FAQ in the category of Prophets

1 What are the professions of the prophets mentioned in the Qur’an?

Each of the prophets whose names are mentioned in the Qur’an had been busy with one or more than one worldly occupations and they made their worldly living out of these occupations. So, they could teach people good and useful professions and they did not have to be in need of other people. That is why they could support the belief in oneness of Allah without fear of anybody.

The Prophets Whose Names Are Mentioned in the Qur’an:

According to a narration, 124 thousand and according to another narration, 224 thousand prophets were sent. Only 28 of them are mentioned in the Qur’an. Here is the list of the prophets whose names are mentioned in the Qur’an:

1. Adam                                        8. Ishma’il….                                  15. Harun (Aaron)                   22.Zakaria (Zacharias)
2. Idris (Enoch)                           9. Is’haq (Isaac)….                        16. Dawud                                23.Yahya (John)
3. Noah                                      10.Yaqub (Jacob)….                       17. Sulayman                           24. Isa (Jesus)
4. Hud                                        11. Yusuf (Joseph)….                     18. Yunus (Jonah)                   25.Uzair*
5. Saleh                                     12. Ayyub (Job)…..                           19. Ilyas (Elijah)                       26. Luqman*
6. Ibrahim (Abraham)             13.Shu’ayb (Jethro)                         20.Al-Yasa (Elisha)                 27. Dhul-Qarnayn*
7. Lot                                          14.Musa (Moses)                            21.Dhul-Kifl (Ezekiel)              28. Muhammad (pbuh)

 

* These three holy people are also considered to be saints of Allah.

The following are those whose names are not mentioned in the Qur’an but are considered to be prophets: Sheeth (Seth), Yusha (Joshua), Jarjis (George) and Daniel.

THE PROFESSIONS OF SOME PROPHETS:

ADAM (pbuh) : He was the first agriculture engineer and farmer.

SETH (pbuh): Carder, Silk-monger, Weaver = He was the first to establish the textile industry.

IDRIS (pbuh): Since he was the first to invent the needle, the first to open a hole on it and to thread, he is considered to be the establisher of the tailoring and confectioning.

NOAH (pbuh) : He was the father of the carpenters, shipmen and mariners.

HUD (pbuh): He was a trader. He is deemed as the father of all the traders.

SALEH (pbuh): He used to raise herds of camels. He used to both drink their milk and to sell it to make his living. The camel of Saleh is famous.

IBRAHIM (pbuh): He guided Sulayman (pbuh) and Sinan, the Architect, owing to his construction of the Kaaba.

LOT (pbuh): He was a historian. He is the father of all the travellers.

ISHMA’IL (pbuh): He used to make his living out of hunting on the land and in the sea. He is regarded as the father of the hunters. He could speak 70 languages. He is also the father of the translators.

IS’HAQ (pbuh): He was a shepherd.

YAQUB (pbuh): He was also a shepherd.

YUSUF (pbuh): He is a prophet who first invented the clock and first to establish an office for agricultural products, and who stocked in abundance and distributed to public in scarcity.

AYYUB (pbuh): He was an agriculturalist.

SHU’AYB (pbuh): He was also an agriculturalist.

MOSES (pbuh): He used to be a shepherd and to serve for Shu’ayb (pbuh). Serving for a revered person is also one of the professions of the prophets.

HARUN (pbuh): He used to be a vizier.

DAWUD (pbuh): He used to be a commandant who forged the iron and made armors and who established a regular army and defeated Jalut’s (Goliath’s) army.

SULAYMAN (pbuh): He used to be a king, a ruler. He used to make baskets from rushes. He is the first to forge copper mine.

DHUL-KIFL (pbuh): He used to bake bread. He is the father of the bakers.

ILYAS (pbuh): He is the father of the weavers and thread-choosers.

YUNUS (pbuh): He used to fish to make a living. He is the father of the fishermen.

UZAYR (pbuh): He used to be a gardener. He is the first to teach people how to graft fruit tress and to raise saplings, and how to prune trees. He is the father of those who are occupied with gardening.

LUQMAN (pbuh): He is the father of doctors and pharmacists.

ZACHARIA (pbuh): He used to be a carpenter. (Musnad, 2:405)

ISA (pbuh): He was a hunter. He used to make his living on hunting. He is the father of the hunters.

MUHAMMAD (pbuh): He used to be a shepherd when he was young and then he used to deal with trade and jihad.

2 What language did Hz Adam and Hz Eve speak? What language will be spoken in Paradise?

In Imam Munawi’s hadith book named Faydu’l-Qadir, the following hadith is narrated from Ibn Abbas:

“Love the Arabs for three reasons: because I am an Arab, the Qur’an is Arabic and the speech of the people of Paradise is Arabic.”1

Arabic is one of the best among the world languages in terms of declamation, literature, fluency and richness. In addition, it has quite a different place among the other languages in terms of sound, harmony and sentence structure. Allah sent the Quran, which is His own speech, in Arabic. The prophet had already been speaking this language, that is, the language of his own nation and people…

Some verses confirm and support this hadith:

‘’In the perspicuous Arabic tongue.’’2

‘’We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them.’’3

The verse above states that our prophet (pbuh) conveyed the message to the Arabs, who were in his own nation, by using their own language.

Because being language of the Quran and the language that our prophet Hz Muhammad spoke is Arabic, the language of Paradise is unmistakably Arabic. Before Hz Adam was sent to earth, he would speak in Arabic while he was in Paradise. And also this is the language that some of the other prophets spoke as well as our prophet. For instance, Hz . Noah, Hz. Hud, Hz. Ismail, Hz. Salih, Hz. Shuayb spoke Arabic.

Besides, Imam Qastalani mentions the following narration from Hz Aisha: ‘’ The people of Paradise will speak with Hz Muhammad’s language.’’4

It is certain that the language of Paradise is Arabic by the hadith above and Hz Aisha’s narration; in addition, while Said Nursi explains reasons of Abu Hanifa’s fatwa in "the Letters (Mektubat)" , he writes the following:

‘’In a narration, the Persian language is considered a language of the people of Paradise…’’5

If this statement and the statements above are considered together, it will not be wrong  to deduce such a conclusion: In fact, the language of Paradise is Arabic but Persian could be spoken too. That is, Allah can create both languages as language of Paradise.

The statement in the hadith ’’ Love the Arabs…’’ should not be understood as absolute. As there are non-Muslims in the Arab society, there are also atheists nowadays. Belonging to the Arab race and to the Arab nation is not enough to love them. The statement in the hadith indicates the Arabs who are Muslims, practice their religion and follow Hz Muhammad. In addition we love them as our religious fellows, since they speak the language of the Quran, the Prophet and Paradise, spread the religion for the first time and serve Islam, they are worthy of a bit more love than other nations.

Footnotes

1. Faydu'l-Qadîr, I/178, Hadith no: 225.
2. Surah ash-Shuara, 195.
3. Surah Ibrahim, 4.
4. Mawahib al-Ladunniyya , 1/276.
5. The Letters (Mektubat), p. 406.

3 How many children did Prophet Adam have?

Eve (Hawwa) had forty infants from Adam out of twenty births. In another narration, it is said that Eve had one hundred twenty births. 1

Prophet Adam lived on Nawdh mountain with his sons and his sons’sons until their number reached to forty thousand. 2

Footnotes:

1. See at-Tabari, Tafsir, VI, 186, ff; Tarikh, 1/1,189 ff; as-Salabi, Arais, p. 26 ff; at-Tus Tafsir, III, 491 ff; at-Tabrasi, Tafsir, II, 182 ff; az-Zamakhshari, Tafsir 1,623 ff; Ibnu'l-Arabi, Tafsir, II, 586 ff; Ibnu'l-Jawzi, Tafsir, II 331 ff; Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, II 541 ff; al-Qasimi, Tafsir, 1942; Rashid Riza, Tafsir, VI, 340 ff; al-Mas'udi, Muruju'z-Dhahab 1, 35 ff; Ibnu'1-Athir, al-Kamil, 44-45; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya I, 92 ff; Ali Ibn Bali, Badaiu'z-Zuhur, p. 47; Diyarakri, Tarikh, 59 ff; Abdulwahhab an-Najjar, Qasasu'l-Anbiya, p. 22-23.

2. Ibn Sa'd-Tabaqat Vol.1,p. 38-39; Tabari-Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 84; al-Mas'udi, Muruju'z-Dhahab Vol. 1, p. 38; Peygamberler Tarihi, Asım Köksal; İslami Kaynaklara Göre Peygamberler, Abdullah Aydemir

4 How many nations and tribes were destroyed? Where, how and why?

Various prophets and apostles were sent by Allah to the nations that went astray. Among those prophets whose names we know, only five of them are Arabs. The other prophets belong to other races. The following is stated in a hadith regarding the issue:

Among those prophets whose names are included in the Quran, only five of them are Arabs. They are as follows: Hz. Ismail, Hz. Shuayb, Hz. Salih, Hz. Hud and Hz. Muhammad (peace be upon them).

They were all prophets in the regions where Arabs lived. Hz. Shuayb lived in the region of Madyan, Hz. Salih in the region of Hijr and Hz. Hud in the region of Ahqaf; almost all of their nations were destroyed. 

The destruction of the nations of Ad, Thamud and the nation of Shuayb, the Flood of Arim, which destroyed the nation of Saba, the incident of Ashab al-Uhdud and the incident of Fil (Elephant) all took place on Arab land known as Bilad al-Arab. 

The place where the Pharaoh and his men, who were enemies of Hz. Musa, where Qarun (Croesus) and Haman were destroyed was Egypt.

The disaster that eliminated the nation of Lut, and the slight punishment given to the nation of Ilyas took place in Bilad ad-Dimashq (Damascus).

The destruction of the nation of Nuh, the destruction of Nimrod, who was an enemy of Ibrahim, and Nimrod's men and what happened to the nation of Yunus, who were saved from Allah's wrath in the last minute, took place in Iraq. 

It is possible to mention a special property that distinguishes a prophet from others whose stories are narrated in the Quran.

For instance, we see that each one of the prophets mentioned in the chapter of al-Anam has different characters and is a pioneer of something.

Accordingly, Hz. Nuh is the first prophet who struggled against idolaters.

Hz. Ishaq and Hz. Yaqub are the ancestors of all the prophets sent to Children of Israel.

Hz. Dawud and Hz. Sulayman are distinguished by their property and sultanate; Hz. Ayyub and Hz. Yusuf differ from other prophets in terms of testing and patience.

Hz. Musa and Hz. Harun are distinguished with the power of weakening, majesty and overwhelming power. Hz. Zakariyya, Hz. Yaqub, Hz. Isa and Hz. Ilyas are models for asceticism, spirituality and sacrifice.

Similarly, each individual and nation that is destroyed has different properties from others and they are the first ones that committed those bad deeds among people.

It is possible to divide human history into three periods in terms of this issue. Besides, it is possible to deal with the destruction of individuals and nations under two headings as before Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) and after him.

The eras of human history according to the Quran:

Qurun al-Ula (The First Generations): The period between Hz. Adam and Hz. Moses when  the Pharaoh was destroyed and the Torah  was sent down. 

The Nation of Nuh, the Prophet Nuh

It is stated in the Quran that Ashab ar-Ras denied their prophets along with the nation of Nuh, Ad and Thamud; there is no other information.

The Nation of Ad, the Prophet Hud

The Nation of Thamud, the Prophet Salih

The Nation of Lut, the Prophet Lut

The Nation of Shuayb (the People of Madyan and Ayka), the Prophet Shuayb    

Qurun al-Wusta (the Middle Generations): The period from the time of the destruction of the Pharaoh or the revelation of the Torah to the time when Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) was sent.

Ashab al-Qarya: Ashab al-Qarya is a Quranic expression meaning the people of village or town. The phrase Ashab al-Qarya mentioned in the chapter of Yasin indicates a community that lived in Antakya (Antioch), Turkey. Allah sent two messengers and then one more messenger to the people of this town. When the messengers told them that they were messengers sent to them by Allah, they denied the messengers by saying, "You are only men like ourselves." (Yasin, 36/15) They even said to the messengers that they brought evil omen to them and threatened to stone them if they did not leave. During this conversation, somebody from the other end of the town arrived there by running and told the people of the town to believe in those messengers. The ferocious unbelievers killed this person, who expressed the truth logically. When those three messengers, whom they did not believe in, left that town, a strong noise caught the people of the town. They were destroyed with that sound. 

The Nation of Saba' (Sayl al-Arim): Saba is mentioned in two chapters in the Quran. In the chapter of an-Naml (27/20-44), it is stated that Saba, which was a rich and powerful country, was directed by a queen, that its people worshipped the sun, that Hz. Sulayman sent a messenger to that queen and asked her and her nation to become Muslims, that the queen who wanted to deal with the issue through peace went to Jerusalem to meet Sulayman, that she understood during this meeting that he was a real prophet when she noticed his bodily and spiritual power and that she accepted his domination. There are narrations in history and tafsir resources that Hz. Sulayman married her or he married her off to the king of Hamdan and allowed her to remain as the queen of Saba. In the chapter of Saba, whose name is derived from this nation, it is stated that the powerful nation of Saba with wealth and welfare gave up worshipping Allah by obeying Satan despite so many bounties given to them, that they were punished by a big flood (Flood of Arim), that their fertile land was transformed into arid land and that their bounties were transformed into shortages. Regarding the date of the demolition of the wall, historians mention various dates between 4th century BC and 6th century AD. This difference can be explained by the possibility of the repetition of the disaster.

Ashab al-Jannah (People of the Garden): The issue mentioned at length in verses 17-32 of the chapter of al-Qalam (68) is about some siblings who did not make good use of the garden like Paradise they inherited from their father and their ungrateful attitude toward Allah, who granted them that bounty, and their losing this bounty. It is said that this incident that happened to the People of the Garden was known by Arabs. 

Ashab as-Sabt: The punishment of Ashab as-Sabt is mainly mentioned in the chapter of al-Araf and also in the chapters of al-Baqara and an-Nisa. WhenAshab as-Sabt (the People of Saturday) is mentioned, Jews come to mind. However, when Ashab as-Sabt is mentioned in the Quran, not all Jews but the Jews that disobeyed Allah by violating the holiness of Saturday and that were transformed into monkeys and pigs because of it come to mind.

Ashab al-Uhdud: The term Ashab al-Uhdud is mentioned only in verse 4 of the chapter of al-Buruj in the Quran. Ashab al-Uhdud means the people of the ditch. This story is about a fire made by a group of unbelievers in order to burn the believers, the test the believers undergo in these ditches of fire and the destruction of those unbelievers. This incident is very well known by the Makkan polytheists; therefore, they are threatened by the terrible punishment given to them and the believers who are exposed to the tortures of the unbelievers are reassured. This story will continue to serve as a morale booster for the believers and as a threat to unbelievers.

The Nation of Tubba': It is mentioned in two places in the Quran: the chapter of ad-Duhan and the chapter of Qaf.

It is controversial whether Tubba is a person or a dynasty of kings. It is reported from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "I do not know whether Tubba is a prophet or not." Hz. Aisha said, "Do not curse Tubba because he was a righteous person. Allah criticized his nation, not him."

Ibn Abbas said he was a prophet. According to a view, Tubba used to be a fire-worshipper but he became a Muslim afterwards and called his nation to accept Islam. His nation opposed him and committed big sins; therefore, they were destroyed. The most important characteristic of the nation of Tubba was probably the fact that they were the closest community to the Makkan polytheists among the destroyed nations. (For narrations and more information, see Zamakhshari, Kashshaf, IV, 279-280)

Ashab al-Fil: A very short time before the advent of Islam, an astonishing incident took place in the Arabian Peninsula. Abraha built a very big church called "Qullays" in the city of San'a in Yemen. Thus, he aimed to make all Arabs abandon the Kaaba, which they visited for hajj, and come to his church. Abraha, who wanted to demolish the Kaaba with this intention, and his army were destroyed. The chapter of al-Fil, which was sent down upon this incident is as follows: 

"Seest thou not how thy Lord dealt with the Companions of the Elephant? Did He not make their treacherous plan go astray? And He sent against them flights of Birds, Striking them with stones of baked clay. Then did He make them like an empty field of stalks and straw, (of which the corn) has been eaten up."
              
Qurun al-Ukhra (The Last Generations): It is the time period between the advent of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) with Islam and the Doomsday, which is also called the end of time. 

Those killed in Badr: Ashab al-Kalib (Makkan polytheists)   

Jews around Madinah

o    Banu Qaynuqa 

o    Banu Nadr       

o    Banu Qurayza   
              
The individuals that were punished by Allah and mentioned in the Quran

Before the Messenger of Allah (pbuh):

Nuh's Son       

Nuh's Wife           

Lut's Wife             

Nimrod  

The Pharaoh and Children of Israel  

Qarun     

Haman   

Samiri     

Bal'am   

Jalut       

One of the two men, whose garden (property) was destroyed only           
 
During the time of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)

Abu Lahab         

Abu Jahl           

Walid B. Mughira

Nadr B. al-Harith

Ka'b B. Ashraf     

Abu Amir, a Christian priest            

The examples of the incidents related to the wrath of God presented by the Quran serves to make man avoid the deeds of those people. Therefore, the elements of time and date are not mentioned much in those incidents.

There is no information in the Quran stating that such and such a nation lived in this or that year, stating the date exactly. Similarly, the element of place is not given much importance in the Quran.

The reason for this is the viewpoint of the Quran related to history. When the Quran narrates historical incidents, it deals with the characteristics of the people and the attitudes of the communities; it analyzes them in detail. The Quran emphasizes how attitudes are evaluated by Allah.

Thus, the Quran gives man a list of things he needs to do and not to do.

While doing so, the Quran explains in detail and in a way that man can understand the basic philosophy and approach that need to be dominant in his deeds in order to attain happiness both in the world and the hereafter.

The issue of wrath is present in the parts that are known as stories. From this point of view, the most important topic of stories is the incidents related to wrath. The first addressees of the Quran described the Quran as "tales of the ancients" (al-An'am 6/25) when they denied it. Today, the issue that those who deny the Quran refer to the most is the stories in the Quran. The orientalists, who does it using scientific methods, and their representatives in the Islamic world work hard in order to bring about doubts in the minds of people regarding the stories in the Quran and to show them as unreal stories. 

It is true that some of the stories that exist in the Torah also exist in the Quran. However, there are usually differences between them.

Regarding those stories narrated both in the Quran and the Torah, the Quran  is a judge, showing the real nature of the distorted parts of the Torah.

Besides, another important aspect of the stories is that some stories that are present in the Quran do not exist in the Torah. The Quran has a different originality in terms of this aspect. Even the Makkan polytheists, the first addressees of the Quran that regarded the Quran as the tales of the ancient people, were surprised when they heard these stories, which were sent through revelation; they did not object to them at all.

The reason why stories and especially the scenes describing individuals and communities hit by the wrath of Allah exist so much in the Quran is that it aims to enable man to protect himself from these possible dangers that will happen when he deviates. From this point of view, the parts of the Quran that include scenes of wrath are the most important parts of the Quran, which is a divine warning. As a matter of fact, it functioned like that for the first people it addressed and it will continue functioning so in the future too. Allah reminded the polytheists that they knew what happened to the previous nations and that they will be hit by the wrath of Allah like the previous nations if they do not accept the signs of Allah.

The main idea of these parts is that among the nations that will exist up to the Day of Judgment, the end of those who oppose the orders and prohibitions of Allah and who insist on unbelief, polytheism, oppression and cruelty will not be any different from that of the previous nations.

To sum up, the reason why the verses of wrath are present abundantly without emphasizing the elements of place and time but emphasizing the characteristics of the people in the Quran is to tell people that Allah's law functions in the same way for similar situations and to enable them to protect themselves from falling into a bad situation like that.  

Thus, through stories, the message of the Quran “If they do not accept the signs of Allah, they will be destroyed like the previous nations" to its addressees makes its addressees understand the message fully in the form of unforgettable scenes thanks to the scenes from real events.

The stories repeated so much in the Quran has been a point of interest for especially historians and tafsir scholars. However, the fact that some stories also existed in the Torah and that some scholars completed some of the stories that were not explained in the Quran with the information included in the Torah and Gospel caused some superstitions and wrong information to be included in those history and tafsir resources.    

What is saddening here is the fact that the scholars who included these kinds of narrations in their books did not usually mention whether they took them from the Bible or another source knowingly or unknowingly. These parts that are presented as the interpretation of verses pose the danger of being understood as the explanation of the religion and the revelation regarding the issue since the source of the information is not stated.

In fact, God did not explain those issues because they were not important. While filling the parts of the story that are not explained with sources out of Islam, the source of the information must be mentioned and warnings as the following ones must be included:  “The issue is explained based on the Torah or based on such and such a person.”

Divine wrath, which forms the most horrible disaster in the universe, and destruction as a result of this wrath were conducted very few times in the history of mankind but it is a divine law that is repeated if people form the conditions necessary for it.

The infliction of wrath upon an individual or a community takes place after the formation of a long transformation process. During this process, the Creator sends various warnings to those who deny and go astray. These warnings tell the individuals and communities who rebel against Allah and who are in a war against Allah that a big misfortune is coming. Those who get the message and abandon fighting religious, holy things, who give up the claim of being a deity and avoid oppression protect themselves from the wrath due to the nature of divine laws.   

