ibnu'l-Jawzi,ibid, p. 584-585.

[41]. Raghib, al-Mufradat, p. 119; Ibn Manzur, IV, 190.

[42]. Askari, 136.   The terminological meanings of these terms differ based on different views on resurrection. That is, each group uses these words based on their own understandings. We can summarize these groups as follows: Those who say resurrection will take place after non-existence or after the parts that were scattered gather; those who say it will take place both materially and spiritually; those who say it will take place spiritually. The last view belongs to philosophers; the others belong to kalam scholars.  

[43]. Qurtubi, I, 127.

[44]. See Tabari, I, 138;  Mawardi, I, 70; Abu'l-Fida Ismail b. Kathir. Tafsiru'l-Qur'ani'l-Azim, Daru'l-Ma'rifa, Beirut, 1992,  I, 46;  Ibnu'l-Jawzi,Nuzhatu'l-A'yun, 149.

[45]. See Izutsu, 78.

[46]. See Tabari, I, 138; Mawardi, I, 71.

[47]. See Tabari, I, 138.

[48]. Muhammad Abdullah ash-Sharqawi,al-Iman, Maktabatu'z-Zahra, Cairo, 1989,  p. 291.

[49]. Tabari, X, 159; Mawardi, IV, 293; Ibn Kathir, III, 431.

[50]. Zamakhshari, III, 211.

[51]. Zamakhshari, III, 212; Razi, XXV, 81.

[52]. Razi, XXV, 81.

[53].  Abdulbaqi, p. 775-780; Abdurrahman Habannaka al-Maydani,  al-Aqidatu'l-Islamiyya, 6th imp. Daru'l-Qalam, Damascus, 1992, p. 538-539; Güngör, p. 83-90

Veysel Güllüce (Prof.Dr.)

Read 8.697 times
In order to make a comment, please login or register