Fourteenth Sign: It mentions the miracles that became manifest as a result of the Prophet’s prayers.


Another numerous sort of the various kinds of miracle of Allah’s Most Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) were the wonders manifested as a result of his prayers. This kind is definite and there is ‘true consensus’ in their many reports. The instances and examples of it are so numerous as to be incalculable, and many of these have reached the degree of ‘consensus,’ or have become famous as such. Others have been related by such authorities that they bear the same certainty as well-known ‘consensus.’ As examples, we shall quote only some of the numerous instances of this kind of miracle that are very well-known and nearest in degree to ‘consensus,’ giving some particulars of each instance.

F i r s t   E x a m p l e : The fact that prayers of the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) for rain were always accepted has been transmitted by authorities of Hadith, primarily Bukhari and Muslim. There were times when in the pulpit he raised his hands to pray for rain, and before he had lowered them even, rain began to fall. As mentioned above, once or twice when the army had run out of water, the clouds came and poured forth rain. Before his prophetic mission, even, during his childhood, the Prophet’s grandfather ‘Abd al-Muttalib would go to pray for rain with him, and the rain came out of respect for Muhammad (PBUH). The fact became celebrated through a poem of ‘Abd al-Muttalib. And after the Prophet’s death, ‘Umar prayed making ‘Abbas the means, saying: “O our Sustainer! This is the uncle of your Beloved. Send us rain for his sake!” And it rained.1

Bukhari and Muslim also relate that Allah’s Messenger was asked to pray for rain. He did so and such rain fell that they were compelled to ask him to pray for it to stop. He did so, and it stopped at once.2

S e c o n d   E x a m p l e : It is almost as well-known as those incidents about which there are many unanimous reports that when the number of Companions and believers had still not reached forty, Allah’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) prayed secretly while performing his worship: “O Allah! Strengthen Islam by means of either ‘Umar b. al-Khattab or ‘Umar b. Hisham.” A few days later, ‘Umar b. al-Khattab came to believe and was the means to proclaiming and upholding Islam, so that he acquired the title of Faruq [Discerner between truth and falsehood].3

T h i r d   E x a m p l e: Allah’s Messenger prayed for various distinguished Companions for different purposes. His prayers were all accepted in so brilliant a fashion that the wonders of these prayers reached the degree of a miracle. For instance, foremost Bukhari and Muslim relate that he prayed for Ibn ‘Abbas as follows: “O Allah! Give him knowledge of religion and teach him interpretation.”4 This supplication was accepted in such a way that Ibn ‘Abbas gained the glorious title of ‘Interpreter of the Qur’an’ and reached the elevated degree of ‘learned scholar of the Muslim community.’ When still very young even, ‘Umar used to include him in the gatherings of the religious scholars and leading Companions.5

Also, foremost Bukhari and the writers of books of authentic Hadith relate that the mother of Anas entreatied Allah’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace): “Pray that your servant Anas will be blessed with abundant wealth and offspring.” The Prophet prayed, saying: “O Allah! Grant increase to his wealth and offspring and bless what you bestow on him.” Towards the end of his life, Anas said swearing by Allah: “I have buried a hundred of my progeny with my own hand. No one has been as fortunate as myself in regard to wealth and possessions. You can see that my wealth is truly abundant. All these are the result of Prophet’s prayer for the blessing of plenty.”6

Also, foremost Imam Bayhaqi, and the scholars of Hadith relate that Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) prayed that one of the ten promised Paradise, ‘Abd al-Rahman b. ‘Awf, be blessed with abundance of wealth. Through the blessing of that prayer, he acquired such wealth that on one occasion he donated seven hundred camels together with their loads to Allah’s cause.7 See the blessings of plenty resulting from the Prophet’s prayer, and say: “How great are Allah’s blessings!”