However, the deniers who insist on unbelief, who do not give up fighting against divine values and who dedicate themselves to fighting religious values attract the wrath of Allah are punished and destroyed by Him.

The types of wrath and disasters sent to the previous deniers from the ground and sky will serve to remain as a fact that can take place anytime and anywhere Allah wishes.:

“Say: "He hath power to send calamities on you, from above and below, or to cover you with confusion in party strife, giving you a taste of mutual vengeance― each from the other.” (al-An’am 6/65)

The interest in and the tendency toward the changes contrary to revelation in the nature of man that the Quran dwells upon will end up with the loss of those who do so as the Quran states.

At that point, the Quran lays emphasis on the criteria and principles of saving man from loss. It does so by drawing attention to the previous ummahs, prophets and the changes that they underwent.

There is no doubt that there are ways of protection from this big disaster in the law of Allah, who imposes all of the rules of the universe perfectly down to the last detail.

The Quran, which is the holy script of the last religion, informs us about those ways of protection.

The first one of it is as follows: man needs to remember that he is a slave in the eye of his Creator and act accordingly. He must not struggle against Allah by forgetting that he is a slave. 

The second one: Man needs to pray Allah, ask for forgiveness and repent for his sins throughout his life. Similar ways of protection from divine wrath are mentioned in the Quran.

For detailed information and resources, see Hatice BAŞKAYA, Kur’ân-ı Kerim’de Allah Teâlâ’nın Gazabına Uğramış İnsanlar Ve Toplumlar, Harran Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Temel İslam Bilimleri Anabilim Dalı Tefsir Bilim Dalı  (Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Şanlıurfa, 2007.

Note: We advise you to read the following article of Bahattin AKBAŞ, an expert in the High Council of Religious Affairs:

The Nations that were Destroyed and the Reasons why they were Destroyed

Allah gave man, who is the most honorable creature, intellect and will, and encumbered him with some responsibilities. Allah guided man by sending prophets and books so that he can fulfill those responsibilities. The Quran is the last holy book sent by Allah to Hz. Muhammad (pbuh). The addressee of this book is the whole mankind and its purpose is to ensure their happiness in the world and the hereafter. In order to fulfill this purpose, it is necessary for us to read and understand the Quran and to obey its orders and prohibitions.  

It is Allah who creates man and shapes him spiritually and physically and who makes him live. It is the most important duty of every Muslim to know, approach and worship Allah, who puts the universe under his order. Man needs to accept the revelation Allah sent through His prophet and the sunnah of the Prophet as his guide. The Quran, which is a source of endless knowledge, wisdom and happiness, is a sublime book that enlightens the mind and heart, that enlightens the realms with its light, that cures spirits and that enables man to have a strong conscience and belief.  

Therefore, we need to accept the Quran as our guide, to study carefully what Allah tells us in it and to meditate on them. As a matter of fact, Allah states that the reason why the Quran was sent is to make man think:

هَـذَابَلاَغٌلِّلنَّاسِوَلِيُنذَرُوابِهِوَلِيَعْلَمُواْأَنَّمَاهُوَإِلَـهٌوَاحِدٌوَلِيَذَّكَّرَأُوْلُواْالأَلْبَابِ 
 
"Here is a Message for mankind: let them take warning therefrom, and let them know that He is (no other than) One God: let men of understanding take heed.” (Ibrahim,14/52)

The news about the previous nations, which forms an important part of the Quran, is one of the issues that need to be meditated on. Most of those nations denied the prophets sent to them and treated them as enemies. Allah states in the Quran that these incidents of destructions due to their deviation should be lessons for those who come to the world after them. For instance, the following verse tells us about the punishment given to a group of Jews, who opposed Allah:   

 فَجَعَلْنَاهَانَكَالاًلِّمَابَيْنَيَدَيْهَاوَمَاخَلْفَهَاوَمَوْعِظَةًلِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

“So We made it an example to their own time and to their posterity, and a lesson to those who fear Allah." (al-Baqara,2/66)

Most of the incidents of destruction mentioned in the Quran has been known and seen thanks to archeological excavations.

Every nation and community have a lifespan like all living beings; they are born, live and die. There is no eternal nation in history. Nations also pass away when their lifespan ends like human beings. It is a necessity of the system established by Allah in the universe.

The following is stated about the destroyed nations in the Quran:
 
“Never did We destroy a population that had not a term decreed and assigned beforehand. Neither can a people anticipate its Term, nor delay it.” (al-Hijr,15/4-5)

The words “qarya”, (1) and  “ummah” (2) are used about the destroyed nations in the Quran. These words mean the people in a country, generations, small or big communities.  (3)

Communities die when their lifespan ends. Their term cannot be lengthened or shortened, and quickened or shortened. Only Allah knows this term. When it is due, they are destroyed.  

“There is a term for every community, every nation, whether big or small and every state in the eye of Allah. Not all of those who deny the prophets of Allah, the polytheists, unruly people, atheists, oppressors, rebels, and immoral people all over the world are punished all of a sudden and at the same time. Each nation has a term. An evil that causes a nation to be destroyed at a certain period of time might take less or more time for another. However, when their appointed time reaches, it cannot be delayed or advanced. They are destroyed.” (4) This issue is stated as follows in the Quran:

فَإِذَاجَاءأَجَلُهُمْلاَيَسْتَأْخِرُونَسَاعَةًوَلاَيَسْتَقْدِمُونَ“  وَلِكُلِّأُمَّةٍأَجَلٌ
 
“To every people is a term appointed: when their term is reached not an hour can they cause delay, nor (an hour) can they advance (it in anticipation).” (al-Araf,7/34)

It is stated in the following verse that this appointed time never changes:

“But to no soul will Allah grant respite when the time appointed (for it) has come: and Allah is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.” (al-Munafiqun, 63/11)

According to the Quran, a person dies only with the permission of Allah:

“Nor can a soul die except by Allah's leave the term being fixed as by writing. If any do desire a reward in this life, We shall give it to him; and if any do desire a reward in the Hereafter, We shall give it to him. And swiftly shall We reward those that (serve Us with) gratitude."  (Aal-i Imran 3/145)

“The wrath and destruction of every ummah is recorded in the Preserved Tablet (Lawh al-Mahfuz). When the causes and conditions written there occur, they are destroyed.” (5) Allah states the following in the Quran:

 وَإِنْمِنْقَرْيَةٍإِلَّانَحْنُمُهْلِكُوهَاقَبْلَيَوْمِالْقِيَامَةِأَوْمُعَذِّبُوهَاعَذَابًاشَدِيدًاكَانَذَلِكَفِيالْكِتَابِمَسْطُورًا

“There is not a population but We shall destroy it before the Day of Judgment or punish it with a dreadful Penalty: That is written in the (eternal) Record.”(al-Isra, 17/58)

It is Allah who predestinates the time of destruction for ummahs and individuals. It is not possible for anyone to die outside this predestination and time and for any ummah to be destroyed. As it is stated in the verses, every community and every individual have appointed terms. When it is due, the individuals and communities die. People cannot know this appointed term; only Allah knows it. 

According to the Quran, the people themselves cause the destruction of their nations. There lies the reason for the destruction of nations. Allah is merciful. His mercy surrounds everything. Allah does not wrong people; He gives them abundant rewards in return for their good deeds. He does not punish people for all of their bad deeds; He forgives some of them.      

“Allah is never unjust in the least degree: if there is any good (done) He doubleth it, and giveth from His own presence a great reward.”(an-Nisa, 4/40)

إنَّاللّهَلاَيَظْلِمُالنَّاسَشَيْئًاوَلَـكِنَّالنَّاسَأَنفُسَهُمْيَظْلِمُونَ

“Verily Allah will not deal unjustly with man in aught: it is man that wrongs his own soul”(Yunus10/44)   The verses above state that Allah does not treat people unjustly; they state that misfortunes hit people due to their own mistakes and that the people who rebel against Allah treat themselves unjustly.

 وَلَقَدْأَهْلَكْنَاالْقُرُونَمِنْقَبْلِكُمْلَمَّاظَلَمُواوَجَاءَتْهُمْرُسُلُهُمْبِالْبَيِّنَاتِوَمَاكَانُوالِيُؤْمِنُواكَذَلِكَنَجْزِيالْقَوْمَالْمُجْرِمِينَ

Generations before you We destroyed when they did wrong: their Messengers came to them with Clear Signs, but they would not believe! Thus do We requite those who sin. (Yunus, 10/13)

وَلَوْأَنَّأَهْلَالْقُرَىآمَنُواوَاتَّقَوْالَفَتَحْنَاعَلَيْهِمْبَرَكَاتٍمِنْالسَّمَاءِوَالْأَرْضِوَلَكِنْكَذَّبُوافَأَخَذْنَاهُمْبِمَاكَانُوايَكْسِبُونَ
 
“If the people of the towns had but believed and feared Allah, We should indeed have opened out to them (all kinds of) blessings from heaven and earth; but they rejected (the truth) and We brought them to book for their misdeeds. (al-Araf, 7/96)

وَالَّذِينَكَذَّبُواْبِآيَاتِنَاسَنَسْتَدْرِجُهُممِّنْحَيْثُلاَيَعْلَمُونَ
   
“Those who reject Our signs, We shall gradually visit with punishment, in ways they perceive not.” (al-Araf,7/182)

The destruction of nations is because of the oppression and bad deeds they commit. Allah does not change the good characteristics of a nation unless they themselves change them. The following is stated in a verse: 

اناللهلايغيرمابقومختىيغيروامابانفسهم  واذااراداللهبقومسوءافلامردلهومالهممندونهمنوال

“Verily never will Allah change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own souls). But when (once) Allah willeth a people's punishment, there can be no turning it back, nor will they find, besides Him any to protect” (Ra’d, 13/11)

According to the verse above, people keep living in welfare and peace as long as they keep doing good deeds. The destruction of communities is caused by their own bad deeds like mischief, corruption, anarchy and terror. (6)

If immorality, injustice, oppression and evil deeds increase in a community and nobody tries to prevent them, that community is punished and destroyed. Allah replaces them with another community. This issue is stated as follows: in the Quran:

“How many were the populations we utterly destroyed because of their iniquities, setting up in their places other peoples.” (al-Anbiya, 21/11)

Many nations lived and passed away. Why did those nations not survive? Why were they destroyed? According to the Quran, some nations were destroyed while they were in poverty and hardship while others were destroyed while they were in welfare and wealth. (7)

According to what the Quran tells us, Allah sent prophets to all nations to guide people; the prophets called them to belief and obedience and asked them to give up debauchery, oppression and rebellion. However, most of them did not accept the call of the prophets and denied them; some of them even killed their prophets by torturing them. Allah warned those nations several times but He destroyed them because they did not improve themselves. This issue is stated as follows: in the Quran:

أَلَمْيَرَوْاْكَمْأَهْلَكْنَامِنقَبْلِهِممِّنقَرْنٍمَّكَّنَّاهُمْفِيالأَرْضِمَالَمْنُمَكِّنلَّكُمْوَأَرْسَلْنَاالسَّمَاءعَلَيْهِممِّدْرَارًاوَجَعَلْنَاالأَنْهَارَتَجْرِيمِنتَحْتِهِمْفَأَهْلَكْنَاهُمبِذُنُوبِهِمْوَأَنْشَأْنَامِنبَعْدِهِمْقَرْنًاآخَرِينَ

“See they not how many of those before them We did destroy?― Generations We had established on the earth, in strength such as We have not given to you,― for whom We poured out rain from the skies in abundance, and gave streams flowing beneath their (feet): yet for their sins We destroyed them, and raised in their wake fresh generations (to succeed them).” (al-Anam,6/6)

فَلَمَّانَسُوامَاذُكِّرُوابِهِفَتَحْنَاعَلَيْهِمْأَبْوَابَكُلِّ
شَيْءٍحَتَّىإِذَافَرِحُوابِمَاأُوتُواأَخَذْنَاهُمْبَغْتَةًفَإِذَاهُمْمُبْلِسُونَ

“But when they forget the warning they had received, We opened to them the gates of all (good) things, until, in the midst of their enjoyment of Our gifts, on a sudden, We called them to account, when lo! they were plunged in despair!”  (al-Anam 6/44 ) (8)

The verses above state that Allah destroyed previous nations because of their sins and that they could not escape destruction though they were advanced economically and technologically.  Allah created new nations instead of those destroyed nations.

The main sins of the destroyed nations are their rebellion against the prophets who called them to belief, obedience and honesty, and denying their prophets.

An important part of the Quran gives scenes from the stories and lives of previous nations and prophets. These stories are not narrated so that they will be read only but so that people will take lessons from them. These stories are full of important lessons, wisdom and advice. Therefore, we need to read those verses carefully and take lessons from them.

Now we can mention the reasons for the destruction of some nations.

NUH'S NATION

After Hz. Adam, the number of human beings increased; they built several towns on earth but they started to deviate from the true religion and to worship idols. Allah sent Hz. Nuh as a prophet to the people but they did not heed his advice; they even made fun of him. When Hz. Nuh gave up hope of his nation's belief, he asked Allah to destroy them. Allah ordered him to build a ship and to embark the believers and a pair of each animal species. After that, the earth was flooded by a great deluge. Those who did not believe were drowned and destroyed. (9) The reason for the destruction of the nation of Nuh is narrated as follows in the Quran:

وَلَقَدْأَرْسَلْنَانُوحًاإِلَىقَوْمِهِفَلَبِثَفِيهِمْأَلْفَسَنَةٍإِلَّاخَمْسِينَعَامًافَأَخَذَهُمُالطُّوفَانُوَهُمْظَالِمُونَ

“We (once) sent Noah to his people, and he tarried among them a thousand years less fifty: but the Deluge overwhelmed them while they (persisted in) sin." (al-Ankabut, 29/14)

مِمَّاخَطِيئَاتِهِمْأُغْرِقُوافَأُدْخِلُوانَارًافَلَمْيَجِدُوالَهُممِّندُونِاللَّهِأَنصَارًا

“Because of their sins they were drowned (in the flood) and were made to enter the Fire (of Punishment): and they found― in lieu of Allah― none to help them.” (Nuh, 71/25)

The nation of Nuh was destroyed because they rebelled against Allah and His prophet and because they indulged in oppression, unbelief and sins.  

THE NATION OF AD

Allah sent Hz. Hud as a prophet to the people of Ad living in the region of Yemen. The nation of Ad had a lot of bounties; they constructed pompous buildings. Hz Hud, showed miracles to the nation of Ad, who insisted on polytheism and unbelief, and asked them to believe in the oneness of Allah. However, they were destroyed by a strong wind because they did not heed Hz. Hud and insisted on polytheism. (10)

فَأَمَّاعَادٌفَاسْتَكْبَرُوافِيالْأَرْضِبِغَيْرِالْحَقِّوَقَالُوامَنْأَشَدُّمِنَّاقُوَّةًأَوَلَمْيَرَوْاأَنَّاللَّهَالَّذِيخَلَقَهُمْهُوَأَشَدُّمِنْهُمْقُوَّةًوَكَانُوابِآيَاتِنَايَجْحَدُون

“Now the `Ad behaved arrogantly through the land, against (all) truth and reason, and said: "Who is superior to us in strength?" What! Did they not see that Allah, Who created them, was superior to them in strength? But they continued to reject Our Signs.” (Fussilat, 41/15)

فَأَرْسَلْنَاعَلَيْهِمْرِيحًاصَرْصَرًافِيأَيَّامٍنَّحِسَاتٍلِّنُذِيقَهُمعَذَابَالْخِزْيِفِيالْحَيَاةِالدُّنْيَاوَلَعَذَابُالْآخِرَةِأَخْزَىوَهُملَاْيُنصَرُون

“So We sent against them a furious Wind through days of disaster, that We might give them a taste of a Penalty of humiliation in this Life; but the Penalty of the Hereafter will be more humiliating still: and they will find no help." (Fussilat, 41/16)

.فَكَذَّبُوهُفَأَخَذَتْهُمُالرَّجْفَةُفَأَصْبَحُوافِيدَارِهِمْجَاثِمِينَوَعَادًاوَثَمُودَوَقَدتَّبَيَّنَلَكُممِّنمَّسَاكِنِهِمْوَزَيَّنَلَهُمُالشَّيْطَانُأَعْمَالَهُمْفَصَدَّهُمْعَنِالسَّبِيلِوَكَانُوامُسْتَبْصِرِينَ

"But they rejected him: then the mighty Blast seized them, and they lay prostrate in their homes by the morning. (Remember also) the `Ad and the Thamud (people): clearly will appear to you from (the traces) of their buildings (their fate): the Evil One made their deeds alluring to them, and kept them back from the Path, though they were gifted with Intelligence and Skill." (al-Ankabut, 29/37-38).

The nation of Ad was destroyed because they showed ingratitude to Allah despite the bounties He gave to them, and because of their denial and rebellion.

THE NATION OF THAMUD

After the destruction of the nation of Ad, the nation of Thamud lived in the region of Hijr. The nation of Thamud also had a lot of bounties; they built strong houses, summer and winter houses by carving mountains and stones. They lived in abundance and welfare; they lived long. In the course of time, they deviated from the right path and became polytheists. Allah sent Hz. Salih as a prophet to them. Salih called them to belief in Allah, worshipping and obedience. He showed them miracles and gave them advice. However, his nation did not obey him; they denied him. They killed the female camel that was given to them as a miracle and that they were asked not to touch. Thereupon, all of the nation of Thamud except Salih and those who believed in him were destroyed by a strong thunder. (11)

وَلَقَدْأَرْسَلْنَاإِلَىثَمُودَأَخَاهُمْصَالِحًاأَنِاعْبُدُوااللَّهَفَإِذَاهُمْفَرِيقَانِيَخْتَصِمُونَ

“We sent (aforetime), to the Thamud their brother Salih, saying, "Serve Allah": but behold, they became two factions quarrelling with each other.” (an-Naml, 27/45)

كَذَّبَتْثَمُودُبِطَغْوَاهَاإِذِانبَعَثَأَشْقَاهَا  فَقَالَلَهُمْرَسُولُاللَّهِنَاقَةَاللَّهِوَسُقْيَاهَافَكَذَّبُوهُفَعَقَرُوهَافَدَمْدَمَعَلَيْهِمْرَبُّهُمبِذَنبِهِمْفَسَوَّاهَا

“But the messenger of Allah said to them: "It is a She-camel of Allah! and (bar her not from) having her drink!" Then they rejected him (as a false prophet), and they hamstrung her. So their Lord, on account of their crime, obliterated their traces and made them equal (in destruction, high and low).”  (ash-Shams, 91/13-14)

THE NATION OF LUT

Hz. Lut was sent to the nation of Sodom in Palestine as a prophet. This nation deviated from the true path and indulged in denial and rebellion. The men living there stopped having sexual intercourse with women and started homosexuality. Hz. Lut called his nation to the true path. They were destroyed when they did not accept this call. (12)

ْإِنَّامُنَجُّوكَوَأَهْلَكَإِلَّاامْرَأَتَكَكَانَتْمِنَالْغَابِرِينَ  إِنَّامُنزِلُونَعَلَىأَهْلِهَذِهِالْقَرْيَةِرِجْزًامِّنَالسَّمَاءبِمَاكَانُوايَفْسُقُونَ

"Our Messengers said to Lot, "Fear thou not nor grieve: we are (here) to save thee and thy following, except thy wife: she is of those who lag behind. For we are going to bring down on the people of this township a Punishment from heaven, because they have been wickedly rebellious."  (al-Ankabut, 29/33,34)

وَلُوطًاإِذْقَالَلِقَوْمِهِأَتَأْتُونَالْفَاحِشَةَوَأَنتُمْتُبْصِرُونأَئِنَّكُمْلَتَأْتُونالرِّجَالَشَهْوَةًمِّندُونِالنِّسَاءبَلْأَنتُمْقَوْمٌتَجْهَلُونََ

"We also sent Lut (as a messenger): behold, he said to his people "Do ye do what is shameful though ye see (its iniquity)? "Would ye really approach men in your lusts rather than women? Nay, ye are a people (grossly) ignorant!” (an-Naml 27/ 54, 55)

وَلُوطًاآتَيْنَاهُحُكْمًاوَعِلْمًاوَنَجَّيْنَاهُمِنَالْقَرْيَةِالَّتِيكَانَتتَّعْمَلُالْخَبَائِثَإِنَّهُمْكَانُواقَوْمَسَوْءٍفَاسِقِينَ

“And to Lut, too, we gave Judgment and Knowledge, and We saved him from the town which practised abominations: truly they were a people given to Evil, a rebellious people.” (al-Anbiya ,21/74)

THE PHARAOH AND THOSE WHO FOLLOWED HIM

Another nation that is stated to have been destroyed in the Quran is the Pharaoh and those who followed him. The Pharaoh is a name given to the kings of the ancient Egypt. The Pharaohs forced Children of Israel to do hard jobs like slaves. Children of Israel, who got tired of the hard jobs they were forced to do by the Pharaohs and by the polytheistic Copts, the natives of Egypt, wanted to return to Kanan, the land of their ancestors. However, they could not do it because they could not get rid of the Pharaoh. Once, a soothsayer told the Pharaoh that a child was going to be born from Children of Israel and that the child would depose him. Thereupon, the Pharaoh started to kill all of the male children of Children of Israel that were born. Hz. Musa (Moses) was born at that time. (13) According to the Quran, Hz. Musa got rid of the Pharaoh and was brought up in the palace of the Pharaoh by his own mother. Hz. Musa called the Pharaoh and Copts to the belief of oneness but the Pharaoh did not believe; he even claimed to be a deity; eventually, he was drowned in the sea together with his soldiers.

نَتْلُواعَلَيْكَمِننَّبَإِمُوسَىوَفِرْعَوْنَبِالْحَقِّلِقَوْمٍيُؤْمِنُونَإِنَّفِرْعَوْنَعَلَافِيالْأَرْضِوَجَعَلَأَهْلَهَاشِيَعًايَسْتَضْعِفُطَائِفَةًمِّنْهُمْيُذَبِّحُأَبْنَاءهُمْوَيَسْتَحْيِينِسَاءهُمْإِنَّهُكَانَمِنَالْمُفْسِدِينَ

“We rehearse to thee some of the story of Moses and Pharaoh in Truth, for people who believe. Truly Pharaoh elated himself in the land and broke up its people into sections depressing a group among them: their sons he slew, but he kept alive their females: for he was indeed a maker of mischief.” (al-Qasas,28/3-4)

فَأَوْحَيْنَاإِلَىمُوسَىأَنِاضْرِببِّعَصَاكَالْبَحْرَفَانفَلَقَفَكَانَكُلُّفِرْقٍكَالطَّوْدِالْعَظِيمِوَأَزْلَفْنَاثَمَّالْآخَرِينَوَأَنجَيْنَامُوسَىوَمَنمَّعَهُأَجْمَعِينَثُمَّأَغْرَقْنَاالْآخَرِينَ

“Then We told Moses by inspiration: "Strike the sea with thy rod." So it divided, and each separate part become like the huge, firm mass of a mountain. And We made the other party approach thither. We delivered Moses and all who were with him; But We drowned the others.” (ash-Shuara 26/63,66)

While the Pharaoh was being drowned in the sea together with his followers due to his rebellion and other sins, he wanted to believe by saying, I believed in Allah; there is no god but Allah; I am a Muslim too" but his belief was not accepted because he had no chance of living then and he started to see the punishment he would undergo.

وَجَاوَزْنَابِبَنِيإِسْرَائِيلالْبَحْرَفَأَتْبَعَهُمْفِرْعَوْنُوَجُنُودُهُبَغْيًاوَعَدْوًاحَتَّىإِذَاأَدْرَكَهُالْغَرَقُقَالَآمَنتُأَنَّهُلاإِلِـهَإِلاَّالَّذِيآمَنَتْبِهِبَنُوإِسْرَائِيلََوَأَنَاْمِنَالْمُسْلِمِينَآلآنَوَقَدْعَصَيْتَقَبْلُوَكُنتَمِنَالْمُفْسِدِينَ

“We took the Children of Israel across the sea: Pharaoh and his hosts followed them in insolence and spite. At length, when overwhelmed with the flood, he said: "I believe that there is no god except Him Whom the Children of Israel believe in: I am of those who submit (to Allah in Islam)." (It was said to him): "Ah now!― but a little while before, wast thou in rebellion!― and thou didst mischief (and violence)!"  (Yunus, 10/90-91)

Many more nations apart from the examples we have tried to give were destroyed. The main reason why they were destroyed was their oppression.

فَكَأَيِّنمِّنقَرْيَةٍأَهْلَكْنَاهَاوَهِيَظَالِمَةٌفَهِيَخَاوِيَةٌعَلَىعُرُوشِهَاوَبِئْرٍمُّعَطَّلَةٍوَقَصْرٍمَّشِيدٍ

"How many populations have We destroyed, which were given to wrong-doing? They tumbled down on their roofs. And how many wells are lying idle and neglected, and castles lofty and well-built? (al-Hajj, 22/45) Denying Allah, His prophets and His verses, associating partners with Allah, rebellion and oppression are the common properties of the nations that were destroyed. (14)

CONCLUSION:   

There is a certain lifespan for each nation in the world. When this predestinated time comes, it is not delayed. The nations living in the world are destroyed because of their polytheism, unbelief, rebellion and oppression. Allah never oppresses His slaves. 

There are lessons for people in the stories of the previous nations. The stories of the destroyed nations are like that too.

Footnotes:
1.    For qarya, see al-Isra, 17/16, 58 al-Hijr, 15/4, al-Anbiya, 21/56, al-Hajj, 22/45, ash-Shuara, 26/208, al-Qasas ,22/158, Muhammad, 47/13
2.    For ummah, see al-Araf, 7/34, 164, Yunus, 10/49, al-Hijr, 15/5, al-Anam, 6/42, Hud, 11/48, az-Zukhruf, 43/22, al-Anbiya, 21/92, Hud, 11/8. For qawm, see also Aal-i Imran, 3/117, for “qarn”, see al-Qasas, 28/78, al-Anam,6/6, Yunus, 10/13, as-Sajda, 32/26, Qaf,50/36. The words qawm and qarn are used in the same sense.
3.    Al-Qurtubi, Muhammad, al-Jami li Ahkami’l-Qur'an, l,137. Yazır, Elmalılı M. Hamdi, Hak Dini Kur'ân Dili,l, 508. For the relevant verses, see az-Zukhruf, 43/22, al-Anbiya, 21/92, Hud, 11/8, al-Anam, 6/38, 42
4.    Yazır, III, 2156
5.    Karagöz,İsmail,Kur'ân’a Göre Musibetler Açısından İnsan ve Toplum, p.172
6.    Karagöz, İsmail,Kur'ân’a Göre Musibetler Açısından İnsan ve Toplum, p.176-177
7.    Karagöz, p.182
8.    See also Qaf, 50/36,  Muhammad, 47/13,  Maryam, 19/74,  al-Kahf, 18/59, al-Mumin, 60/21. al-Haqqa, 69/9-10, az-Zukhruf, 43/6-8
9.    Ahmet Cevdet Paşa, Kısas-ı Enbiya, l/8. For the relevant verses, see al-Araf, 7/59-63, Nuh, 71/1-28, al-Muminun, 23/23-40, Hud, 11/27-47, ash-Shuara, 26/105-120, al-Qamar, 54/10-14, al-Anbiya, 21/67-78, Yunus, 10/37,73, al-Ankabut, 29/1, adh-Dhariyat,51/46
10.     A.Cevdet Paşa, I, 8. For the relevant verses, see al-Araf, 7/65,72, Hud, 11/50-59, al-Muminun, 23/32-39, al-Furqan, 25/38, ash-Shuara, 26/124-139, al-Ankabut ,29/38, Fussilat, 41/16, al-Ahqaf, 46/21,25
11.     A.Cevdet Paşa, I,10, Yazır, lX/2796. The relevant verses: al-Araf, 7/73-78, Hud, 11/61-68,  al-Isra,17/59,  ash-Shuara,26/141-156.
12.     Ahmed Cevdet Paşa, I,1. Mehmed Vehbi Efendi, Hulasatu’l-Beyan, lX/168 The relevant verses: al-Araf, 7/81-82, al-Hijr, 15/73-74, Hud,11/78-82, ash-Shuara, 26/166, an-Naml, 27/56
13.     A.Cevdet Paşa,l/22,30
14.     See al-Araf,7/5, Yunus, 10/13, Hud, 11/101,102,116, Ibrahim, 14/13, al-Kahf, 18/59, al-Anbiya, 21/11,14,97, al-Hajj, 22/48, al-Muminun, 23/41, ar-Rum, 30/9.

5 Did Hz. Yusuf (Joseph) have any children? If, yes, what are their names?

Hz. Yusuf's marriage and his children:

The King of Egypt married Hz. Yusuf off to Zulaykha, the wife of his previous prime minister. Hz. Yusuf said to Zulaykha,

"Is this not better than what you had wanted from me?"

Zulaykha said,:

"Do not blame me. As you can see, I was a beautiful woman living in wealth. My husband had no relations with women. Allah created you in a very beautiful way. As you knew, my soul overwhelmed me."

It is also stated that Zulaykha was virgin when she married Hz. Yusuf.

Yusuf had two sons called Efraim and Misha' and a daughter called Rahmah from Zulaykha.

Efraim: Yusha' b. Nun is the grandfather of Efraim. Misha' had a son called Musa; he became a prophet before Hz. Musa (Moses) b. Imran.

The People of the Torah (Jews) think and claim that the Musa that looked for Hz. Khidr was Musa b. Misha'; thus, they make a big mistake and tell a lie.

6 Was Hazrat Yusuf (Joseph) (pbuh) more beautiful than Muhammad (pbuh)? Which one was more beautiful?

No, the Prophet Muhammad was the most beautiful of all people. Muhammad pbuh, is the most perfect human being in creation as well as ethics. As it is not possible to see the whole perfection of him  in another person, the perfection of  his physiognomy is deemed as an evidence of his prophethood  and  is written  with other evidences of prophethood.

Among Prophets, Yusuf (pbuh) was renowned for his beauty and this side of him became a parable. On the other side, our Honorary Lord of the Universe (Muhammad (pbuh)) for whom the  whole universe was created, is the most beautiful of all of those who were created and who will be created.

As a matter of fact, in a narration attributed to Imam Qurtubi, this fact is described as follows:

"The facial beauty of the Messenger of Allah has not been completely evident. If the whole beauty of his body had been visible fully , his Companion, would not have been able to look at him. (see Peygamberimizin Şemaili, Prof. Dr. Ali Yardım)

For instance, in the work of Qadi Ayyad (Iyad)  named ‘ash-Shifaʾbi-Taʿrifi Huquq al-Mustafa, all of the qualities of Hazrat Muhammad were compiled and they were accepted as the proofs of his prophethood in a sense. Likewise, Bayhaqi also displayed a similar approach in his work called Dala'il al-Nubuwwah.

However, physical beauty is not peculiar to Hazrat Muhammad only. For example, It is reported that one of the Companions, Jarir b. Abdillah, also had the same beauty (handsomeness).

As for the Prophet (Muhammad), he was far superior to anybody including Yusuf (Joseph) and he was definitely unique with his ethics.  The evidence of his prophethood is not only his physical perfection but also his ethical perfection. (see Hz. Peygamberin Şemaili, Prof. Dr. İbrahim Bayraktar)

7 Did Hz. Musa get married? If yes, how many children did he have? What are his children's names?

The following is stated regarding the issue in the Quran:

"Afterwards one of the (damsels) came (back) to him, walking bashfully. She said: 'My father invites thee that he may reward thee for having watered (our flocks) for us.' So when he came to him and narrated the story he said: 'Fear thou not: (well) hast thou escaped from unjust people.' Said one of the (damsels): 'O my (dear) father! Engage him on wages: truly the best of men for thee to employ is the (man) who is strong and trusty.' He said: 'I intended to wed one of these my daughters to thee on condition that thou serve me for eight years; but if thou complete ten years, it will be (grace) from thee. But I intend not to place thee under a difficulty: thou wilt find me, indeed, if Allah wills one of the righteous.' He said: 'Be that (the agreement) between me and thee: whichever of the two terms I fulfill, let there be no injustice to me. Be Allah a witness to what we say.'" (al-Qasas, 28/25-28).

Ibn Kathir writes the following: "There are different views about who the father of the girls was. There are views that he was Shuayb. The majority of the scholars hold this view. Hasan Basri states the following by using a narration from Malik b. Anas as evidence: "Hz. Shuayb lived for a long time after his nation was destroyed and married his daughter off to Musa."

After marrying Safura, the daughter of Hz. Shuayb, Hz. Musa stayed in Madyan for ten years and herded sheep as mahr of his wife. According to a narration, the Prophet (pbuh) was asked how long Hz. Musa worked. He said Hz. Musa worked for 10 years. It is understood from this narration that he herded sheep for ten years.   

According to the information obtained from the Bible, Hz. Musa had two sons called Gershom and Eliezer out of this marriage. (Exodus, 2/16-22, 18/3-4; I. Chronicles, 23/15-17)

According to Islamic resources, when Hz. Musa completed the period of time he agreed in Madyan, he left Madyan with his wife and herd. He arrived at the Mount Sinai in a cold winter evening. He saw a fire on the mountain. When he approached the fire, he heard a voice and he was asked to go to the Pharaoh. Musa had a son there. His wife returned to Hz. Shuayb with her son. (Tha'labi, p. 136-139) Musa was appointed to go to the Pharaoh and save Children of Israel.

(see TDV İslam Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul 2006, MUSA item., Vol.31, p. 207-212)

8 Can you give information about the Prophet Jarjis (George)?

The Prophet Jarjis lived in Palestine and around Damascus, and continued the rules of the religion of the Prophet Jesus because of coming after him. It was narrated that he was martyrized by the king of Mosul, Dadiyan (see Tarikh, at-Tabari, 2/186). It is stated that the prophet Jarjis, who known as St. George by Christians today, was born in the Ramle town of Palestine.

The region that the prophet Jarjis lived was under the control of idolaters, and they had a cruel ruler named Dadiyan. The prophet Jarjis was busy with trade by travelling cities, and used to give all of his earnings to poor people. He was trying to prevent the administrators from persecuting people by warning them.

Once, he went to Mosul with the purpose of preventing the king from persecution by calling him to guidance. He took some valuable presents with him. The king was forcing the people to adore the idol named Plato, which was made by them, by setting an enormous fire and gathering people around it. He threw people who did not submit to his demand into the fire. Just then, the prophet Jarjis arrived. When he saw that grievous situation, he distributed his all properties to the believers firstly, then he told the king to give up anger and fury, discontinue persecution, and told the king that he as a trusty adviser, and told him to believe in him. He said to the king that both he and those he persecuted were the servants of Allah, that creating belonged only to Allah, that all people including himself were the impotent servants of Allah, that worship was done only for Allah and that it was Allah who gave sustenance. He wanted the king to abandon forcing people to worship the idol, to break the idol and to believe in Allah.

The call of Jarjis was not accepted; what is more, they forced him to worship the idol. When Jarjis rejected this call, he was exposed to persecution for a long time. The king made him tied to a tree and combed his body with iron combs. As he was combed with iron combs, his body became rags and tatters. The king poured sharp vinegar and salt on Jarjis, who did not die though his flesh started to fall loose in strings. They put an iron that they heated in fire on his head. Almighty Allah turned him to his previous condition. The king and his men were shocked after this situation, and began to seek new ways.

After they set a cauldron with fire under it, they threw the Prophet Jarjis into it and closed its container. After they kept the container of the cauldron closed for a long time, they opened the container thinking that he died; they were shocked when they opened it because he was still alive and nothing happened to him. Because the king feared that he would lose his kingdom, he ordered the Prophet Jarjis to be imprisoned in a dungeon.

The Prophet Jarjis, who was imprisoned in a dungeon, was not left free. In addition to his hands and feet being nailed so that he would not meet people and call them to the guidance, they put a big marble stone on him. However, Allah Almighty saved him by sending an angel, and ordered him to continue his duty by being patient despite the persecution. It was revealed to him that he would be martyrized four times by the unbelievers and that he would be elevated to high ranks by being resurrected each time. This situation made him very happy.

When they saw him again, they captured him; then, they tied him tightly within a tree they had split into two; they snatched pieces of meat from his body and threw them to lions. The Prophet Jarjis appeared before the King and his men again. They said to themselves “This man looks like Jarjis so much”. The king's men, who could not get rid of the weakness they suffered, said “This man is such a talented magician that he can show himself both dead and alive. Because they thought that he was a magician, they decided to test him by a talented magician. There were already many magicians in their country.

They found the master of the magicians and brought him to the king. They ordered the Prophet Jarjis to drink the water on which the master magician made magic and recited something. The Prophet Jarjis drank the water brought to him without any reject, by saying “In the Name of Allah”. The master magician believed in Allah by saying “This can be done only by Allah”. Otherwise, he should have died. The king reacted to the magician by getting angry with him and said, “How fast were you deceived by him?” Howver, the magician said that he was not deceived and said that he believed in Allah, who is the Lord of worlds and has power over everything.

They cut the magician’s tongue so that he would not say to anyone that he believed in Allah and in order to prevent other people from believing in Allah. However, when the incident was heard by the people, many of them believed (in Allah). The cruel king martyrized the Prophet Jarjis after he martyrized all of the believers. Then, this nation was destroyed by fire.

9 How many years was Joseph (Yusuf) (pbuh) in jail? How many years had he stayed in jail when two people came to jail near him? How many years did he remain away from his father Jacob (Yaqub) (pbuh)?

To say something definite regarding these issues is difficult because there are different views in the sources. Nonetheless, we can answer your question as follows.

1. Joseph (pbuh) stayed in jail for seven years. Some scholars said that he was in prison for five or twelve years. (see, Razi, the interpretation of Yusuf, 36)

2. ‘‘Now with him there came into the prison two young men. Said one of them: "I see myself (in a dream) pressing wine." Said the other: "I see myself (in a dream) carrying bread on my head, and birds are eating thereof." "Tell us" (they said) "the truth and meaning thereof: for we see thou art one that doth good (to all).’’ (Yusuf 12/36 ) Acting upon the verse above, we can say  that the dream of two young people took place in his first year in prison.

3. It is said that Jacob (pbuh) remained away from Joseph (pbuh) for twenty-two years. (see Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of Yusuf, 96) It is said that eighty, forty or thirty-six years passed between Joseph’s first dream and the actual interpretation of his dream. (see Mawardi, the interpretation of Yusuf, 12/96-98)

10 Can you give information about Adam (pbuh)'s physical features?

There is no detailed information about this subject in Islamic sources except a few narrations.

Narrated Abu Huraira, The Prophet said:

"Allah created Adam in his complete shape and form (directly), sixty cubits (about 30 meters) in height. The Prophet added 'So whoever will enter Paradise, will be of the shape and form of Adam. Since then the creation of Adam's (offspring) (i.e. stature of human beings) is being diminished continuously to the present time." (Tecrid Ter., IX, 77.)

According to  Ibn Khaldun and Farid Wajdi, Adam’s height of 60 cubits is the size in heaven. When he came to the world with Eve, he was given a normal in accordance with the conditions of the earth. In some versions of this hadith the following is stated: ‘’Allah created Adam in his own shape.‘’ In another version of this hadith it is stated that Allah created man in Rahman’s form. The creation of Adam hence the humanity in Rahman’s form is explained as follows:

One aim of the above-mentioned Hadith is as follows: "Man is in a form showing the Divine Name of All-Merciful in its entirety."

For sure, as we explained before, just as the Divine Name of All-Merciful is manifest through the rays of a thousand and one Names on the face of the universe, and is apparent through the innumerable manifestations of Allah's absolute dominicality on the face of the earth, so also is the complete manifestation of the Name All-Merciful apparent in a small measure in man's comprehensive form, like on the face of the earth and the face of the universe.

A further indication is this: the evidences to the Necessarily Existent One of places of manifestation like animate creatures and man, who are proofs of and mirrors to the All-Merciful and Compassionate One, are so certain, clear, and obvious that just as it may be said of a shining mirror which reflects the image of the sun: "That mirror is the sun," indicating to the clarity of its brilliance and evidence, so also it has been said and may be said: "Man is in the form of the All-Merciful One," indicating to the clearness of his evidence and completeness of his connection.

It is as a consequence of this mystery that the more moderate of those who believed in 'the unity of existence' said: "There is no existent but He," as a way of expressing the clarity of this evidence and perfection of connection. (Nursi, Words, 12-13.)

11 How long and why did Prophet Adam remain away from Hawwa (Eve)?

According to the narrations, -after the known event- when they were appointed to set the humankind family and with the duty of vicegerency and sent from heaven to the earth, Prophet Adam settled in Serendib Island of India (according to some scholars, on the Mount Ice or Wasim ), Hawwa settled in Jeddah.

-They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged our own souls: if Thou forgive us not and bestow not upon us Thy Mercy we shall certainly be lost."(al Araf, 7/27) We understand from this ayah that their separation took place before their repentance and that it was the continuation of the exile punishment  on the earth. Besides, the divine wisdom aroused mutual enthusiasm and desire between them with this temporary separation and indicated the necessity of family’s permanence to them and to their future generations.

- This separation is also important for reminding the facts that the real happiness for the humankind family will be in heaven after the separation coming with death, and for this to come true, they need to repent for their sins. For, the real separation is the one that occurs in the afterworld; likewise, the real happiness is the happy picture that occurs in  the eternal life.

- The place that put an end to the separation of Prophet Adam and Hawwa and gathered them again is Arafat. Today, millions of people gathering in Arafat every year reminds us of Arasat area in the afterworld.

- This event shows us that to rebel against Allah is full of physical and spiritual separations. To be regretful for the bad deeds with repentance, pleading by turning to the Lord's door again is the only way of happiness and reuniting. Then, we should reunite in the love of Allah altogether as loving and beloved ones; in this way, we should move away from Hell which is the place of absence and separation, and show that we are worthy of heaven, which is the eternal place of presence and reunion.

- After Prophet Adam cried out and pleaded for two hundred years, his repentance and prayers were accepted and he was ordered to go to Hajj: “But his Lord chose him (for His Grace): He turned to him, and gave him guidance.” (Ta'ha, 20/122). Prophet Adam met Hawwa in the Arafat Plain. He built the Kaabah.

12 Did all prophets work as shepherds?

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) narrates: "the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Allah did not send any prophets that did not herd sheep."

"Did you herd sheep too, O Messenger of Allah?" they asked.