Also, narrators of Hadiths, and foremost Bukhari, relate: “Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) prayed that ‘Urwa b. Abi al-Ja‘da might do profitably at trade. ‘Urwa said: ‘Sometimes I would go to the marketplace in Kufa and come home in the evening having made a forty thousandfold profit.’” Imam Bukhari says: “If he took earth in his hand, he still would make a profit from it!”8

Also, he prayed that ‘Abd Allah b. Ja‘far would acquire an abundance of wealth, and he became so rich he was famous for it. He also became as famous for his generosity as he was for the wealth he obtained through the Prophet’s prayer for the blessing of plenty.9

There are numerous instances of this sort of miracle, but we consider the four described above to be sufficient as examples.

Also, foremost Imam Tirmidhi relates: “The Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) prayed for Sa‘d b. Abi Waqqas: ‘O Allah, answer his prayer!’10 After that everyone feared his malediction, and the answering of his prayers also became famous.

On another occasion, Allah’s Messenger prayed for the famous Abu Qatada that he might remain young: “May Allah prosper your face! O Allah, bless his hair and his skin!” When he died at the age of seventy, he was like a youth of fifteen.11 This is related through a sound narration.

Also, the famous story of the poet Nabigha. He recited one of his poems before Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace), which ran: “Our glory and praise have reached to the skies; we want to ascend even higher.” Allah’s Messenger asked jokingly: “Where, beyond the skies?” Nabigha replied: “To Paradise.” He then recited another of his meaningful poems, and the Prophet prayed: “May Allah not spoil your mouth!” It was through the blessing of this prayer of the Prophet that he did not have a single tooth missing when he was one hundred and twenty years old. Whenever he lost a tooth, another would appear in its place.12

Also, it is related through an authentic narration that he prayed for Imam ‘Ali: “O Allah, protect him from heat and cold!” Through the blessing of this prayer, Imam ‘Ali used to wear summer clothes in winter, and winter clothes in summer. He used to say: “I never suffer from heat or cold, thanks to that prayer.”13

Also, he prayed for Fatima: “O Allah, do not give her the pains of hunger!” And Fatima used to say: “I never suffered from hunger after that prayer.”14

Also, Tufayl b. ‘Amr asked Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) for a miracle to show to his tribe. The Prophet prayed: “O Allah, illuminate him!”, and a light appeared between his eyes. Later it was transferred to the end of his staff, and he became famous as Dhi’l-Nur, the Possessor of Light.15 These incidents are all from well-known Hadiths that are certain.

Also, Abu Hurayra once complained to the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) that he sometimes suffered from forgetfulness. Allah’s Messenger told him to spread out a piece of cloth. He then made some movements with his blessed hand as though taking some invisible objects and putting them on the cloth. He repeated this two or three times, then told him to gather up the cloth. Abu Hurayra later swore that through the mystery of this prayer of the Prophet’s, he never again forgot anything.16 This event is also among well-known Hadiths.

F o u r t h   E x a m p l e : We shall describe here a few events regarding maledictions of Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace).

The First: The Persian Shah Parviz tore up the letter sent to him by the Prophet. When Allah’s Prophet received news of this, he prayed: “O Allah, rend him as he rent my letter!”17 It was as a result of this malediction that Chosroes Parviz’s son Shirviya cut him to pieces with a dagger. And Sa‘d b. al-Waqqas broke his kingdom apart, so that in no part of the Sasanid empire did his sovereignty remain. However, the Emperor of Byzantium and other kings did not perish since they respected the Prophet’s letters.

The Second: An event almost as well-known as those reported unanimously, which some verses of the Qur’an allude to, is this: in the early days of Islam, the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) was performing the prayers in the Masjid al-Haram, when the chiefs of the Quraysh gathered and maltreated him. At the time, Allah’s Prophet called down curses on them. Ibn Mas‘ud stated: “I swear that at the Battle of Badr I saw the corpses of all those who had ill-treated him and received his curse.”18

The Third: On their denying him, Allah’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) prayed that a large Arab tribe called the Mudariyya would be afflicted with drought and famine. All rain ceased and drought and famine occurred. Then the Quraysh, a branch of the Mudariyya, pleaded with the Prophet, and he prayed. Whereupon the rains came and put an end to the drought.19 Having been reported unanimously, this incident is also well-known

F i f t h  E x a m p l e : The fact that the Prophet’s (PBUH) maledictions against particular persons were accepted and realized in a dreadful way is illustrated by numerous instances. We shall recount three of these by way of example.