He said, "Yes, I also looked after sheep for the people of Mecca in return for some qirat (amount or name of a place)*" said  [Bukhari, Ijara 2; Muwatta, 18 (2, 971); Ibn Majah, Tijarah 5, (2149).]

Explanation:

1- This hadith  states that there was  a period of herding sheep in the life of all prophets. The following is stated in a hadith narrated by Nasai:

"Sheep owners and camel owners boasted about it. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

‘’Moses (pbuh)  became a prophet while  he was a shepherd .The Prophet Dawud became a prophet while he was  a shepherd. I also became a prophet while I was herding my people’s sheep in Jiyad."

In the hadith, the word qararit is the plural form of qirat. Was the word qirat used as a place name in the hadith or was it a part of dinar (currency unit)? For, qirat is normally a currency like cent. The ones who say, ‘’qararit means money’’ draw attention to the fact that Meccan people did not know any place called Qararit. However, in the narration we have mentioned above, the Prophet says he was a shepherd in the Jiyad location. Ibn Hajar combines both views by saying, "The prophet (Hz. Muhammad) mat have herded the sheep of Meccan people in return for money, and herded his family’s sheep for free."

2- The scholars explained the wisdom behind the prophets' herding sheep before prophethood as follows:

Prophets gained experience about the works of the ummah by herding sheep because when they become involved with sheep, their feelings of lenience and compassion improve. For, they show patience   during herding sheep and  picking them up after they scatter on grassland, transporting them  from one grassland to the other and protecting them from the  wild animals and thieves around. Prophets  see and experience the differences in the nature of animals, the violent disagreements among one another in spite of their weaknesses and being in need of getting on well. By this way, prophets become familiar with  gaining patience  for their ummah and  understand the changes in their nature and  differences in their minds. So, they show mercy to the weak ummah, wrap  their wounds and get  along with them. Those who herd sheep can tolerate the challenges of these kinds of attitude far more easily than sudden starters. When a person works as a shepherd, he learns to deal with these issue  gradually.’’

The importance of sheep is  emphasized regarding this experience. For, sheep is weaker than other animals; and they scatter more easily than camels and cattle. It is more practical to tie camels and cattle with ropes. As a tradition, sheep are not tied with ropes in the country. Besides, compared to other animals, sheep obey the orders more easily even though they scatter more easily.

Hazrat Jabir (radiyallahu anh) narrates:

"I remember collecting the fruit of arak tree called kabas in Marruz-Zahran with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).  

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) told us,

"Collect the  black ones; they are better!"   

"Have you also herded sheep?" I asked. 

"Do you know any prophets who did not herd sheep?" was his answer to me." [Bukhari, At'ima 50, Anbiya 29, Muslim, Ashriba 163, (2050).]

Explanation :

1- Marruz-Zahran  is the name of a place about one marhala (35 km) away from Makkah.

2- Expounders state that the question "Have  you also herded sheep?" means "How do you   know that the black ones of kabas are better? Have you been a shepherd before since you know the black ones are better?" From this expression, we understand that the kabas fruit are not grown or sold, that it grows on the mountains on its own and that only shepherds  know and use it.Nevertheless, expounders state that humans, camels and even sheep eat the kabas fruit.

3- From this hadith, scholars come to the conclusion that it is permissible to eat the fruits of the trees that grow  on their own in the mountains. .

4- The scholars give the following explanation about the wisdom of prophets’ being  shepherds before their  prophethood:

‘’Herding sheep is for  practicing about running the business of ummah and gaining experience. For,dealing with sheep improves the emotions like lenience and compassion. When the prophets show  patience during herding sheep and picking them up after their scattering on grassland, transporting them  from one grassland to another and protecting them from wild animals and thieves around, and when they see and experience the differences in the nature of animals, how they disagree with one another in spite of their weaknesses and being in need of being in need of getting on well, they become familiar with showing patience for their ummah and understand the changes in their nature and  differences in their minds. So, they show mercy to the weak ummah, wrap their wounds and treat them well. After all, those who herd sheep can tolerate the challenges  of  these kinds of attitude far more easily than sudden starters. However, this virtue is gradually gained by herding sheep."

"For this job, sheep is particularly mentioned because it is more vulnerable than others; and they scatter more easily than camels or cattle. It is more practical to tie camels and cattle with ropes. Besides, compared to other animals, sheep obey the orders more easily even though they scatter more easily.’’

13 Will you give some information about Qarun?

He is the person who is mentioned in three verses of the Quran and who is the symbol of richness and conceitedness due to richness. There are several narrations most of which are of Jewish origin, about him. It is widely accepted that Korah, whose story is narrated in Numbers, 16 in the Bible, is the same as Qarun.   

The verses of the Quran in which Qarun is mentioned and his story is narrated are as follows:

"Of old We sent Moses with Our Signs and Authority manifest, to Pharaoh, Haman, and Qarun; but they called (him) 'a sorcerer telling lies'. " (al-Mu'min, 40/23, 24)

"(Remember also) Qarun, Pharaoh, and Haman: there came to them Moses with Clear Signs, but they behaved with insolence on the earth; yet they could not overreach (Us)." (al-Ankabut, 29/39)

"Qarun was doubtless, of the people of Moses; but he acted insolently towards them: such were the treasures We had bestowed on him, that their very keys would have been a burden to a body of strong men: behold, his people said to him: "Exult not, for Allah loveth not those who exult (in riches). "But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on thee, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget thy portion in this world: but do thou good, as Allah has been good to thee, and seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who do mischief." He said: "This has been given to me because of a certain knowledge which I have." Did he not know that Allah had destroyed, before him (whole) generations― which were superior to him in strength and greater in amount (of riches) they had collected? But the wicked are not called (immediately) to account for their sins. So he went forth among his people in the (pride of his worldly) glitter. Said those whose aim is the life of this World: "Oh that we had the like of what Qarun has got! for he is truly a lord of mighty good fortune."But those who had been granted (true) knowledge said: "Alas for you! the reward of Allah (in the Hereafter) is best for those who believe and work righteousness: but this none shall attain, save those who steadfastly persevere (in good). "Then We caused the earth to swallow him up and his house; and he had not (the least little) party to help him against Allah, nor could he defend himself. And those who had envied his position the day before began to say on the morrow: "Ah! it is indeed Allah Who enlarges the provision or restricts it, to any of His servants He pleases! Had it not been that Allah was gracious to us, He could have caused the earth to swallow us up! Ah! Those who reject Allah will assuredly never prosper." (al-Qasas, 28/76-82).

The first piece of information determined from the verses of the Quran is that he was a member of Hz. Musa's nation. The second point is that he had some relationships with the Pharaoh and Haman. Besides, his great wealth, his insolence and conceitedness in the presence of his nation, ignoring the advice of people, and being punished by Allah by being swallowed by the earth with all of his property are other remarkable issues. There are some other important issues to be taken into considerations along with the ones mentioned above. It will be possible to realize some of the reasons why this story is mentioned in the Quran if it is researched in detail by taking those points into consideration. We can deal with those points as follows:

Qarun, who was a member of Hz. Musa's nation, exceeded the boundaries and started to act as he wished. What caused him to do so was his wealth. He boasted and showed off due to his wealth. He probably did some more things because he was warned by some people in his nation. It is understood that Qarun demanded some things based on the wealth he had. What could these demands be? They were to call other people to exceed the boundaries and to follow him.

Besides, it is necessary to consider that this call was not a personal call related to Qarun himself only. It brings into mind some other interpretations since his name is mentioned with the Pharaoh and Haman. 

It is possible to think as follows: Since Hz. Musa, who was sent to the Pharaoh and Haman, was also sent to Qarun, it means that all of these three people have something in common in terms of deviation and mischief and that they cooperated. It is impossible for a member of Children of Israel to become so rich in Egypt in a period when the members of Children of Israel were despised and oppressed by the Pharaoh and when some of them were killed unjustly without cooperating with the Pharaoh and the people around him. Thus, it is clear that Qarun tried to persuade his nation to cooperate with him by using his wealth.       

That some people from his nation wanted for themselves what was given to Qarun and regarded it as something great and that others from his nation who were given knowledge warned him by saying that Allah would give rewards for belief and good deeds can be regarded as the clues of propaganda and anti-propaganda. The nation was asked to show patience.   

This cooperation and calling other people from his nation to cooperate is only one aspect of the mischief of Qarun. Another aspect of his is more remarkable and interesting. This phenomenon, which is interesting in terms of contemporary ideas and beliefs, is observed related to the connection between knowledge and wealth.  

When Qarun boasted of his wealth, his nation warned him as follows: "Seek the hereafter with what Allah gave you." Qarun said, "This wealth was given to me due to my knowledge." In the last verse of the story, it is emphasized that Allah enlarges the provision of anyone He wishes or restricts it. When we study these three points together, we can determine the following:

When his nation reminded Qarun that his wealth was given to him by Allah, Qarun said it was given to him due to his knowledge. Thus, he established a connection between "wealth and knowledge", by excluding the fact that it was given by Allah. This statement is the same as the statement that those who suffer from the disease of economy frequently utter today. Allah criticizes Qarun, who thought his wealth was a result of his knowledge, not the favor of Allah, stating that He eliminated stronger and wealthier people before Qarun.  

As it is stated, this age and the diagnosis of the disease of this age is seen here along with the warning of punishment and disaster for those who think wealth is a result of their own knowledge and skill. 

It is understood that one of the reasons why Qarun was punished by being swallowed by the earth is his cooperation with the Pharaoh and another reason is that he deified knowledge by attributing his wealth, which was given to him by Allah, to his own knowledge.

It is generally accepted that Korah, who is mentioned in the Bible, is the same person as Qarun, who is mentioned in the Quran, but when the Quran and the Bible are studied together, this view becomes invalid.   

When the incident is viewed under the light of the knowledge given in the Quran, it is necessary to think that Qarun lived and was eliminated before Children of Israel exited from Egypt. There are two reasons for it:  

Firstly, as it can clearly be seen in the story of Samiri, Children of Israel did not show much interest in wealth, splendor and gold after they left Egypt; they even threw their gold objects and other jewelry into the fire when Samiri asked them to do so. It is not possible to think that the people who underwent this psychology would envy the wealth of somebody else and like it. Besides, there is not enough evidence indicating that a rich person had a group of strong men to carry the keys of his treasure in a nation that was migrating with a lot of difficulties. If we think that the house (mansion) that was swallowed by the earth could not be a tent, the issue becomes clearer.

Secondly, in the first verse that we quoted at the beginning, the order is "the Pharaoh, Haman and Qarun" but in the second verse, the order is "Qarun, the Pharaoh and Haman". In the first one, the people to whom the prophet was sent are listed; in the second one, those who were destroyed are listed. In the first one, the order is in the ascending form; it does not exist in the second one. This difference indicates that Qarun was destroyed before the Pharaoh. Since the Pharaoh was destroyed while Children of Israel leaving Egypt, it can be said that Qarun was destroyed while they were in Egypt.

The verses of the Quran can be interpreted like that but it is stated in the Bible that Korah, who is usually regarded as Qarun, was destroyed after Children of Israel left Egypt. In the story of Korah narrated in Numbers, 16 in the Bible, the wealth of Korah is not mentioned. It is narrated that Korah and his men revolted against Musa due to prophecy. Korah and his men opposed Hz. Musa because Korah wanted a better position and more authority from Hz. Musa. After their rebellion, Korah, his men, his household and his tent were swallowed by the earth. The only similarity between the two incidents is that they were swallowed by the earth. It will not be enough to say that Qarun and Korah are the same person when the other differences are taken into consideration. Both Qarun and Korah might have been swallowed by the earth. It is possible that both Qarun, who cooperated with the Pharaoh and who attributed his wealth to his own knowledge by excluding the favor of Allah, and Korah, who rebelled against Hz. Musa in order to be the leader, were punished by Allah separately, one before and the other after leaving Egypt.

14 The Prophet Idris (pbuh) was ascended to the sky. If every soul shall have a taste of death, then how will his death happen?

“Also mention in the book the case of Idris, he was a man of truth(and sincerity),(and) a prophet: and We raised him to a lofty station.” (Maryam,19/56-57)

This verse indicates that the Prophet Idris (Enoch) was ascended to the sky.

There are two point of views about the verse “We raised him to a lofty station”:

a) This is the loftiness in the sense of rank and post. As a matter of fact, Allah also saidto our Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), “We  raised high the esteem (in which) thou (art held) (al-Inshirah ,94/4) For, honoring him with prophethood, Almighty Allah sent down to the Prophet Idris thirty pages. He was the first to write with a pen, first to know the science of stars and calculation and first to sew a garment and wear it.

b) What is meant by it is to ascend him to a lofty place. This view is more appropriate. For, the deed of “ascending” mentioned with the word “place” is not related to status but venue. [Fakhruddin ar-Razi, Tafsir al-Kabir Mafatihu’l-Ghayb, Akçağ Publishing: 15/371-372)]

Prophet Idris is regarded to have been ascended to the sky like Prophet Isa (Jesus) and to be still alive.

There is also a narration as follows: “There are four people who are still alive. Khidr and the Prophet Ilyas (Elijah) live on earth, Prophet Isa and Idris in the sky.

As for the issue of Prophet Idris being in Heaven:

We are of the opinion that he is not in Heaven, which is one of the realms of hereafter, but in the sky like the Prophet Isa. For, people will enter Heaven after the Day of Judgment. However, it is known that he has been in a realm like Heaven and living there like angels.

The fact that all living souls will taste death shows that the Prophet Idris too will taste death in the Day of Judgment. His descending to the earth is not necessary for this.

15 Is it true that the Prophet Musa (Moses) killed a man? If so, is it not a big sin?

While trying to break up a fight between two men, the Prophet Musa accidentally killed one of them.He asked Allah’s for his forgiveness and Allah forgave him.

The verses are as follows:

"And he entered the City at a time when its people were not watching: and he found there two men fighting― one of his own people, and the other, of his foes. Now the man of his own people appealed to him against his foe, and Moses struck him with his fist and made an end of him. He said: "This is a work of Evil (Satan): for he is an enemy that manifestly misleads!"

He prayed: "O my Lord! I have indeed wronged my soul! Do Thou then forgive me!" So (Allah) forgave him: for He is the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (al-Qasas,28/15-16)

16 Was Hazrat Adam (AS) created circumcised? Are there any prophets who were born circumcised?

According to the riwayah, some of the prophets were born circumcised. The number of them is ten or seventeen. Imam Suyuti expressed some of them in a poem.

They are Adam, Seth (Sheeth), Nooh (Noah), Shem (Sam), Idris (Enoch), Musa (Moses), Saleh, Loot, Yusuf (Joseph), Shuaib (Jethro), Yunus (Jonah), Sulayman (Solomon), Yahya (John) and Eesa (Jesus Christ). The poem ends with "Khatam", which refers to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

See for the information about the Prophet (PBUH) being born circumcised. Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddima, Istanbul 1970, II/400; Cevdet Pasha, Qisas al Anbiya, Istanbul 1972, I/59).

According to some riwayahs, his grandfather circumcised the Prophet (PBUH) on the seventh day of his birth by giving a feast.

It is possible to be born circumcised; as a matter of fact, nowadays such events are frequently seen.

17 Why were there not any women prophets? Why did Allah choose prophets among men?

- The people who were regarded reliable by people and who had all of the properties of leaders throughout history have been men. Therefore, the people to lead communities might have been chosen among men.

- Prophethood is a lofty position of leadership and guidance. It is necessary to be away from sentimentality, to be shrewd, to act based on reason, to be dignified, etc for prophethood. This is the reason why prophets were chosen among men and civilized people. For, sentimentality is dominant in women and harshness and impatience are dominant in nomadic people. (see Ibn Kathir, Qurtubi, interpretation of verse 12 of Yusuf (12/109))

The translation of the verse related to the issue is as follows: “Nor did We send before thee (as Messengers) any but men, whom We did inspire― (men) living in human habitations.” (Yusuf, 12/109)

- To sum up, it is a known fact that men have been stronger than women and that women are weaker than men throughout history. It is appropriate in terms of this fact that the duty of prophethood, which requires a strong personality, was given to men. (cf Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

- Women are heroes of compassion, which shows that their emotional aspect overweighs. However, reason rather than emotion needs to be dominant for prophethood, which is involved with a high level of guidance. People can be ruled only by reason.

It is significant that prophets were chose among men from this point of view too.

- However, the wives of the Prophet (pbuh), especially Hz. Aisha, played an important role in spreading the message of Hz. Muhammad’s prophethood. The role played by Hz. Khadija in eliminating the panic of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) at the night he was given the duty of prophethood cannot be overlooked. It is known that hundreds of thousands of women attained the rank of sainthood in the ummah of Islam. 

So, the reason why prophets were not chosen among women is not that their spiritual level lacks but is that women are not dominant in terms of social relations in humanity.

- Nevertheless, according to some scholars Hz. Maryam, Hz. Musa’s mother, The Pharaoh's wife Asiya and Hz. Hawwa are prophets though the majority of scholars do not accept this view. (Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir, ibid)

18 Since the world is a field of examination, is the situation of the Prophet Adam not contrary to the examination? It is impossible for one who saw Allah the Almighty, Hell, the Hereafter, Angels, Satan and other extraterrestrial creatures not to believe?

Not only the Prophet Adam but also all prophets do not have even a particle of doubt in belief. They are under the guard and protection of Allah. Other prophets also believed in Allah and other principles of belief as if they saw with their eyes. Prophethood is a rank granted by Allah, not a rank attained by working. Therefore, being in a different status from other people is a natural result of their prophethood mission.

It should not be forgotten that the gist of examination is to obey orders and prohibitions of Allah. People obey the orders and prohibitions of Allah based on the degree they know Him. From this point of view, prophets know, fear and love Allah, and are obedient to His orders and prohibitions more than other people. So, having strong belief does not mean that their examination is finished; on the contrary, it drives them to be more obedient to Allah.

The examination of notables is harder than ordinary people. The meaning of this is as follows: the small mistakes of notables are regarded as great ones compared to those of ordinary people, and they are treated according to it. For instance, the prophet Adam’s obeying to Satan’s oath only once caused him to be dismissed from Paradise. The Prophet Nuh (Noah), who carried out his prophethood duty under very difficult conditions for 950 years, misunderstood an expression of Allah; so, he appealed to Allah in that direction. He was scolded severely that he would be stamped with ignorance because of this attitude of him.

“And Noah called upon his Lord, and said: “O my Lord! Surely my son is of my family! And Your promise is true, and You are the justest of Judges!” He said: “O Noah! He is not of your family. For his conduct is unrighteous. So ask not of Me that of which you has no knowledge! I give you counsel, lest you act like the ignorant!” Noah said: “O my Lord! I do seek refuge with You, lest I ask You for that of which I have no knowledge. And unless You forgive me and have Mercy on me, I should indeed be lost!” (Hud, 11/45-47).

It cost a lot to the Prophet Jonah leaving his place due to his humane weakness in order to get away from the calamity that, he knew with revelation, would occur. Thus, he found himself in the belly of the fish.

It is undoubted that other prophets also experienced hard tests. The Prophet Abraham experienced all kinds of troubles and tests.

The following hadith points out this truth; “The people who experienced the hardest examinations are prophets” (Tirmidhi, Zuhd 57; Ahmad bin Hanbal, 1/172,174).

It is important to pay attention to the point that prophets are also humans. Their human aspect was not vanished. It is a known fact that although we believe in Allah, our human aspects struggle to distort us from the right path. Prophets have no doubt in belief but it is also a fact that they underwent examinations by being exposed to some delusions in terms of their human weaknesses. The situation of the Prophet Jonah who left his place of duty without permission of Allah in order to get rid of the calamity that his nation was going to be exposed to is another example.

Moreover, the great saints of Allah can see many things that are invisible to us with the permission of Allah, but their examinations do not end despite this. For, anyone is vulnerable to lose his rank at any time.

The following hadith points out this truth; "All men will perish, except scholars; and all scholars will perish except those who act in accordance with their knowledge; and all of them will perish except the sincere ones; and even the sincere are in great danger. (Ajluni, 2/312).

19 Did the king who lived at the same age as the Prophet Joseph (Yusuf) was a prophet accept Yusuf’s prophethood or did he oppose Yusuf?

The suffering life of Joseph which started when his brothers threw him into a water well is mentioned more than his prophethood in the Quran. In addition, the Qur’an also describes the services he gave to the people while holding the posts that he attained through reliance, honesty and patience, and his chaste, dramatic and original life, which includes the time when he desired the afterlife and death, which expressed the power of his belief, when he rejoined his family.

According to the information given in some sources, Joseph came to the Egypt in 1729 BC. When he became the ruler of Egypt, he was thirty years old. He died in 1635 BC. When he was the ruler, he brought his relatives to Egypt. In this way, Israelites settled in that location for the first time. (Ibn Ashur, Yusuf, interpretation of  verses 1- 4)

According to Ibn Ishaq, Walid B. Rayyan (the monarch of Egypt) believed in Joseph and was converted to his religion. (see Ibn Kathir, an-Nihaya, 1/241; Qisasu’l-Anbiya, 137).

20 Which prophets came between Prophet Musa (Moses) and Prophet Isa (Jesus); was Judaism the religion they conveyed?

Many prophets came between them but those mentioned in the Qur’an  are Prophet Dawud (David) Sulaiman (Solomon), Ilyas (Elijah), Al Yasa (Elisha),  Dhulkifl, Yunus (Jonah), Zakariyyah (Zacharias and Yahya (John) (peace and blessing be upon them).