The First: He uttered the following curse against ‘Utba b. Abi Lahab: “O Allah, beset a dog on him from among your dogs!” Some time later ‘Utba went on a journey during which a lion sought him out from among the caravan, and tore him to pieces.20 This incident was famous and is narrated as authentic by the authorities on Hadith.

The Second: This is Muhallim b. Jaththama: he unjustly killed ‘Amir b. Adbat, but Allah’s Messenger had sent him as the commander of a force to fight in Allah’s way. When the news of this reached the Messenger, he was angry and cursed him, saying: “O Allah, do not grant forgiveness to Muhallim!” Muhallim died a week later. They put him in his grave, but the grave cast him out. They buried him in several different places, but each time the grave rejected him. Finally they built a strong wall between two rocks, and in this way the corpse was housed.21

The Third: Once Allah’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) saw a man eating with his left hand. He ordered him to eat with his right hand. The man replied: “I can’t.” The Messenger said as a malediction: “Henceforth you will be unable to raise it.” And after that he was unable to use it.22

S i x t h  E x a m p l e : Here we shall mention several events which are certain, from among the numerous wonders resulting from prayers of the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace), and from his touch.

The First: Allah’s Messenger gave Khalid b. al-Walid, known as Allah’s Sword, several of his hairs and prayed for his victory in battle. Khalid put them in his cap. As the result of the hairs and the blessings of the prayer, there was never a battle in which he then fought, but he was victorious.23

The Second: Salman al-Farsi had formerly been a slave of the Jews. His masters had asked for a very high ransom, saying: “In order to gain your freedom, you must plant three hundred date-palms, and after they bear fruit, give us forty okkas24 of gold in addition to the fruit.” He went to the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) and explained his situation. Allah’s Messenger then planted the three hundred palms in the region of Madinah; only one of them was planted by someone else. That year, all three hundred trees bore fruit, with the exception of the one planted by the other person. The Messenger uprooted it and planted another, and it too bore fruit. He then rubbed some of his spittle on a piece of gold the size of a hen’s egg, and offered a prayer. He gave it to Salman, telling him to go and give it to the Jews. Salman al-Farsi went and gave them forty okkas of gold out of that piece, while it remained in its original state.25 This miraculous incident, which was narrated by the most trustworthy and respected authorities, was the most significant event in Salman’s entire life.

The Third: A woman Companion called Umm Malik used to give the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) butter from a leathern bag called an ‘ukka, as a gift. On one occasion Allah’s Messenger uttered a prayer over it while returning it to her, and told her not to empty it and squeeze it. Umm Malik took the ‘ukka, and thereafter as a result of the blessing of the Prophet’s prayer, butter was found in it whenever her children asked for it. This continued for a long time, until they squeezed it, and the blessing disappeared.26

S e v e n t h  E x a m p l e : There are also many examples of water becoming sweet and emitting a pleasant smell as the result of the Prophet’s prayer and his touching it; we shall mention several by way of example:

The First: Scholars of Hadith, and foremost Imam Bayhaqi, report that the well known as Bi’r al-Quba would sometimes dry up. On Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) pouring the water with which he had taken ablutions into the well and offering a prayer, its water became abundant and it never again dried up.27

The Second: Scholars of Hadith, including Abu Na‘im in his Dala’il al-Nubuwwa(Evidences of Prophethood), report that when Allah’s Messenger spat into the well in Anas’ house and prayed, it became the sweetest water in Madinah.28

The Third: Ibn Maja reports that a bucketful of water from the spring of Zamzam was brought to the Messenger. He took a little of it into his mouth then emptied it into the bucket. The bucket then emitted a sweet scent like musk.29

The Fourth: Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal reports that a bucketful of water was drawn from a well. After Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) had put some of his spittle in the bucket and poured it into the well, it began to emit a sweet scent like musk.30

The Fifth: Hammad b. Salama, who was a man of Allah and was trusted and accepted by Imam Muslim and the scholars of the Maghrib, reports that the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) filled a leather bag with water, and breathed into it while praying. He then tied it up and gave it to some of the Companions, saying: “Do not open it except when you perform the ablutions!” When they opened the bag to take ablutions, they saw pure milk with cream at its opening.31

Thus, these five instances have been narrated by well-known and important authorities. Together with those that are not mentioned here, they prove the occurrence of this kind of miracle as definitely as those about the various reports of which there is ‘consensus in meaning.’

E i g h t h  E x a m p l e : There were numerous instances of barren and dry goats producing milk, and abundantly at that, through the touch and prayers of Allah’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace). We shall mention only two or three which are well-known and certain, as examples:

The First: All the reliable books of the Prophet’s biography relate that when Allah’s Prophet and Abu Bakr the Veracious were migrating to Madinah, they came to the house of Umm Ma‘bad, called Atika Bint Khalid al-Khuza‘i. There was an extremely thin, barren, and dry goat there. Allah’s Messenger asked Umm Ma‘bad: “Has this no milk?” She replied: “It has no blood in its body, how should it produce milk?” The Prophet stroked its loins and teets, and prayed. Then he said: “Bring a vessel, and milk it.” They milked it, and after the Messenger and Abu Bakr had drunk, all the people of the house drank to repletion. The goat grew strong, and remained thus blessed.32

The Second: This is the famous story of Shat b. Mas‘ud: before becoming a Muslim, Ibn Mas‘ud used to act as a shepherd for certain people. Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) went together with Abu Bakr the Veracious to the place where Ibn Mas‘ud and his goats were. Allah’s Messenger asked Ibn Mas‘ud for some milk. On replying that they were not his but the property of someone else, Allah’s Messenger told him to bring him a barren, dry goat. So he brought a nanny-goat who had not been mated for two years. Allah’s Messenger stroked its teets with his hand and prayed. Then they milked it, and obtained sweet milk which they drank. Ibn Mas‘ud came to believe after witnessing this miracle.33

The Third: This is the well-known story of Halima Sa‘diya, the foster mother, that is, wet-nurse, of the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace). There was drought where the tribe was found, and all the animals were thin and without milk. They could not find sufficient to eat. But when the Messenger was sent to his foster mother there, through the blessing he brought, Halima Sa‘diya’s goats would return in the evening with both their stomachs and their teets full, contrary to everyone else’s.34

There are further instances in the books of biography similar to these, but these examples are sufficient for our purpose.

N i n t h  E x a m p l e : We shall recount here a few out of many instances of wonders which were manifested after Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) had touched the faces and heads of certain people, and prayed.

The First: He passed his hand over the head of ‘Umar b. Sa‘d, and prayed. When the man died at the age of eighty, through the blessing of that prayer, there was not a single grey hair on his head.35

The Second: He placed his hand on Qays b. Zayd’s head, and prayed. Through the blessing of the prayer and effect of his touch, when Qays reached a hundred years of age, his head was white except for where Allah’s Messenger had placed his hand; that had remained totally black.36

The Third: ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Zayd b. al-Khattab was both small and ugly. Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) touched his head with his hand and prayed. Through the blessing of his prayer, ‘Abdurrahman acquired the loftiest stature and most beautiful form.37

The Fourth: ‘A’idh b. ‘Amr received a wound on the face during the Battle of Hunayn. Allah’s Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) wiped away the blood on his face with his hand. The part of his face that the Messenger had touched acquired a shining brilliance, which the scholars of Hadith described as resembling a white blaze on a chestnut horse.38

The Fifth: He passed his hand over Qatada b. Malhan’s face and prayed, and Qatada’s face began to shine like a mirror.39