All of them are the Prophets of Children of Israel. The religion that they conveyed was Judaism. Their basic shariah (religious law) book was the Torah. All of them lived in the Middle East.

21 Who named the Prophet Musa (pbuh)?

Prophet Musa was named by the Pharaoh's daughter who found him on water and adopted him as her son. (see DİA, Musa item)

The name Musa consists of two words in Coptic. One is the Word “mu” (meaning water ) the other one is “sa” (meaning tree ). (see Tabari, I/28; Qurtubi, I/395)  (It is sha instead of sa in Qurtubi.)

There were trees and there was water in the place where prophet Musa was found by the family of the Pharaoh. They named him Musa which means tree+water as a symbol of that place.

When the daughter found him in reeds she thought about the relationship between tree and water and named him Musa as a memory of his wonderful incident. (see Exodus, 4-10)

(Niyazi Beki, Kur’an’daki İsimlerin Esrarı, Zafer Yayınları)

22 Why did Moses (Musa) wanted to speak with Allah? What is the reason for his demand?

Every believer wants to see and speak to his Lord; it does not stem from faithlessness but from enthusiasm and desire originating from belief.

Moses states this issue as follows:

Firstly Almighty Allah asked Moses why he had come without settling his peoples’ businesses.

Moses said,

"My God! They are in my way. I hurried up to obtain your consent because of my affection, enthusiasm and strong passion to hear your divine word."

Allah informed him that mischief occurred among Israelites and that Samiri misled them.

MOSES’ REQUEST TO SEE ALLAH

When Allah bestowed His favor upon Moses by talking to him, Moses requested to see God Almighty by screwing up his courage in a profound mood and enthusiastic love. Allah said to him:

‘’O Moses! You can never see me before you die in this world. You cannot cope with this. However, look at that mountain! If it stays in its place and does not undergo any change, then you can see me.’’

Thereupon Moses looked at that mountain. He saw the mountain broke into pieces with the manifestation God Almighty's grandness. Upon this splendid manifestation, Moses fainted. He lay unconsciously for a long time. Then he slowly recovered himself. The tablets that he had brought with him had been written and were beside him. Then he prayed Allah by being worried that he wanted something not suitable for a slave:

‘’My God! I absolve you from all incomplete attributes; I repent with abundant praise and gratitude. I ask you to forgive me because of asking something beyond than my strength and limits. I am the first of the believers.’’

Upon Moses’ repentance and prayer, Allah stated that He chose him as a prophet to send to people, that he should not wish something more than what Allah granted him and that he should be grateful for he was given. He also told Moses to take the Torah tablets, which contained the necessary advice and orders for the Children of Israel, to his nation solemnly and to convey the messages in them to his people.

(see Mehmet Dikmen, Peygamberler Tarihi)

23 Is the name of Hz. Musa's sister Maryam or Kulthum?

In some resources, the name of Hz. Musa’s sister is mentioned as Maryam. (see Shawkani, Fathu’l-Qadir, al-Qasas, the interpretation of verse 28/12)

Accordingly, the name of Hz. Musa's sister is Maryam like Hz. Isa's mother.

According to the narration Mawardi makes from Dahhak, the name of Hz. Musa’s sister is Kalthama. As-Suhay­li says it is Kulthum. This is accrding to a hadith reported by Zubayr b. Bakkar. Accordingly, the Prophet said to Hz. Khadijah,"Along with you, Allah will marry Maryam, the daughter of Imran, Kulthum, the sister of Musa and Asiya, the wife of the Pharaoh, off to me." Hz. Khadijah asked, "Did Allah inform you about it?" The Prophet said, "Yes". Thereupon, Khadijah said, "May it be nice and good for you!" (Qurtubi, Ahkam, al-Qasas, the interpretation of verse 28/12)

Besides, in another hadith narration, which is a weak one, the name of Hz. Musa’s sister is mentioned as Kulthum: “Allah decreed that Maryam, the daughter of Imran, Asiya, the wife of the Pharaoh and Kulthum, the sister of Musa, would be my wives in Paradise.” (Tabarani, al-Mu'jamu'l-Kabir, 8/258; Majmau’z-Zawaid, 9/218)

See other tafsir resources regarding the issue. (e.g. Abu Hayyan, al-Bahru’l-Muhit; Alusi, Ruhu’l-Maani, al-Qasas, the interpretation of verse 28/12)

24 Why was Lut’s (Lot's) wife destroyed?

Lut’s wife, Waila, actually did not believe in Lut (pbuh).She said she believed in God but concealed her unbelief inside.

The superior privilege like conjugal relationship between them and being the wife of a prophet did not have any significance in the struggle between belief and unbelief.

Unbelief cuts off all relations. Even the bond of marriage, which is the strongest bond, becomes ineffective. That is to say, everybody in this world is subjected to the exam individually. As a matter of fact, Noah's wife, Wahila, betrayed Noah (pbuh), although she lived in a prophet's home, she remained as an unbeliever and died so.

In fact, both were in a great blessing that could get happiness of this world and hereafter. They became  the wives of Allah’s two dear prophets. However, this felicity slipped through their fingers with their betrayal.

25 Why did Allah tell Hz. Musa (Moses) to take off his shoes in the holy valley?

The Chapter of Taha, verse 12:

"Verily I am thy Lord! Therefore (in My presence) put off thy shoes: thou art in the sacred valley Tuwa."

While explaining why Hz. Musa was told to take off his shoes, some tafsir scholars (interpreters) took into consideration the material the shoes were made of; however, the interpretation that his feet needed to touch that holy place directly and benefit from the bounties of it was preferred more that the other interpretations. (see Tabari, XVI, 143-144)

However, it can be said that the aim of this order is to prepare Musa, who is to receive divine revelation, spiritually, to warn him so that he will pull himself together and act more respectfully. (see Tabari, IV, 39) (see Diyanet Tefsiri, Kur’an Yolu: III/537)

According to another explanation, the reason why he was ordered to take off his shoes is to be in awe and modesty while praying Allah.

As a matter of fact, salaf as-salihin did the same thing when they circumambulated the Kaaba (Baytullah).

There is another explanation: It is an order given to honor that place. As a matter of fact, shoes are taken off before to honor the Kaaba before visiting it. 

Said b. Jubayr says: He was told to step on the valley barefoot just like the Kaaba is visited without shoes. It is known that it is necessary to take off shoes before being in the presence of a king and to look very modest. It looks as if Musa was given that order because of this.

Imam Malik did not find it appropriate to enter the city of Madinah, which contains the honorable bones and body of the Prophet (pbuh), on horseback or camelback due to his respect to the Prophet.

The following order of the Prophet (pbuh) to Bashir b. al-Khasasiyya when he was walking among graves with his shoes aims the same thing: "Take of your shoes when you are in a place like this." Bashir said,"Thereupon, I took off my shoes." (Abu Dawud, Janaiz 74)

According to another explanation, Allah spread the covering of light and guidance on it. Therefore, it was necessary for him not to tread on the covering spread by the Lord of the Realms. (see Imam Qurtubi, al-Jamiu li-Ahkami’l-Qur’an, 11/305-306)

26 How old were Adam and Eve when they were born? Were they babies, kids or teenagers when they were first created?

Adam and Eve were not born of a mother.

Childhood is the continuation of a period that starts in the womb. However, Adam (pbuh) was directly created from soil thanks to Allah’s power; so, childhood is not in question for him.

The case of being created from soil does not let childhood period and it is not possible in terms of Allah’s wisdom for him to have a caretaker and a tutor.

The expressions about the creation of man in the Quran are different from one another. In these different expressions, man is defined as soil, rancid mud, gluey mud, worthless water; or it is emphasized that he was created from baked mud. Scholars remark that it is not a contradiction; on the contrary, it is a sign about human’s different creation periods. (see al-Hazin, VII/139). Each period may be thought as infancy and childhood compared to the upper period.

Accordingly, origin of man is indicated by the following verse: ‘’This similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam: He created him from dust, then said to him: "Be" and he was.’’ (Aal-e-Imran, 3/59) The second phase when it becomes a sticky item mixed with soil and water is indicated by the following verse: "We created out of a sticky clay!" (as-Saffat, 37/11)Thethird phase when it is rancid black mud is indicated by the following verse "We created man from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape." (al-Hijr 15/26) The fourth and last phase of his creation is indicated by the following verse: "He created man from sounding clay like unto pottery." (ar-Rahman, 55/14)   (see Tabari, VIII/ part. 14, p. 28; Sawi, IV/154; Niyazi Beki, Rahman surah, tafsir of verse 14)

According to clear expression of the Quran, the first man is Adam (pbuh). When Allah created him, He preferred the component of soil; He created man out of soil and gave him a soul later. Divine wisdom created mother Eve so that she would be a  companion to Adam and human beings would reproduce.

In verse 1 of the chapter of an-Nisa, this creation is expressed as ‘’Allah created of like nature, his mate.’’

When this verse is interpreted in famous tafsirs, the following is stated: Allah created Eve from Adam’s left rib. At that time, Adam fell asleep for a short time. When he woke up, after a while, he saw Eve. At first, he was surprised but then he was delighted very much. He took a shine to her and an intimate friendship occurred between them.

27 What is the evidence showing that Noah (pbuh) took only domestic animals to the ship and that he did not take animals like butterflies and snakes?

Noah (pbuh) must have taken domestic animals rather than others. He did not take animals like snake and centipede.

The reader asks about the source stating that no wild animals were taken to the ship. There is not a clear source regarding the issue. Nevertheless, it is possible to reach these conclusions from the statements of the Quran. Taking wild animals to the ship is not appropriate in terms of the occurrence of the events, time and place as well as wisdom.

The Flood must have taken place in Mesopotamia and its immediate surroundings. For, the humanity that began with Adam (pbuh), was be able to expand between Arabia and Mesopotamia in the period of Noah (pbuh). It is stated in the Quran that similar disasters that hit some tribes later are limited with the places where only those tribes lived. Accordingly, the happening of such a flood in other places of the world where no human beings lived is not appropriate in terms of wisdom. So, it is not possible for Noah (pbuh) to deal with animals living in other places. For, Allah tells Noah (pbuh) to embark the ship when water from Tannur begins to flush.

It seems that the time of embarking the ship is not certain. People were demanded to embark the ship when water from the oven flushed. In a very short time when there was, a life and death struggle, Noah (pbuh) could not think how he would take the worm inside the soil, the wolf on the mountain, the fish in the sea to the ship. In such a time, keeping and looking after wild animals is not possible.

That time is such a moment that everybody looks for a place to hide. Water pours from the sky and  flushes from the ground. Houses and streets submerge in an instant. The people seek for places to shelter. The Quran states that Noah (pbuh)’s son did not embark the ship and Noah (pbuh) tried to embark his son. In other words, at the moment of the confusion taking one’ relatives and lovers to the ship, it is not the time of considering the monkey and parrot in the African jungles or the bison. It is not necessary. They embarked the domestic animals which could be useful in the place where they would go. Are there any better sources than these reasons?

They make movies to represent the historical incidents like the one mentioned above. Some people think what is shown in those movies is exactly true.

28 Is it true that Moses (pbuh) and Israelites who crossed over the Nile river consisted of twelve tribes and that they exited from the Nile through twelve different tributaries?

This issue is told in the Quran as follows: Then We told Moses by inspiration: "Strike the sea with thy rod." So it divided, and each separate part become like the huge, firm mass of a mountain. (ash-Shuara 26/63)

We sent an inspiration to Moses: "Travel by night with my servants, and strike a dry path for them through the sea, without fear of being overtaken (by Pharaoh) and without (any other) fear." (Taha 22/77)

According to the information given by Abdullah bin Abbas, Moses and Israelites who crossed over the Nile river consisted of twelve tribes; the sea was divided into twelve paths and they came ashore from these twelve different paths. (see Ibn Kathir,the interpretation of ash-Shuara 26/63)

According to what tafsir scholars say (see Razi, Mafatih, the interpretation of Shuara 26/63), Moses was told, ‘’Strike it with your rod.‘ When he struck the sea, it was divided and each parts of it became like a mass of mountain. And twelve roads belonging to each tribe came into existence from that sea. Then, when each tribe began to say ‘’Your friends were killed’’, Hz. Moses prayed Allah. Thus, Allah transformed the big masses of mountains into sceneries in the form of layers. In this way, they saw themselves walking on dry ground.

To sum up, Allah divided the Nile river into twelve dry corridors; each one of the twelve tribes passed through a corridor. The ones that passed through one corridor saw the others.

29 Was the first man, Hazrat Adam, literate? Was the first period of humanity a wild period?

The first era of humanity was not wild; on the contrary, it was probably the first civilization. The  first lesson of civilization was given to people by true prophets. Divine prophets  gave people the first religious instruction (ie, they taught faith in God) as well as the first lesson of civilization.

However, people who had taken this first lesson of civilization from divine prophets started to get away from the civilization, forgetting the first lesson and they became wild; then they became civilized again. So, it means  people did not experience only  two periods of time as  primitive (wild) age and civilized age; they had three periods as  the first civilization age, wild age and second civilization age. Wild age is not considered as the first age; it was a transitional step between the two civilized ages.

Civilization has been conveyed to mankind through the prophets of Allah. At this point, there has not been a general savagery in human history. There was civilization in the areas where prophets had lived in accordance with their own period. We know  that people were wild and rude in the places where there were no prophets.

History books have always tried to show the wild aspect of humanity. There are some reasons of it. Among these, the main reason is that  some atheists try to move people away from Islam and faith in Allah. Some of them deceived people in the scientific field using their nonsensical idea of evolution and uttered the following claim: ‘’There is no Allah as  the  believers of Islam claimed. Everything in the universe occurred by themselves. Science also says so’. Besides, the following idea idea everywhere:  ‘Before evolving, man was half-ape; then, he turned to man. However, the first man was  fully  wild and illiterate’. So, they abused the science of History for this dirty ideology.

As a matter of fact, every prophet brought civilization; and the first man, Adam (pbuh), was also a prophet. Hence, the humanity starting with the Prophet Adam (pbuh) was civilized in accordance with that time and place; it was not wild. Even in the present time, there are people living in the wild as illiterate people; at those times, there was far more savagery and brutality However,  this state, as we said at the beginning, was not common.

In addition, Allah states in the Quran that the Prophet Adam (pbuh) had been taught  the name of everything, the meaning  of them and why everything was created, and that Adam (pbuh) became more successful than the angels in the test. Therefore, it is clear that the first man could speak as we do now and communicate with sounds.

30 A conversation happened between Moses (pbuh) and a fly. It said that flies mention the names of Allah all the time but that most of the humans are heedless. Can you explain this?

According to a narration, Moses complained about Flies' disturbing humans and said, ‘’ O Lord! Why have you so created so many of these irritating creatures? The following answer came to him through inspiration:

You have objected about the flies once while the flies have asked many times: ‘’O our Sustainer! This man has a huge head, yet he praises you with only one tongue. (And sometimes he neglected to do that.) ‘’If you created us out of only his head, there would have been creatures like us praising you with thousands of tongues!’’ Moreover the flies, which thus defended the wisdom in their creation against Moses’ complaint with sufficient power to withstand a thousand such objections, also pursue great cleanliness. (see Ottoman Flashes, the twenty-eighth flash, p. 653)

It is concluded that flies said that although humans had huge heads and bodies, they did not praise and serve Allah properly and that flies praised Him all the time with their small bodies and served Him.

‘’There is not a thing but celebrates His praise.’’ (al-Isra, 17/44) The fact stated in this verse shows that flies, like other creatures, always praise Allah with their existence and their own personal tongues during their lives and complain rightfully –especially- about humans who are negligent.

31 Why are prophets not chosen by people?

The issue of prophethood, nubuwwah is included in Sam’iyyat, that is a section in Kalam (theology) achieved by means of narration. Since the religion was notified to people by prophets, it is built on the institution of prophethood. The issue of prophethood, which was not mentioned very much in the books of the first period of Kalam, began to be a subject matter afterwards as the result of internal and external factors.

The need for the institution of prophethood is very clear. For, a perfect belief in Allah is possible only with their guidance. It is impossible to find the truths with the mind alone and without revelation. The best example to this is that the Prophet Abraham tried to find Allah with his mind. The Prophet Abraham, who first thought stars, the moon and the sun as the god, turned towards the Sustainer of the worlds only by means of the sun of guidance that entered his heart.

Human progress has been made by prophets. If it had not been for prophets, mankind could not have built a civilization, started a regular life, and made progress in sciences. Therefore, prophets drew the limits of the sciences with their miracles. Hence, each prophet is accepted as a master in various branches of art.

The faculties of man, who cannot be limited naturally, like rage, animal appetites and reason were  restricted by the laws that prophets brought. Man achieved wisdom (hikma) in the power of reason, courage in the power of anger, and chastity in the power of animal appetites through prophets; and he achieved the pleasure of being human in the triangle of wisdom, chastity and courage thanks to them.

Even if man can come to the conclusion that there is a creator, he can learn how to worship and serve Him only through prophets. Therefore, the boundaries of rewards (thawabs) and sins are drawn by prophets, and the ways to happiness and misery are shown by them. Ahl al Sunnah accepts Allah’s sending prophets as His mercy, grace and favor. Allah addressed  people through prophets that He chose among them. Prophets conveyed the Divine Word to people, and taught the ways of knowledge to them. Therefore, If it had not been for prophets, people could not know Allah adequately.

Prophethood is not a rank attained by request and hard work; nobody can be a prophet by being chosen or appointed by people, or by requesting and endeavoring.  For, as it was proved by many evidences, prophethood occur by Allah’s choosing one among His servants.

Definitely, it cannot be appropriate to enable people to choose those who represent the superior rank of prophethood. Only Allah can choose the ones deserving and that rank.

32 How did Prophet Abraham survive and what kind of a response did he get when he was saved from fire?

-There is no information in Qur’an about how the people of the Prophet Abraham reacted to this miracle. However, it is possible to conclude from the 44th verse of Sura al-Hajj that they too were destroyed.

- It is understood that both Nimrod and his people - may be due to his oppression - kept worshipping idols. In about 2286 BC, when Prophet Abraham was still alive, Allah inflicted Assyrians upon them. They invaded Nimrod’s territory, ended his reign and built the Assyrian kingdom. (Ibn Ashur, commentary of Sura al-Anbiya, verse 69)

- It is known that the Prophet Abraham got off by immigrating to Palestine without being exposed to any other tortures of Nimrod, with the help of Allah. After the verse that mentions Abraham’s survival, the following is stated in the next two verses:

“And they intended for him harm, but We made them the greatest losers. And We saved him and Lut and delivered them to the land(Palestine) which We had blessed for the worlds”. (al-Anbiya, 21/70,71)

It is concluded from the part “… saved him and Lut.” that the enemies were following them. They escaped secretly to get rid of their evil and were saved with the help of Allah.

- Considering the apparent meaning of the verse “And Lut believed him”, it seems that nobody but the Prophet Lut (Prophet Abraham’s nephew) believed in the Prophet Abraham. The fact that only Lut and Abraham went to Palestine also proves this.

Ibn Atiyya summarizes the rewards given to Prophet Abraham in this world as his getting rid of fire, being just, adopting doing right and beneficial deeds as a principle, being remembered with respect in all centuries, being regarded as a moral leader and guide by all generations after him and his having a son like Ismail, whose heart was filled with respect. [Kur’an Yolu: IV/250 (the Qur’an Way IV/250)]

33 How did the angels prostrate before Adam (as)? What kind of a prostration did they perform?

It is clear that this prostration is not a kind of prostration performed by putting the heads on the ground. Prostration is a preeminent indicator of obeying divine orders; also, it is the utmost limit of modesty. This enormous universe was put at the disposal of the helpless humankind; and as a magnificent divine bounty, man was appointed as the caliph on the earth. The real nature of the event of Hz. Adam’s prostration is a declaration of this divine appreciation to the realms of angels.

This prostration is a divine order. Apart from the declaration of humankind’s superiority to angels and jinn, it is an offer of worship for angels as well. As Allah (swt) orders, they are bound to prostrate like that.

In fact, prostrating before Adam (as) in terms of a carrying out a divine order was performed for Allah (swt).

While performing prayers, we turn towards the Kaaba. If we are near the Kaaba, we turn to the Kaaba, perform prayers and prostrate.

Apparently, this prostration of ours is towards the Kaaba; however, in reality, it is towards Allah (swt).

34 How many years did the Prophet Sulayman (a.s.) live?

He ascended the throne at the age of 13-14. He reigned for 40 years. He died at the age of 53 (according to some narrations, he died at the age of 52). (see Mas'udi, 1, 58: Tha'labi, p. 328)

35 Will you give information about Hz. Khidr?

There is no detailed information about the life of Hz. Khidr. In the Quran, the name of Khidr is not mentioned clearly. However, it is understood from the story of Hz. Moses (Musa) that the person mentioned in verses 60-82 of the chapter of al-Kahf as follows is Hz. Khidr:

"…One of Our servants on whom We had bestowed Mercy from Ourselves and whom We had taught knowledge from Our own presence."(al-Kahf, 18/65)

For, it is clearly stated in the sound hadiths reported from the Prophet (pbuh) that this person is Khidr. (see Bukhari, Ilm 16, 44, Tafsiru'l-Qur'an, Tafsiru Surati'l-Kahf 2-4; Muslim, Fadail 170-174)

36 Can you give some information about the clock miracle of the Prophet Yusuf (a.s.) and its importance?

Prophets are spiritual leaders and they are also leaders of the first materialistic inventions. Allah bestowed some civilization wonders upon human beings via the hands of prophets. So, ironsmiths accept Prophet Davud (David), seafarers accept Prophet Nuh (Noah),  tailors accept Prophet Idris(Enoch), clockmakers accept Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) as their masters.