The Sixth: When Zaynab, the daughter of the Mother of Believers Umm Salama and the stepdaughter of Allah’s Messenger was a child, the Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) sprinkled some of his ablution water on her face. With the touch of the water, her face acquired an extraordinary beauty.40

There are numerous further examples similar to these, most of which have been narrated by the leading scholars of Hadith. Even if we suppose each of these instances to be a single report and weak, as a whole they still demonstrate an absolute miracle of Muhammad (PBUH) which has the certainty of ‘consensus in meaning.’ For if an event is narrated in numerous different forms, the occurrence of the basic event becomes definite. Even if each form is itself weak, it still proves the basic event.

For example, a noise was heard; some people said that a house had collapsed. Others said it was a different house, and so on. Each narration may be a single report, and weak, and untrue, but the basic event was that a house had collapsed; that was certain and they were unanimous concerning it. However, the six instances we enumerated above were both authentic, and some of them became famous. Suppose we consider each of these to be weak, all together they still demonstrate the certain existence of an absolute miracle of Muhammad (PBUH), like the absolute collapse of the house in the comparison.

Thus, Allah’s Noble Messenger (Upon whom be blessings and peace) performed definite and clear miracles from every category. The instances of them are the forms or examples of those universal and absolute miracles. Just as the Messenger’s hand, fingers, spittle, breath, and speech, that is, his prayer, were the means of numerous miracles, so too, his other subtle faculties and emotions and senses were the means of many wonders. The books of biography and history have described them and demonstrated that in his conduct, physical being, and senses were many evidences of his prophethood.


1. Bukhari, Istisqa’ 3; Fada’il Ashab al-Nabi 11.
2. Bukhari, Istisqa’ 19; Ibn Maja, Iqama 154; Muslim, Salat al-Istisqa’ 8 no: 897; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya vi, 91-2; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 327.
3. Tirmidhi, Manaqib 18 no: 1683; al-Albani, Mishkat al-Masabih no: 6036; al-Mubarakfuri, Tuhfat al-Ahwazi no: 3766; Ibn Asir al-Jizri, Jami’ al-Usul no: 7428; Ibn Hibban, Sahih ix, 17; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak ii, 465; iii, 83, 502; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 327; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 215.
4. Bukhari, Vudu’ 10; ‘Ilm 17; Fada’il al-Ashab 24; Muslim, Fada’il al-Sahaba 138; Ibn Hibban, Sahih ix, 98; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 327; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 661; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 130; Ibn al-Asir, Jami’ al-Usul ix, 63; Musnad i, 264, 314, 328, 330; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak iv, 534.
5. Musnad i, 338; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Fada’il al-Sahaba no: 1871; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak iii, 535; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 661.
6. Bukhari, Da’wat 19, 26, 47; Muslim, Fada’il al-Sahaba 141, 142 nos: 2480-1; Musnad iii, 190; vi, 430; Ibn Hibban, Sahih ix, 155; al-Mubarakfuri, Tuhfat al-Ahwazi x, 330.
7. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 326; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 659; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 125.
8. Bukhari, Manaqib 28; Ibn Maja, Sadaqat 7; Musnad iv, 375; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 327; al-Sa’ati, al-Fath al-Rabbani xxii, 326.
9. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 327; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 661; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id v, 286; Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, al-Matalib al-‘Aliya no: 4077-8.
10. Tirmidhi, Manaqib 27 no: 3751; Ibn Hibban, Sahih no: 12215; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak iii, 499; Abu Na’im, Hilyat al-Awliya’ i, 93; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa iii, 206; al-Albani, Mishkat al-Masabih iii, 251 no: 6116; al-Mubarakfuri, Tuhfat al-Ahwazi x, 253-4 no: 3835; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Fada’il al-Sahaba ii, 750 no: 1038; Ibn al-Asir, Jami’ al-Usul x, 16 no: 6535.
11. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 327; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 660; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 128.
12. ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 661; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba fi Tamyiz al-Sahaba no: 8639; al-‘Asqalani, al-Matalib al-‘Aliya no: 4060; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l Nihaya vi, 168.
13. al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id ix, 122; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Fada’il al-Sahaba no: 950; Ibn Maja, Muqaddima ii, 117; Musnad i, 99, 133; Musnad (Tahqiq: Ahmad Shakir) ii, 120 no: 1114; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 133.
14. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 328; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 134; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id ix, 203.
15. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 328; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 134; ^Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 662.
16. Bukhari, ^Ilm 42; Manaqib 28; Buyu’ 1; Harth 21; Muslim, Fada’il al-Sahaba 159 no: 2492; Tirmidhi, Manaqib 46, 47; Musnad ii, 240, 274, 428; al-Mubarakfuri, Tuhfat al-Ahwazi x, 334 no: 3923; Ibn al-Asir, Jami’ al-Usul (Tahqiq: Arnavud) ix, 95; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya vi, 162; al-Sa’ati, al-Fath al-Rabbani xxii, 405, 409-10; Abu Na’im, Hilyat al-Awliya’ i, 381; al-‘Asqalani, al-Isaba no: 1190.
17. Bukhari, ‘Ilm 7; Jihad 101; Maghazi 82; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 328; al-Sa’ati, al-Fath al-Rabbani xxii, 159.
18. Bukhari, Salat 109; Manaqib al-Ansar 45; Muslim, Jihad 107 no: 1794; Musnad i, 417.
19. Bukhari, Tafsir 30; 28:3; 44:3-4; Da’wat 58; Istisqa’ 13; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 328; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 663; Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa ii, 324.
20. See, page 140, fn. 76. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 329; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 664.
21. Ibn Maja, Fitan 1 no: 3930; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 329; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 665; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 142; Ibn Hisham, Sirat al-Nabi iv, 247; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya iv, 224-6.
22. Muslim, Ashriba 107 no: 2021; Ibn Hibban, Sahih viii, 152; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 328-9; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 666.
23. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 331; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id ix, 349; al-‘Asqalani, al-Matalib al-^Aliya iv, 90 no: 4044; al-Hakim, al-Mustradrak iii, 289.
24. 1 okka was the equivalent of 1,282 gr. or 2.8 lbs. (Tr.)
25. Musnad v, 441-2; Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat al-Kubra, iv, 53-7; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id ix, 332-6; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ 332; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak ii, 16.
26. Muslim, Fada’il 8 no: 2280; Musnad iii, 340, 347; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 332.
27. Bayhaqi, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa vi,
28. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 331; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 668.
29. Ibn Maja, Tahara 136 no: 659; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 332; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 669.
30. al-Sa’ati, al-Fath al-Rabbani xxii, 667.
31. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 334; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 160.
32. Tabrizi, Mishkat al-Masabih (Tahqiq: al-Albani) no: 5943: al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id vi, 58; viii, 313; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak ii, 109; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya iii, 190-1; Ibn al-Qayyim, Zad al-Ma’ad iii, 55, 57; Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat al-Kubra i, 230-1.
33. Musnad (Tahqiq: Ahmad Shakir) v, 210 no: 3598; Ibn Hibban, Sahih viii, 149; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya vi, 102.
34. al-Sa’ati, al-Fath al-Rabbani xx, 192-3; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id viii, 220-1; Abu Na’im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa i, 111-3; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa’l-Nihaya ii, 273; Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 366; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 750; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 313.
35. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 334; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 673.
36. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 334; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 674.
37. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 335; ‘Ali al-Qari, Sharh al-Shifa’ i, 676-7.
38. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 334; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id ix, 412; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak iii, 487.
39. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 334; al-^Asqala\ni, al-Isaba iii, 225; al-Haythami, Majma’ al-Zawa’id v, 319.
40. Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa’ i, 334; al-Khafaji, Sharh al-Shifa’ iii, 163; al-Haythami, Majma^ al-Zawa’id ix, 259.

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