In islamic resources, it is stated that the person who invented the clock was Yusuf (a.s.). While he was staying in prison, he invented the clock so that he could pray on time. It was his miracle.

Without any doubt, humankind has benefitted from the sun to measure time ever since they started to live on the earth. From the most primitive ones to the most developed one, sundials were used. However, until that time, a device which could show the time without using the sun had not been invented. From the time of the first human Adam (a.s.), worshipping like salah (prayer ) and fasting  rendered obligatory by the sharia  (Islamic law ), were performed at certain times. These times were determined by the movement of the sun .

Yusuf (a.s.) invented a device that had not been used until that time when he was in a sunless prison. That was a water clock (according to some narrations, it was a sand glass)

As a matter of fact, archaeologists found a water clock that remained from the time of Pharaoh Amenhotep- III in an Amon temple in Egypt. That Pharaoh lived between the years of 1408-1372 BC. In addition, this Pharaoh was the father of Amenhotep-IV (Akhenaton) who brought the religion of Aten to Eygpt. This era was after the time of Hyksos.

The first types of these water clocks existed in Egypt. They had a hole at the bottom. It was filled and emptied from that hole. The time was determined according to the water level.

The invention of the clock changed the perspectives of people. While sundials showed a certain time, water clocks showed how much time passed .The invention of the water clock can be considered as the real beginning of the measurement of time.

The reason why Yusuf’s invention of clock is considered as a miracle is that he desperately needed to know the time because he was ordered to perform certain worshipping. So, in order to satisfy that need and give this as a gift to the future generations, Allah granted him the clock. Being given this idea in an unexpected way, being instructed how the clock would work and being gifted a present that would satisfy the need of humans for centuries are the evidences of a miracle. When these kinds of things were presented by saints (walis), they were called  wonders. When they were presented by prophets, they were called miracles.

Thus, Noah’s Ark was built at an unexpected time and is mentioned as a miracle in the Quran. It was registered  by historians and its benefits were understood after the flood happened. That is why, those two inventions are considered as miracles. (see Sözler, Yirmi İkinci Söz, p. 254).

37 When was Hz. Khidr born? Did he meet the Prophet (pbuh)?

There is no definite information about when Hz. Khidr was born.

Scholars have different views about the person who is referred to as «one of Our servants» in the Quran and who met Hz Musa. It is disputable whether he is a prophet, messenger or saint. It is also disputable when he lived and whether he is alive or dead now.

As for his name, scholars say, «His name is Khidr». Some say his name is «Balya bin Malkan»; others say, his name is «Alyasa», «Ilyas» and «an angel».

There are also different views about who his father is. Some say, «He is Adam's son»;others say, he is, «Pharaoh's son»; some others say «He is the son of al-Is»;yet others say, «He is Kalya's son». However, according to the majority of the scholars, his name is Balya bin Malkan and Khidr is his nickname.

He is a nabi; some scholars say he is a rasul while others say he is a saint; the majority supports this view. (Ali Arslan, Büyük Kur’an Tefsiri, Arslan Yayınları: 10/526-528) The narrations stating that Hz. Khidr met and talked to the Prophet (pbuh) and that some Companions saw him, and some of the references written by Islamic scholars stating that he is still alive are as follows:

al-lsaba - Ibn Hajar 1/429-452; Sahih Muslim 4/1847 ve 2050; Sharh-us Sunnah - Baghawi 15/280; Jam'-ul Fawaid 1/43; Musnad-ul Firdaws 1/345 and 427, 5/504; Jam'-ul Jawami' - Suyuti hadith no: 4118 and 70707; Kanz-ul Ummal hadith no: 34409; Mawarid-uz Zam'an - Ibn Hibban hadith no: 2092; Tirmidhi hadith no: 30151; Zuhar-ul Firdaws - Ibn Hajar 4/401; Ihya-u Ulum-id Din 1/336; al-Fath-ul Kabir 1/439; Sharh-i Muslim - Nawawi 8/234; Ramuz-ul Ahadith p: 198; Nur-ul Absar p: 157, 258 and 270; al-Musannaf - San'ani 2/393; al-Fath-ur Rabbani - Ghaylani p: 240 …

38 Was Basmala the same in the other religions as Arabic or how was it present?

We could not come across a precise hadith report regarding the issue. However, according to the declaration of some scholars, Noah and Adam (pbuh)’s reciting Basmala was in their own language. The Quran reported to us in Arabic what they said in their own languages. (see Alusu, the interpretation of an-Naml/27/30.)

To some scholars, about it is possible that Solomon (pbuh)’s letter was be in Hebrew language or in Qahtani Arabic (Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of an-Naml/27/30). According to these scholars, since the country Sheba, where Balqis was the queen, was in Yemen region, their language was Qahtani Arabic. Solomon (pbuh) must have dictated this letter in their language to be able to be understood.

While Abu Hayyan mentioned the virtue of Basmala, he said, ‘‘Basmala is used in their own languages in the each prophet’s sharia, at the beginning of each book/letter’’ (al-Bahru’l-Muhit,the interpretation of an-Naml/27/30)

As a principle we can say that stories told about prophets and tribes speaking in different languages in the Quran were conveyed from their own languages into Arabic. It would be a baseless claim to exclude basmala.

39 How many prophets were sent to the world?

Prophets do not consist of the twenty-five people mentioned in the Quran. According to indication of a hadith, 124.000 prophets were sent. (see Ahmad b. Hanbel, al-Musnad 5/265-266; Ibn Hibban, as-Sahih, 2/77)

Some of them were given separate books but some prophets used the previous prophet’s book. As a matter of fact, Harun (Aaron) (pbuh) acted according to Musa’s (Moses) book just as Yahya (John) and Zakariyya (Zacharias) acted by using Jesus’ book.

What we should know and believe is as follows: the first prophet is Adam (pbuh) and the last prophet is Muhammad (pbuh). Between these two prophets, numerous prophets came to the world. We believe in all of the prophets appointed by Allah. Even if we do not know their names or where they lived, they were appointed by Allah.

40 Is it true that Hazrat Dawud (David) (PBUH) was the master of the ironmongers? How did He learn this? What were His other qualities?

Hazrat Dawud (David) (pbuh) comes from the descent of Hazrat Noah) (Nuh) (pbuh) (al-An’am, 6/84) and he was sent as a prophet to the Sons of Israel. It is stated in the Quran that Dawud was given both sovereignty and wisdom (prophethood) after slaying Goliath (al-Baqara, 2/251). In the history of the Sons of Israel, Dawud was the first person to whom prophethood and sovereignty were given together. (Ibn Kathir, Qisasu’l-Anbiya, p. 248). The Quran states that Dawud (pbuh) was given some other things that were not given to other people apart from prophethood and Psalms as a grant and miracle. Hazrat Dawud was a messenger of Allah. The things that were given to him are both evidence for his prophethood and the reward of thanking and worshipping Allah properly. Allah rewards people who thank Him properly.

Apart from a large sovereignty, Hazrat Dawud was given wisdom, understanding, ruling justly, knowledge about what to do and how, knowledge about doing things properly and in time, sticking to what is useful and producing nice things. He decorated his sovereignty with this wisdom; he always did good and beneficial deeds, defined as amal salih by the Quran (2/al-Baqara, 251). 

It is possible to list the characteristics of Hazrat Dawud in the Quran as follows:    

He processed the Iron and made Armor:  

Allah taught Hazrat Dawud to make armor in order to protect Sons of Israel from the intensity of war, and told him to make large armor by softening the iron and to process it in a very nice way.

“It was We Who taught him the making of coats of mail for your benefit, to guard you from each other’s violence: will ye then be grateful? (al-Anbiya, 21/80) “We bestowed Grace aforetime on David from Ourselves: "O ye Mountains! sing ye back the Praises of Allah with him! and ye birds (also)! and We made the iron soft for Him. (Commanding) "Make thou coats of mail, balancing well the rings of chain armor, and work ye righteousness; for be sure I see (clearly) all that ye do." (Saba’, 34/10-11)

When the phrase, " We made the iron soft for Him" is interpreted, it is stated in many tafsir books that that the iron became like candle or mud in the hands of Hazrat Dawud thanks to the grant of Allah and that he shaped iron without using any tools like hammer, etc. ( Tabari, Ibn Atiyya, Radi, interpretation of the relevant verses) 

Doubtlessly, Allah, who imposed the laws of nature, can let some extraordinary things happen when He wishes. Therefore, if those details in the tafsir books had been expressed in the Quran or hadith books, it would have been possible to accept them as true. Besides, it is also regarded appropriate to interpret the verse as Allah encouraging Hazrat Dawud to process the iron and giving him sufficient power and a special skill to do it.  (Kur’an Yolu, Heyet, interpretation of the 10th verse of the chapter Saba’)

In Islamic resources, it is reported that Hazrat Dawud wandered in disguise among people after becoming the ruler and found out about the thoughts of people regarding the activities of the state. Once, when an angel who was in the shape of a man said Dawud (pbuh) was a good person for himself and for his ummah but he made his living through the Treasure, Dawud (pbuh) prayed Allah to show him a way of earning his keep; thereupon, he was taught the art of making armor. According to a narration, he is the first person to make armor and to wear it. In a hadith, Hazrat Prophet said, “Nobody has ever eaten a better meal than that which one has earned by working with one's own hands. The Prophet of Allah, David never ate anything but the earnings of his manual labor” (Bukhari, Buyu’ 15).

The Quran states clearly that Hazrat Dawud is the master of the ironmongers and that he used this skill to make armor in order to protect human blood from being shed. Dawud (pbuh) could have used his skill to make swords. However, he produced a defense weapon not an assault weapon. (Elmalılı, Hak Dini, interpretation of the relevant verses) Besides, the expression, “taught him the making of coats of mail for your benefit, to guard you from each other’s violence” in the chapter of al-Anbiya explains that the wisdom behind teaching how to make armor was to protect man from other men.

The subtlety here is very clear: A prophet can be occupied with good and beneficial works only. Hazrat Prophet encouraged people to work and gave them examples from the history of prophets. To work and to make one’s own living have an important place in Islam. It is a shame and a sin not to work, to sit lazily and to beg although one can work. Hazrat Prophet expressed it in the hadith that has a great social and economic importance. (Bukhari, Buyu’ 15). It is understood from that hadith that Dawud (pbuh) was a skilled artisan that earned his living by working with his hands and without being a burden for anybody.

Mountains and Birds Glorified Allah together with him: 

Allah put mountains and birds under the command of Hazrat Dawud and they joined him in glorifying Allah day and night.  (al-Anbiya, 21/79; Saba’, 34/10; Sad, 38/18-19) According to what is reported in Islamic resources, the voice of Hazrat Dawud was both sonorous and beautiful. When Dawud started to read the Psalms with his sonorous and beautiful voice, wolves and birds stopped and listened to him; his voice resonated on the mountains. According to a hadith reported by Hazrat Aishs and Abu Hurayra, when Hazrat Prophet heard the voice of Abu Musa al-Ash’ari, he said,“Abu Musa was given from the Psalms of Dawud.” (Ahmad bin Hanbal, II/354) In another narration reported by Abu Musa, the Prophet said: “O Abu Musa! You were given one Psalm from the Psalms of Aal-i Dawud.” (Bukhari, Fadailu’l-Qur’an 31) Hazrat Dawud was known for the beauty of his voice as well as his speedy reciting. According to a hadith reported from Abu Hurayra, the Messenger of Allah said,“The reciting of the Psalms was made easy for Dawud. He used to order that his riding animals be saddled, and would finish reciting the Psalms before they were saddled. And he would never eat except from the earnings of his manual work.” (Bukhari, Anbiya 37; Tafsir 17/6)

Allah granted Dawud (pbuh) the ability to melt iron with his hand and the miracle of softening the hearts with his voice like iron. The fact that mountains glorified Allah with Hazrat Dawud was a grant and gift of Allah to him. No other slave of Allah was granted such a gift. 

He was very keen on Worshipping: 

It was stated in the Quran that Hazrat Dawud avoided committing sins, that he mentioned the names of Allah a lot and that he was very keen on worshipping and doing good deeds. (Sad, 38/17) Hazrat Prophet praised his prayer and fasting as follows: “The prayer (salah) that Allah loves the best is the prayer of Dawud and the fasting that He loves best is the fasting of Dawud.” (Bukhari, Tahajjud 7) The Messenger of Allah told Abdullah bin Amr, who said that he was going to fast every day and that he was going to perform prayers all night, to fast for three days; when he considered it insufficient, the Messenger of Allah told him to fast one day and to eat two days; when he did not accept it, the Prophet said, “Fast one day and eat one day. It is the fast of Dawud and it is the most virtuous kind of fasting; there is no fasting more virtuous than it.” (Bukhari, Sawm 55-57, 59, Anbiya 37, Fadailu’l-Qur’an 34, Adab 84, Isti’dhan 38) On the other hand, Hazrat Prophet said that Dawud (pbuh) slept half of the night and slept during one-third of the night and slept again during the remaining one-sixth of the night. (Bukhari, Tahajjud 7, Anbiya 38)

Fasting of Dawud: 

To fast every other day, that is, to fast one day and to eat the next day was described as the “fasting of Dawud” by the Prophet and it was stated that it was virtuous to fast like that. The Prophet said the following about that kind of fasting:  “The most virtuous fasting is the fasting of Dawud; he fasted one day and ate the next day.” When Abdullah bin Amr, one of the Companions, said, “I can fast more”, the Prophet told him that the fasting of Dawud was a virtuous kind of fasting and advised him not to fast more. (Muslim, Siyam 187-192) Therefore, to fast every other day is considered as the most virtuous supererogatory fasting.   

He was given the Psalms: 

In the Quran, it is stated that Hazrat Dawud was given the Psalms(an-Nisa, 4/163; al-Isra, 17/55); its content is mentioned briefly (al-Anbiya, 21/105) but detailed information is not given. In other Islamic resources, it is stated that the Psalms given to Hazrat Dawud (pbuh) were sent down in the month of Ramadan, that it contained sermons and words of wisdom and that Hazrat Dawud (pbuh) usually recited it accompanied by a melody and a musical instrument.  

Hazrat Dawud was appointed as the Vicegerent on Earth: 

Dawud (pbuh) was appointed as the Vicegerent on Earth, his sovereignty was strengthened and he was ordered to judge justly: “O David! We did indeed make thee a vicegerent on earth: so judge thou between men in truth (and justice): nor follow thou the lusts, (of thy heart), for they will mislead thee from the Path of Allah: for those who wander astray from the Path of Allah, is a Penalty Grievous, for that they forget the Day of Account. (Sad, 38/26) It is stated that in the Bible that Sons of Israel started a settled civilization and strengthened the state, that Hazrat Dawud put his house and his kingdom into an order, that he systemized worship and that he established a regular army in his period. Accordingly, Dawud fulfilled the duty he received from Allah faithfully, expanded his kingdom in the way that Allah promised to the generation of Ibrahim (Abraham); his kingdom expanded from the coast of Euphrates to the coast of the Red Sea. (I. Samuel 8/3; I. Chronicles 18/3).

Hazrat Dawud was a real head of state and a qualified ruler. He centralized his power and developed the military organization by making Jerusalem the capital. When he ruled the state, he himself applied justice and made judgments about the lawsuits. (II. Samuel, 8/15; 14/4-22; 15/2-6; I. Chronicles, 18/14; see  TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi, Davud aleyhisselam item)
 
He was given Sound Judgment: 

" We strengthened his kingdom, and gave him wisdom and sound judgment in speech and decision."(Sad, 38/20) Hazrat Dawud was given sound judgment, that is, the ability to settle the conflicts definitely and justly and the ability to explain every aim through speech. (Qurtubi, al-Jamiu li-Ahkami’l-Qur’an, 15/107) Thanks to this ability, he settled the lawsuits that were brought to him and assured justice on his land. Wisdom means knowledge that is in accordance with the truth. Sound judgment means to explain the views that come to the mind. It also means speaking nicely, understanding the essence of things, to settle lawsuits with in a just and convincing way.  One of the characteristics of Dawud (pbuh) is his ability to speak nicely and to settle the conflicts among people in a nice way.   

To sum up, Hazrat Dawud is a prophet that is mentioned in the Quran by addressing the Prophet:“…and remember Our Servant David, the man of strength: for he ever turned (to Allah)”, who is mentioned by the attribute of (turning to Allah and praying him a lot) (Sad, 38/17); made the hills declare, in unison with him (Sad, 38/18), And the birds gathered (in assemblies): all with him did turn (to Allah) (Sad, 38/19); " gave him wisdom (Sad, 38/20); it is stated that he was "righteous" and he enjoyed, indeed, a Near Approach to Us, and a beautiful place of (final) Return (Sad, 38/25);We did indeed make thee a vicegerent on earth. (Sad, 38/26)

41 Would you give me information about the disease of Hz. Ayyub? It is said that his body was infested by worms. So, can a prophet be disgusting to his tribe?

Ayyub (as), who was an exemplar of patience, perseverance, and submission, was an exceptional person who did not leave being grateful to Allah neither in his happiest days nor in his gloomiest moments.

Hz. Ayyub's story and state, which was a live example, are present in the Quran. It is mentioned in the Quran that he suffered from a long-lasting and unbearable disease but passed this divine test as a result of his eminent determination and patience and that he finally attained his health and welfare thanks to his supplication to Allah.

While the details of Hz. Ayyub’s story are included in the Quranic exegeses, it is reported that he caught a painful disease. In fact, not only did the wounds and pains spread to his whole body but they also reached his heart and tongue; whenever the pains affected his heart and tongue in a way that prevented him to mention Allah's name, he took refuge in Allah only for the servitude of Allah and got over this misfortune when his prayer was accepted.

The wounds in Hz. Ayyub’s body and worms (microbes) caused by the wounds were not in a condition that would disgust people and make them hate him. Those who saw him knew that he was going through a serious disease but they neither got disgusted by him nor stayed away from him. For, he did not have a condition like that. At present, there are such internal diseases like tuberculosis and cancer that are so common; but there are not any visible wounds and symptoms on the patient’s body. Those who see a patient like that are not disgusted by him/her; however, the patient is convulsed in an unbearable pain and he/she wastes away internally.

So, the disease of Hz. Ayyub was not a disease disgusting people looking from outwards. For, prophets are away from the defects that can cause the public to abhor them and they were protected by Allah. Prophets’ being exposed to disgusting things is a condition that prevents them to be together with the public and call people to the truth and the straight path that is a necessity of prophethood. This is not appropriate for the wisdom of prophethood. (Khulasatu'l-Bayan f i Tafsiri'l-Qur'an, IX/3469)

In other words, as Hz. Ayyub was a prophet, he was appointed to call people to the truth and the straight path. If he had caught such a disgusting disease, he could not have succeeded in conveying the message of Allah to people and calling people to the religion. As a matter of fact, his being deprived of goods, possession and children and finally being subjected to a test through a serious disease and his showing patience are dependent on the wisdom of setting an example to people.

Mentioning the story of Ayyub (as), Said Nursi explains the lesson that today’s people must take as follows:

“The wounds of Job (Upon whom be peace) were of such a nature as to threaten his brief worldly life, but our inner wounds threaten our infinitely long everlasting life. We need the supplication of Job thousands of times more than he did himself. Just as the worms that arose from his wounds penetrated to his heart and tongue, so too the wounds that sin inflicts upon us and the temptations and doubts that arise from those wounds will-may Allah protect us!-penetrate our inner heart, the seat of belief, and thus wound belief. Penetrating too the spiritual joy of the tongue, the interpreter of belief, they cause it to shun in revulsion the remembrance of Allah, and reduce it to silence.” (Lem'alar, İkinci Lema (The Flashes, The Second Flash))

42 Can you give information about prophets being sent to tribes separately? Which prophets lived at the same time and in the same place? What is the reason for this?

There are many prophets sent at the same time. For example, Shuayb (Jethro) and Musa (Moses) or Harun (Aaron) and Musa are the prophets sent at the same time.

The prophets sent before Hazrat Muhammad were sent to different nations. There were not dialogs and communication among tribes as there are now. Transport facilities were not so easy. Several tribes were not aware of one another other. It was not possible for one prophet to reach all the tribes.

So, different prophets were sent to tribes that lived in different places and separately. Sometimes, one of them was an assistant to another prophet. According to what the Quran reports, prophethood and divine books are the spiritual gifts granted by Allah.

As Allah, who created the universe, has given numerous earthly blessings and plenty of sustenance to human beings without discriminating between them and nations, He has bestowed prophethood on them as a spiritual food and moral blessing according to the same divine principle.

So, prophethood is a divine gift given by Allah to all of the nations in the world. Seeing that humans are in need of innocent prophets sent by Allah and the revelations sent down to them to find the right way and to practice the divine system founded on truth and justice by learning it, Allah sends prophets to all nations He chooses among them to without making any distinction.

As a matter of fact, this issue has been clearly expressed in the following verses:

"There never was a people, without a warner having lived among them (in the past)" (Fatir 35/24)

"To every people (was sent) an Messenger." (Yunus,10/47. Also see an-Nahl, 16/36; ar-Rum, 30/47; az-Zukhruf, 43/6; ar-Ra'd, 13/8; Ibrahim, 14/4; al-Isra, 17/15).

43 They say Hz. Yaqub married the older daughter of his maternal uncle. When his wife died, he married his wife's sister. Is that in true?

Hz. Ya'qub first married Layya,the older daughter of his maternal uncle Laban and after that, he married his younger daughter Rahil. He had four children called Rabil, Yehuza, Shem'un and Lawi from Layya. He had two children called Yusuf and Bunyamin from Rahil.

Hz. Ya'qub had six more sons from his other two wives. He totally had twelve sons. (Ibn Qutayba, Kilabu'l-Maarif, Beirut 1970,19; Ibn Khaldun, Tarikh, Beirut, 1971, I, 39)

There is no drawback to such a marriage religiously. It is permissible for a person to marry his maternal uncle's daughter.

44 Did Qarun believe in Allah? Did he cross the Red Sea? Is it true that he is Hz. Musa’s cousin (maternal uncle's son)? When and where was he destroyed?

- There is no verse or hadith stating that Qarun is Hz. Musa’s cousin.

According to the ideas of the scholars like Ibn Abbas, Ibrahim Nahai, Abdullah b. Harith b. Nawfal, Simak b. Harb, Qatada, Malik b. Dinar and Ibn Jurayj, Qarun is Hz. Musa’s cousin. (see Ibn Kathir, the interpretation of verses al-Qasas, 76-77; see also  Tabari, Qurtubi, Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of the relevant verses)

- According to Ibn Ishaq, Qarun is Hz Musa’s uncle. (Tabari, Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir ibid)

- According to what Qatada and some other scholars narrate (we cannot determine whether what they narrate is sound or not), Qarun was a believer at first. There are narrations stating that he was called "al-Munawwir" because he read the Torah beautifully, that he crossed the Red Sea with Hz. Musa and that he became a munafiq (hypocrite) like Samiri afterwards. (see Mawardi, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

- According to Razi, what is understood from the clear expression of the Quran is as follows: Qarun is from the nation of Hz. Musa. This fact (that he was from the nation of Hz. Musa) shows that he was a believer at first. It is possible to understand from this expression that he was a relative of Hz. Musa. According to a narration from Ibn Abbas, Qarun is Hz. Musa’s maternal aunt's son. (Razi, the interpretation of the relevant verse) Razi also included the information and narrations in other tafsir books but he quoted them by saying, "it is said that", indicating that they were not sound. (Razi, ibid)

- According to a narration from Abu Umama al-Bahili, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “Qarun was one of the seventy distinguished people who listened to Allah's word with Musa on Mount Sinai.” (Razi, ibid) However, we could not find this narration in hadith resources.

- Qarun was a believer but after crossing the Red Sea, he complained that he was not given a rank like Musa and his brother Harun; though he saw some miracles, he interpreted them as magic and left Children of Israel with some people who followed him. (Razi, ibid)

Ibn Ashur states that Qarun is mentioned as "Korah" in Numbers, 16 in the Bible and that while Children of Israel was about to conquer  "Iriha", he was swallowed by the earth. (Ibn Ashur, ibid)

It is understood from the same resource that three distinguished Jews called Qarun, Datan and Aviram rebelled against Hz. Musa; then, the earth was split and they were swallowed together with 250 people that followed them. (see the Bible, Numbers, 16/26-35)

- To sum up, there is no clear information in the Quran and sound hadiths whether Qarun was a believer at first or not. It is possible to understand from the following verses that he was a believer at first but he deviated afterwards and started to oppress the believers:“Qarun was doubtless, of the people of Moses; but he acted insolently towards them.” (al-Qasas, 28/76),“But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on thee, the Home of the Hereafter...” (al-Qasas:77)

- Various pieces of information show that he crossed the Red Sea together with Hz. Musa.

However, we could not find definite information about when and where he was destroyed.

45 Who was the first prophet that was martyred?

It is accepted that since Adam (a.s.), 24 thousand prophet came to this earth. It is hard to determine which one was a martyr or the first martyr but the names of 25 prophets are mentioned in the noble Quran.

As far we know, among these prophets, the Prophet Ashiya (Isaiah) was the first martyr. Prophet Zakariya‘s son Prophet Yahya (John) comes next.

After him, his father was martyred.

46 How many years passed between Hz. Isa (Jesus) and Hz. Ibrahim and Hz. Muhammad?

The details about these issues are not mentioned in the verses of the Quran and hadiths. Most of the information included in the Islamic resources regarding the issue comes from Jewish resources. Therefore, it is very difficult to give the exact number of years between   Hz. Ibrahim and Hz. Muhammad (pbuh).

The number of years between Hz. Isa and Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is certain.  Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) was born 571 years after the birth of Hz. Isa, became a prophet 611 years after his birth and died 632 years after his birth.

47 When Adam and Eve were sent to the world, were they sent with their body in heaven? Is it not necessary that the body suitable for Paradise should be different from the body suitable for this world?

Adam and Eve’s bodies in the world and in heaven were the same because in both places, they were human beings and human body is certain.

"We said: "O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden and eat of the bountiful things therein as (where and when) ye will; but approach not this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression." (al-Baqara, 2/35)

"When they tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them, and they began to sew together the leaves of the Garden over their bodies." (al-Araf, 7/22)

It is possible to understand this fact from the meaning of the verses. For, eating and wearing pertain to this body. And humans will go to heaven with their bodies and souls. A number of verses in the Quran refer to this. However, there is no need to go to the toilet in heaven. Trees in the world are examples of this state. Allah has power over everything.

48 Was a prophet sent between Jesus and Muhammad (pbuh)?

It is stated in the historical sources that no prophet was sent between Jesus and Muhammad. This period is called as interregnum.

Salman (ra) said,

"The interregnum between Jesus and Muhammad is 600 years." (Bukhari, Manaqibu'l-Ansar 53)

The meaning of the interregnum in the hadith is the period between these two prophets when no prophet was sent by Allah. There are some controversies about the number given by Salman: according to Qatada this period lasted 560 years. It is reported from Kalbi that it is 540. Some scholars said it had been 400 years.

(Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Kütüb-i Sitte)

49 Did Allah command the Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) to leave his father and the country he lived in?

Yes. After Hz. Ibrahim conveyed the message of Allah to his nation and after he was saved from the fire he was thrown into by the deniers, he had to migrate. This issue is emphasized in the following verses:

“And the answer of Abraham's people was not but that they said, "Kill him or burn him," but Allah saved him from the fire. Indeed in that are signs for a people who believe.”

“And [Abraham] said, “You have only taken, other than Allah, idols as [a bond of] affection among you in worldly life. Then on the Day of Resurrection you will deny one another and curse one another, and your refuge will be the Fire, and you will not have any helpers.”

“And Lot believed him. [Abraham] said, “Indeed, I will emigrate to [the service of] my Lord. Indeed, He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.” (Surah al-Ankabut 29:24/25/26)

When people are tortured more than they can bear, they migrate and leave their children, wives, goods, houses, which are temporary pleasures. This is called Hijra (migration), which is a virtue.

The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) migrated from Mecca to Madina under those conditions.

The word “qavm” (nation) means both the tribe a person belongs to and a community.

The important thing is to serve in the way of Allah. Every community that a prophet calls to the way of Allah is considered as his community.

The Prophet Abraham informed his nation about the necessary message and he was thrown into fire. It was now impossible for him to work as a prophet and show the truth there. It was even impossible for him to led a normal life.

The Pharaoh and his supporters to whom the Prophet Musa (Moses) conveyed the message did not belong to Musa’s own tribe.

In the following verse , it is stated that every community was sent a prophet:

“Indeed, We have sent you with the truth as a bringer of good tidings and a warner. And there was no nation but that there had passed within it a warner.” (Surah Fatir 35:24)

50 Will you give information about the pedigrees of prophets and their order of coming?

1. Adam (pbuh)

2. Seth (pbuh): His father is Adam and his mother is Hawwa (Eve).

3. Idris (Enoch) (pbuh): Ancestors of Idris: Yarid b. Mahlail b. Qainan b. Anusha b. Seth b. Adam.

4. Noah (pbuh): Noah b. Lamech b. Methuselah b. Enoch (Idris) b. Yarid b. Mahlail b. Qainan b. Enoch b. Seth b. Adam

5. Hud (pbuh): Hud (Abir) b. Abdullah b. Rabah b. Khalud b. Ad, b. Aws b. Iram b. Sam b. Noah.

6. Salih (pbuh): Salih b. Ubayd b. Asif b. Masikh b. Ubayd b. Khadir b. Thamud b. Abir b. Iram b. Sam b. Noah.

7. Ibrahim (Abraham) (pbuh): Ibrahim b. Tarah (Azar) b. Nahor b. Sarug b. Rhau b. Phaleg b. Abir b. Salih b. Arpachshad b. Sam b. Noah.

8. Ismail (Ishmael) (pbuh): Ismail is the oldest son of Ibrahim born of Hagar.  

9. Ishaq (Isaac) (pbuh): Ishaq is the second son of Ibrahim born of Sarah.

10. Lot (pbuh): Lot b. Haran b. Tarah b. Nahor b. Sarug. Lot is Ibrahim's nephew, that is, his brother Haran's son.

11. Yaqub (Jacob) (pbuh): Yaqub b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim. Yakub's mother is Rebecca.

12. Yusuf (Joseph) (pbuh): Yusuf b. Yaqub b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim. Yusuf's mother is Rahil bint Laban.

13. Ayyub (Job) (pbuh): Ayyub b. Mus b. Ra'wil or Razih b. Aws b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim. Ayyub's mother was Lot's daughter.

14. Dhulkifl (pbuh): Bishr (Dhulkifl) b. Ayyub.

15. Shuayb (Jethro) (pbuh): Shuayb b. Mikail b. Yashjur b. Madyan b. Ibrahim. Shuayb's mother is Lot's daughter Mikail. Shuayb was the father-in-law of Moses (Musa) (pbuh).

16. Musa (Moses) (pbuh): Musa b. Imran b.Yashur b. Qahis b.Lawi b.Yaqub b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim. Musa b. Imran and Harun (Aaron) b. Imran were brothers. Harun was one year older than Musa.  

17. Harun (Aaron) (pbuh): He is Musa's brother.

18. Khidr (pbuh): According to a narration, the ancestors of Khidr are as follows: Balya (or Ilya) b. Milkan b. Phaleg b. Abir b. Salih b. Arpachshad b. Sam b. Noah. His father was a great king. It is narrated that he is Adam's son or one of Ays b. Ishaq's sons or son of one of those who believed in Ibrahim and who migrated from Babylonia with him or son of a Persian father; it is narrated that he lived during the time of King Afridun and Ibrahim, that he acted as a guide for Dhul-Qarnayn, that he was sent as a prophet to Sons of Israel during the time of one of their kings, Ibn Emus, that he is still alive and that he meets Elias (pbuh) every year during the season of hajj.

19. Yusha (pbuh): Yusha' b. Nun b. Efraim b. Yusuf b. Yaqub b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim.

20. Kalib b. Yufana (pbuh): Kalib b. Yufana b. Bariz (Fariz) b. Yahuza b. Yaqub b. Ishaq b. Ibra­him. Kalib b. Yufana was the husband of Maryam, Musa's sister, or the son-in-law of Moses.  

21. Hizqil (pbuh): Hizqil b. Nuri. When Hizqil's mother got too old to give birth to a child, she asked Allah to give her a child and she was granted Hizqil. Therefore, Hizqil was known as the son of the old woman.  

22. Ilyas (Elias) (pbuh): Ilyas b. Yasin b. Finhas b. Ayzar b. Harun b. Imran.

23. Alyasa (pbuh): Alyasa' b. Akhtub b. Adiyy b. Shutlem b. Efraim b.Yusuf  b.Yaqub b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim. It is also said that Alyasa is the cousin of Ilyas.  

24. Yunus (pbuh): Yunus b. Matta came from the sons of Bunyamin b. Yaqub b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim. Matta was his mother. None of the prophets except Yunus b. Matta and Isa b. Maryam were called after their mothers.  

25. Shamuyel (Samuel) (pbuh): Shamuyel b. Bali b. Alqama b. Yerham b. Yehu b.Tehu  b. Sawf. Shamuyel was from Sons of Israel and a descendant of Harun. Shamuyel's mother was Hannah and belonged to the family of Lawi b.Yaqub.

26. Dawud (David) (pbuh): Dawud b. Isha comes from Yahuza b.Yaqub  b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim.

27. Sulayman (Solomon) (pbuh): Sulayman is Dawud b. Isha's son and comes from Yahuza b.Yaqub  b. Ishaq b. Ibrahim.

28. Luqman (pbuh): Luqman b. Saran b. Murid, b Sawun. Luqman lived in the time of Dawud. He belonged to the Egyptian tribe of Nub. He was from the people of Madyan and Ayka. He was a slave of a man from Sons of Israel; Luqman was freed by him and given some property.

29. Sha'ya (pbuh): Sha'ya b. Emus or Emsiya.

30. Irmiya (pbuh): Irmiya b. Hilqiya comes from Harun b. Imran, who comes from Lawi b. Yaqub.

31. Danyal (Daniel) (pbuh): Danyal b. Hizqil al-Asgar was from the descendants of prophets. He came from Sulayman b. Dawud.

32. Uzayr (Ezra) (pbuh): Uzayr b. Jarwa is a descendant of Harun.

33. Dhul-Qarnayn (pbuh): There are various narrations about the name and ancestors of Dhul-Qarnayn, and whether he is a prophet or not. There are contradictory narrations about him. It is stated that he is Sa'b b. Abdullah al-Qahtani; it is also claimed that he is of Himyaris.

When Ibn Habib wrote the names of Himyar kings beginning from Hisham b. Kalbi in his book, he said Sa'b b. Qarin b. Hamal was called as Dhul-Qarnayn in the book of Allah; he also wrote the king Zayd b. Hamal and said that Allah called him Tubba'.

Some scholars say,"Dhul-Qarnayn was both a nabi and a rasul." Others say, "He was a nabi, not a rasul. Inshaallah it is true that he is a nabi, not a rasul." According to Hz. Ali, he was neither a nabi nor a king. He was a righteous slave of Allah. Allah loved him and he loved Allah.

34. Zakariyya (Zacharias) (pbuh): Zakariyya is descended from b Barahya, Sulayman b. Dawud and to Yahuza b. Yaqub.

35. Yahya (John) (pbuh): Yahya is Zakariyya's son.

36. Isa (Jesus) (pbuh): He isHz. Maryam's son; he was born without a father as a miracle. Hz. Maryam's father was Imran b. Masan and was descended from Hub'um b. Sulayman.

37. Hz. Muhammad (pbuh): Muhammad b. Abdullah b. Abdulmuttalib b. Hashim b. Abdi Manaf b. Qusayy b. Kilab b. Murra b. Ka'b b. Luay b. Ghalib b. Fihr b. Malik b. Nadr b. Kinana b. Huzayma b. Mudrika b. Ilyas b. Mudar b. Nizar b. Maadd b. Adnan. All resources agree on the names of the ancestors of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) up to Adnan and that Adnan is descended from Ismail b. Ibrahim. 

Reference: Peygamberler Tarihi, M. Asım Köksal

51 What does “I am from Abraham’s nation” mean? Can you give some information about Hanif religion?

The word “Nation” is used in the sense of religion here.

They say: “Become Jews or Christians if you would be guided (to salvation).” Say you: “Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham, Hanif the True, and he joined not gods with Allah.”

Say you: “We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob, and Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam).” (al-Baqara, 2/135, 136).

Say: “Allah spoken the Truth: follow the religion of Abraham (Hanifa), the sane in faith; he was not of the Pagans.” (Al-i Imran, 3/95).

Explanation:

135. Jews an Christians said to everybody; “Become Jews or Christians if you would be guided (to salvation).” Jews always called to Judaism, and Christians always called to Christianity. While both of them did not come together, each of them  brought out disunity and controversy; besides, they claimed this was salvation. Therefore, O Muhammad! You say; “Not become Jews or Christians: on the contrary, become Hanif; namely, become the nation (religion) of Abraham which is purified from unbelief and polytheism. Abraham was Hanif, not polytheistic.

He never belonged to Jews and Christians, who came after him and resembled polytheists in many ways as mentioned above. However, they were previous communities. If you say; “How can we belong to them?”, it is easy: Firstly, their being former (communities) is not a barrier to follow and obey them. Secondly, you are not completely themselves; become a new and big community that renovates it, livens it again and enlarges it;  and that is the purpose of Abraham’s request in his supplication; so, this community will become a bigger  community that will comprise also Abraham’s community.

136. In order to be like this: Say you: “We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma’il, Isaac, Jacob, and Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam).” (al-Baqara, 2/136) We do not become like the Jews and Christians, who do not recognize some of them while recognizing others. Saying like this does not mean that we accept all of them to have the same rank and degree. It means that we do not reject any of them, and we accept the prophethood of all of them; we do not assume a different attitude in regards of their prophethood. Therefore, firstly we accept Allah, then our Prophet (Muhammad), later the prophets that he said they were prophets. We submit only to Allah, and are loyal only to Him.

So, Islamic nation is so wide that it is the perfect religion and a magnificent community that comprises all religions. (For the commentary of the related verses, see Elmalılı Tefsiri)

The Prophet Abraham traveled to many places after he had left Babylonia. At last, he decided to settle in Damascus. The number of his believers increased day by day there. The community formed by followers of Abraham was named as Abraham’s nation.

When the Prophet Abraham was about to leave Babylonia, he remembered that he would pray Almighty Allah for his father’s forgiveness, and he prayed for his father’s forgiveness as follows:

“Forgive my father; for that he is among those astray.” (ash-Shu’ara, 26/86)

The Prophet Abraham who knew that it was not permissible to pray for an unbeliever even though that unbeliever was his father; he did so only because of the promise he had made to him when he was leaving Babylonia. Abraham’s prayer for his father’s forgiveness was not accepted, and this situation is explaned as follows in the following verse:

“It is not fitting, for the Prophet and those who believe, that they should pray for forgiveness for Pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear to them that they are companions of the Fire.” (at-Tawbah, 9/113)

The Prophet Abraham spent his remaining life with the Prophets Lot, Isma’il and Isaac. Allah stated the following about them:

“And We made them leaders, guiding (men) by Our Command, and We sent them inspiration to do good deeds, to establish regular prayers, and to practise regular charity; and they constantly served (only) Us.” (al-Anbiya, 21/73)

Allah gave a book of ten pages to the Prophet Abraham. After he lived a long time, he went to Eygpt towards the end of his life. When the Prophet Abraham died, according to strong narrations, he was burried in the place named Khalilu’r- Rahman, near Jerusalem.

Hanif: The religion of the Prophet Abraham was based on monotheism (oneness of Allah). In the course of time, this religion was forgotten, and idolatry spread all over Arabia. However, the traces of monotheism could be seen in some people. These people were called Hanif.

“Hanif” means someone who is far from unbelief, who turns towards Allah and who accepts Allah as the only god. The word “Hanif” is mentioned in several verses of the Qur’an. The word “Hanif” is used for the Prophet Abraham in the sense of a servant who worships Allah in a clear and pure way.

The following expressions are used in the verses about Hanif.

“ And further (thus): ‘set your face towards religion with true piety, and never in any wise be of the Unbelievers.” (Yunus-Jonah, 10/105).

So We have taught you the inspired (Message), “Follow the ways of Abraham the True

Before Islam,  in the Arabian community, people like Waraqa bin Nawfal, Abdullah bin Jahsh, Uthman bin Huwayris, Zayd bin Amr, Quss bin Saida were some of Hanifs. These were the people who regarded ‘bowing in front of idols that were lifeless, dumb and powerless, and praying to them’ as nonsense.

52 Did Hz. Adam (pbuh) commit any sins?

It is very important in which sense the words in the Quran are used. If it is thought that prophets are innocent, it will be clearly understood that it is definitely not a conscious disobedience.

As a matter of fact, when the incident is narrated in the previous verses, it is stated that Hz. Adam (pbuh) forgot this covenant:

"We had already beforehand, taken the covenant of Adam, but he forgot: and We found on his part no firm resolve." (Taha, 20/115)

That is, this deed of Hz. Adam (pbuh) is not a conscious deed aiming to oppose the order of Allah. Therefore, it is possible to understand the verse as follows not as disobedience in the sense we understand:

"In the result, they both ate of the tree, and so their nakedness appeared to them: they began to sew together, for their covering, leaves from the Garden: thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allow himself to be seduced." (Taha, 20/121)

Prophets do not commit sins.

Sins are divided into two as major and minor sins. The principal major sins are as follows: Killing, fornication, drinking alcohol, opposing one's parents, gambling, perjury and supporting the innovations (bid'ahs) that will harm the religion. 1

No prophet committed any major sins before or after they became prophets.

However, some prophets made some mistakes called "zallah" by forgetting or by abandoning the better one. 2 Hz. Adam's eating the fruit of the forbidden tree in Paradise can be given as an example of a zallah. When Hz. Adam ate the forbidden fruit, he did not commit a sin in the sense that we know; he abandoned the better one. Consequently, he and his wife were deprived of the bounties of Paradise due to this mistake. Since there is no concept of sin and reward in Paradise, it is understood that this sin has a form that is different from what is known.

One of the bounties of Paradise is that there is no need "to go to the toilet" there. 3  Hz. Adam (pbuh) and Hawwa (Eve) did not pee or crap in Paradise because what they ate did not have any waste material. Their private parts were hidden by a garment or luminous light. 4 To eat the fruit of the forbidden tree would cause their private parts to be uncovered and cause them to pee and crap; that is why, God Almighty prohibited them from eating the fruit of that tree. 5 As a matter of fact, as soon as they ate the fruit of the forbidden tree, their private parts, which they had not seen before, were uncovered. They started to cover them with leaves because it was not appropriate to leave them uncovered. 6

It is necessary not to forget the share of qadar (destiny) in the incident of Hz. Adam's eating the fruit of the forbidden tree and being sent out of Paradise. For, purpose and wisdom of the creation of man by God Almighty was realized only when Hz. Adam and Hawwa were sent down to the world. Abu'l-Hasan ash-Shazali states the following about the zallah of Hz. Adam:

"A sin so full of wisdom that caused the repentance of the people to come up to the Day of Judgment to become legitimate." 7

Footnotes:

1. Barla Lahikası, p. 179.
2. Muvazzah ilm-i Kelâm, p.184; Fıkh-ı Ekber Şerhi, p.154; Risale-i Hamidiye, p. 491.
3. Muslim, Jannah: 15.
4. Tefsîr-i Kebir , 14:49; Hak Dini Kur'ân Dili, 3:2140.
5. Hülasatül-Beyan ,2:4748.
6. al-A'raf, 22.
7. Risale-i Hamidiye, p. 611.

53 Why did Allah not make Adam (pbuh) live his childhood? Can we understand why?

Childhood is the continuation of a process in the mother’s womb. Adam (pbuh) was created out of dust, so he did not have a period of childhood.

The state of being created out of dust directly did not allow time for a period of childhood and did not allow Adam (pbuh) to have a caretaker and educator in terms of wisdom.

The statements about the creation of man in the Quran differ. In these different statements, it is stated that man was created out of dust, sticky clay, clay from an altered black mud, clay like pottery. Scholars say that these are not contradictions; on the contrary, they say that these indicate the phases of creation of man. (see al-Hazin, VII/139) Every one of them can be considered as childhood, and infancy compared to the upper phase.

Accordingly, the verse below indicates the origin of man: “Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, "Be," and he was.” Surah 'Aali `Imran 3:59  The following verse indicates the second phase, when water and dust are mixed and transformed into clay:“Indeed, We created men from sticky clay.” Surah as-Saffat 37:11 The following verse refers to the third phase when man was molded as black mud: “And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud.” Surah al-Hijr 15:26 The following verse indicates the fourth and last phase of the creation, the slimy form resembling mud: “He created man from clay like [that of] pottery.” Surah ar-Rahman 55:14 This is the last step of the creation. (see Tabari, Vol. VIII 14, p. 28; Sawi, IV/154; Niyazki Beki, Tafsir of surah ar-Rahman)

54 Could you give some explanation about 71th ayah of Surah Hud? Was Prophet Ismail not the first son of Prophet Ibrahim?

Yes, Prophet Ismail was the first son of Prophet Ibrahim; Prophet Isaac was the second son.

The meaning of the 71th and 72nd ayahs of Surah Hud:

71. And his wife was standing by and she too was frightened, whereupon to assure her we gave her glad tidings of birth of Isaac, and, after Isaac, of Jacob.

72. She said, `Oh, woe is me ! Shall I bear a child when I am an extremely old women and this my husband also is a very old man ? This is indeed a strange thing !’

When Prophet Ismail, the son of Prophet Ibrahim and Hagar, was born, Sara wished to have a son too. However, she lost hope as she was too old. At that time, she was given the good news of a son who would be a prophet and also be the father of a prophet. This was also the good news for the fact that she would see both her son and her grandson. (see Imam Qurtubi, al-Jamiu li-Ahkami’l-Qur’an, Buruj Publications: 9/107)

55 In one of the Russian TV channels, it was said that Hazrat Eesa (Jesus Christ) saw Allah (God); is this true? Did Jesus see Allah?

As far as we know, there is no hadith or verse about Jesus's (AS) seeing Allah.

In the Qur'an, it is stated that Hazrat Moses (AS) wished to see Allah but that  it was not accepted. (Surah al-Araf, 7/143)

56 Is it true that the destruction of Qarun took place due to the request of Hz. Musa?

It is possible to see this information in the Tafsir of Tabari. (al-Qasas, the interpretation of verse 28/81). According to this narration, which is based on Ibn Abbas, when Hz. Musa informed Children of Israel about the order to give zakah, Qarun could not accept it and gathered Children of Israel. He addressed them as follows: “O Children of Israel! You have obeyed Musa no matter what he ordered so far. He wants to grab your property now.” They said, “You are superior to us. We will do whatever you order us. Thereupon, Qarun said, “Call me such and such a woman (who was a prostitute); give her as much money as she wants and tell her to say that she committed adultery with Musa.” They did so.

Qarun went to Musa in order to carry out his plan. He said to Musa, “Come and preach Children of Israel who gathered in order to listen to your advice. Thereupon, Hz. Musa proceeded toward them and said, “O Children of Israel! We will cut off the hand of a person who steals. We will beat a person who slanders that someone has committed adultery. If a person commits adultery, we will beat him a hundred times with a lash if he is not married and beat/stone him until he dies if he is married. Qarun did not want to miss this opportunity and asked, "Is it valid for you too?" Hz. Musa said, "Yes, it is.”

Thereupon, Qarun said, Children of Israelsay you committed adultery with such and such a woman.” Hz. Musa said, “Call that woman here. If she says so, it is true.” They called the woman and she came. Hz. Musa asked her, “Did you commit adultery with me as they claim?” The woman said,“No. They are lying. They gave me a lot of money so that I will slander you.” Thereupon, Hz. Musa prostrated immediately.

Allah Almighty sent a revelation to Hz. Musa and said, “Today, I have put the earth under your command; you can order it as you wish.” Thereupon, Hz. Musa ordered the earth, “Swallow them!” The earth started to swallow them. As he gave each order, the earth swallowed more and more. First, the earth swallowed them up to their knees, then to their wastes and then to their necks. Meanwhile, they started to beg Hz. Musa.

However, Hz. Musa was a hot-blooded man and continued giving orders. Finally, they disappeared into the earth. Thereupon, Allah Almighty sent a revelation to Hz. Musa and said, “You did not show any mercy to My slaves though they begged you so much. If they had begged and prayed Me, they would have seen that I would answer their prayers.” (Tabari, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

- The aspersion cast upon Hz. Musa would have tarnished not only Hz. Musa but also the revelation that he represented. Therefore, Hz. Musa did not forgive such a big crime.

- As for the forgiveness of Allah, they might have begged him at the beginning and they might not have lost their hope. The phrase “they would have seen that I would answer their prayers” does not necessarily mean that He would have forgiven them. For, answering does not necessarily mean doing whatever they want. Accordingly, Allah would have answered their call and asked them what they had wanted when Hz. Musa ignored what they said. However, answering them does not necessarily mean forgiving them.

- Razi, who quoted the same narration, explained it as follows:

What is meant by Allah’s word “if they had begged me” is "if they had given up and repented for their slander and then had begged.” For, the punishment given to them by Hz. Musa could not have taken place without the permission of Allah. (Razi, the interpretation of the relevant verse). We should also say that Razi indicated that this narration could be weak by adding the phrase, “if this narration is sound”. (ibid)

57 I think prophets are politicians; they used prophethood systematically in order to hold power and control. They are not prophets. I do not believe in them because I have not seen a prophet; they are stories made up by people.

“I think prophets are politicians; they used prophethood systematically in order to hold power and control. They are not prophets. I do not believe in them because I have not seen a prophet; they are stories made up by people. I love Allah but prophets are ordinary people like us.” The sentences above are the thoughts of a DEIST who does not believe in religions.

We want to attract attention to the following points in this answer:

a) Allah created this universe so that He would show His attributes like grandness, endless knowledge, wisdom and power. However, the majority of people are too weak to read the book of the universe and take lessons from them. No matter how nice a book is, if it is not understood and if there is not a teacher to teach it, it is no different from a pack of paper.

Prophets are teachers sent in order to teach people how the book of the universe describes the Creator.  

b) Today, a person who says he is the ambassador of a certain country has to prove this claim. Otherwise, he will be labeled as a liar. The same thing is valid for those who claim to be Allah’s messengers.

A person who says he is the ambassador of Turkey to the USA or the ambassador of the USA to Turkey has to show documents to prove his claims; is it possible for a person who says, "I am the messenger of Allah, who is the creator of the whole universe" not to show any documents?

All prophets produced the documents by showing miracles proving that they were messengers of Allah.

c) Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) attracted attention to this issue by saying, "Every Prophet was given miracles because of which people believed, but what I have been given is Divine Inspiration which Allah has revealed to me. So I hope that my followers will outnumber the followers of the other Prophets on the Day of Resurrection.” (Ahmad b. Hanbal, 2/451; Bukhari, Fadailu’l-Qur’an, 1, I’tisam, 1; Muslim, Iman, 239)

d) We can list some of the criteria of real prophethood as follows:

1) Real prophets showed extraordinary miracles. Impostors claiming to be prophets could not show such miracles.

2) For instance, Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) showed the Quran, which is a miracle in terms of forty aspects. He challenged all human beings but nobody could prove the opposite. Impostors do have a comprehensive book like that.    

3) Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) showed hundreds of miracles as it is stated in hadith and siyar (biographies of prophets) resources. Tens of news about the future given by him turned out to be true exactly.

4) Along with the daily prayers he performed with the believers during the day, Hz. Muhammad performed tahajjud prayers by waking up in the middle of the night as a fard only for him. Impostors did not have such duties. Most of them proposed a religion without worship.  

5) Billions of people have believed in Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) for fifteen centuries. The spiritual sultanate of prophethood continued for fifteen centuries and it seems that it will continue up to the Doomsday. The lies of some impostors like Musaylama al-Kadhdhab never lived to be old.   

6) Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) obeyed the orders and prohibitions of the Quran more than anybody else did, which is a clear indication that he is a true prophet. 

7) Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) went to mosque even when he was deadly ill with the help of others and led the night prayer. When he was about to breathe his last, he did not show the panic of a dying person and expressed his last will to his ummah stating that they must fulfill prayers, which he gave a lot of importance to and which is the greatest order of the religion of Islam. He also gave his last order telling people that they must not treat slaves and women unjustly.  

- May Allah, who is the Beneficent and the Merciful, enable us to work for the truth. AMIN !

58 Who ate the forbidden fruit of Paradise at first, Adam or Eve? Is there any knowledge concerning this?

Along with the information regarding the person who ate the forbidden fruit at first was Eve (see, Tabari; Qurtubi; Ibn Atiyya; Bursevi; the interpretation of the verses 35-36 of al-Baqara, 2/35-36), there is also information suggesting that it is Hz. Adam who ate first from the tree and after that his spouse followed him. (See, Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of the verse 36 of al-Baqara, 2/36)

The information concerning Adam’s approach to the forbidden tree and the manner of his disobedience and its results are different in the Torah and the Qur’an.

According to the Torah, the serpent (snake) which is the most deceitful animal of the wilderness had approached Eve, who was living in the Garden of Eden (Paradise). It deceived her by saying, “Surely you will not die, for God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will open and you will be like divine beings who know good and evil.” And after that, Eve gave the fruit to Adam and let him eat from it, too. (Genesis, 3/1-6)

The element of serpent which is present in some Islamic history books is totally based on non-Islamic sources.

According to the Qur’an, it is Satan who encouraged them to approach the forbidden tree. Satan, who was jealous of Adam, at first refused to prostrate before Adam, which was the order of Allah (see al-Araf 7/11-12) and deceived him later on causing him to sin. There is no information in the Qur’an and authentic hadiths about Satan’s entering Paradise and its approach to Adam and Eve. Information, which is in other religious sources, was generally taken from Apocrypha Jewish sources. Some of them exist because of the misinterpretation of verses and hadiths.

For this reason, it is difficult to say about who ate the forbidden fruit first. Besides, the following verses show that the act of deceiving by Satan and their eating of the forbidden fruit are together, “Then did Satan make them slip from the (Garden) and get them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been.” (al-Baqara, 2/36), “Then began Satan to whisper suggestions to them, in order to reveal to them their shame that was hidden from them (before): he said, "Your Lord only forbade you this tree lest ye should become angels or such beings as live forever." (al-Araf, 7-20) and “In the result, they both ate of the tree. (at-Taha, 20/121).

On the other hand, we should not overlook the aspect of this event regarding us. In it, there are many important warnings such as being aware of Satan’s traps, being sensible to obey Allah’s prohibitions.

59 Is there a nation that was destroyed because of blocking roads and preventing people from passing?

The nation that stopped by the roads and threatened people so that they would not believe was the nation of Hz. Shuayb. One of the verses regarding the issue is as follows:  

“And squat not on every road, breathing, threats, hindering from the path of Allah those who believe in Him and seek to make it something crooked…”(al-Araf, 7/86).

According to what is stated in the resources, the people of this nation stood at the entrance of of the roads and threatened to kill the people who wanted to visit Hz. Shuayb and told them that he was a liar, preventing them from meeting and talking to him. (see Tabari, Baghawi, Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

60 Will you give information about Hz. Danyal (Daniel)?

More than one hundred and twenty thousand prophets were sent to the world. Only twenty-five of them are mentioned in the Quran by their names.

Danyal b. Hizqil'ul 'asghar(1) was a descendant of prophets (2) and from the lineage of Sulayrnan b. Dawud. (3)

Hz. Danyal being a nabi, not a rasul:

Hz. Ali (ra) stated the following about the Prophet Danyal: "He is a nabi, not a rasul." (4)

Danyal is enslaved and taken to Babylon:

Danyal was among the children that the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar distributed (5) to his commanders when he demolished Bayt al-Maqdis and enslaved Children of Israel. (6)

Danyal and his three friends are sent to prison:

The people of Babylon went to Nebuchadnezzar and said, "We asked you to give us the enslaved children from Children of Israel and you gave them to us.

We see that our wives have not been close to us and have been interested in them and tend toward them. Take those children from us or kill them." Nebuchadnezzar said,  

"If you want to kill the children that were given to you, you can kill them."

Hz. Danyal, Hananya, Azarya and Mishayel (7) were taken out to be killed but they begged Allah to be saves and Nebuchadnezzar did not kill them; they were sent to the prison of Babylon. (8)

Meanwhile, Nebuchadnezzar  saw a dream (9) but he forgot about the thing that astonished him in his dream. (10) Nebuchadnezzar was afraid of the dream he saw.  He asked his magicians and astrologers to give him the interpretation of his dream but they could not interpret it.

Danyal heard about it when he was in prison with his friends.

The warden of the prison liked the way Danyal acted and spoke and he liked Danyal.  

Danyal said to the warden,

"Do me a favor. Tell your king that I can interpret his dream."

The warden went to Nebuchadnezzar and told him about Danyal's request. (11) Thereupon, Nebuchadnezzar summoned Danyal who came from the lineage of prophets (12) and his three friends. (13)

Everybody had to prostrate before Nebuchadnezzar. However, Danyal stood and waited without prostrating.

Nebuchadnezzar asked him,

"What prevents you from prostrating before me?"

Danyal said,

"I have a Lord. He gave me knowledge and wisdom. He ordered me not to prostrate before anyone except Him. If I prostrate before anyone except him, I fear that He will withdraw the knowledge He gave to me and will destroy me."

Nebuchadnezzar was surprised by the answer Danyal gave. He said,

"Yes. Do not prostrate! Thus, you will keep your promise and protect the honor of the knowledge given to you." Then, he said, "Can you interpret the dream I had?"

Hz. Danyal said,"Yes, I can." (14) Nebuchadnezzar said:

"Inform me about the dream I had and then the part of the dream that astonished me and that I forgot due to something that hit me."

Hz. Danyal and his friends said,

"Tell us about your dream and we will interpret it for you."

Nebuchadnezzar said:

"I cannot interpret it.(15) If you do not interpret it, I will remove your shoulder bones."

Hz. Danyal and his three friends left Nebuchadnezzar's palace. They prayed and begged Allah. (16) They asked Him to help them (17) and to teach them about what was asked from them. Allah taught them about what was asked from them. They went into the presence of Nebuchadnezzar again. They said to him,

"You saw a sculpture."

Nebuchadnezzar said,

"You are right!"

Hz. Danyal and his friends said,

"The two feet and legs of that sculpture were made of ceramic; its two knees and calves were made of copper; its abdomen was made of silver; its chest was made of gold and its head was made of iron."(18)

Nebuchadnezzar said,

"You are right!"

Hz. Danyal and his friends said,

"While you were watching it in astonishment, Allah sent a rock from the sky and broke it into pieces. That was what made you forget your dream.

Nebuchadnezzar said,

"You are right! What is the interpretation of this dream?"

Hz. Danyal and his friends said,

"The interpretation of your dream is as follows: You were shown the states of the power and authority of kings. The power and authority of some of them were softer than the others. The power and authority of some of them were better. The power and authority of some of them were harsher than the others. The first power and authority was made of ceramic, which is the weakest one.

The one over it was copper, which is superior to and harder than ceramic.  Above the copper, was silver, which is superior to and more beautiful than copper. Above silver, was gold, which is more beautiful than and superior to silver. 

The iron, which is at the top, is your power and authority, which is the hardest of the kings and more powerful than the previous ones. (20)

The rock that fell from the sky in your dream and broke the sculpture into pieces is the messenger Allah will send with the Book from the sky at the end of time (21); he will demolish all of them; he will have the power and authority; everything will be subject to him."(22)

Hz. Danyal receives great respect and honor from Nebuchadnezzar:

When Hz. Danyal told (24) Nebuchadnezzar about his dream (23) and interpreted (25) it, Nebuchadnezzar showed honor to him and his friends and entertained them. Nebuchadnezzar often invited Hz. Danyal to his palace (26) consulted (29) him (27)  and his friends (28).  Nebuchadnezzar appointed him to high ranks. (30)

Hz. Danyal became the most honorable and beloved man in the eye of Nebuchadnezzar. (31)

The State of Hz. Danyal after Nebuchadnezzar:

According to a narration, when Nebuchadnezzar and his superior, the great king Luhrasp died, Bashtasp b. Luhrasp replaced him.

When Bashtasp heard that the land of Damascus was in a ruinous state (32) that wild animals increased in the land of Palestine (33) and that no people remained there, he had the following announcement made:

"Those from Children of Israel who live in Babylon and who want return to Damascus can return."He appointed a person from Sons of Dawud dynasty as their king and ordered him to restore Bayt al-Maqdis (34) and build Bayt al-Maqdis mosque (35).    

According to another narration,

Bahman, the Iranian king, wrote a letter to the governor of Babylon, Ahshu Yarash, and asked him to treat Children of Israel mildly, to send them where they wanted, to allow them to go to their homeland and to allow them to choose their leader. (36)

Hz. Danyal, Hananya, Azarya and Mishayel asked permission from Ahshu Yarash to go to Bayt al-Maqdis but he did not give them permission (37)  and said, 

"If there were one thousands prophets like you with me, I would not allow even one of them to leave me." (38) He appointed Hz. Danyal as the head judge and as his assistant.

He also ordered everything that Nebuchadnezzar took from Bayt al-Maqdis and kept in the Treasury to be returned to Bayt al-Maqdis and he ordered these things to be used in the rebuilding and restoration of Bayt al-Maqdis. (39)

Death of Hz. Danyal, his dead body and grave:

Hz Danyal lived in Babylon for a while. (40) After he left Babylon, he lived in Huzistan (41) in the city called Sus (42) (43) He died there. (44) Peace be upon him and all of the prophets!

His dead body (45) and grave (46) are in Sus. (47)

During the caliphate of Hz. Umar, Allah allowed Abu Musa al-Ash'ari to conquer the city of Sus. Abu Musa killed Sabur, the king of Sus. He besieged the city of Sus. He took the things in the city and the property of Sabur as booty. 

While checking the storehouses and collecting what was in them, he found a locked storehouse in the square. The lock of the storehouse was sealed.

Abu Musa asked the people of Sus,

"What is in this storehouse? I see that its lock is sealed."

The people of Sus said,

"O Amir! There is nothing good for you in it."

Abu Musa said,

"I must know what is in it. Open the door of the storehouse so that I will see what is in it."

They broke the lock and opened the door. When Abu Musa entered the storehouse, he saw a stone carved like a pool and a dead body that was enshrouded by fabric woven with golden thread; the head of the dead body was open.   

Abu Musa and the people with him were astonished by the tallness of the dead person. Then, they measured his nose. They saw that it was longer than one span.  

Abu Musa addressed the people of Sus:

"Shame on you! Who is this man?"

The people of Sus said,

"This man is from Iraq. When it did not rain in Iraq, the people of Iraq used to ask his intercession and received rain thanks to him. When Iraq had enough rain and we lacked rain, we asked the people of Iraq to send him to us in order to pray for rain. When they did not accept him, we left fifty of our men as hostage with them and asked him to pray for rain. Then, we had rain.

We decided not to return him to Iraqis. He stayed with us until he died. This is his story."

Thereupon, Abu Musa stayed in Sus for a while. He wrote a letter to Hz. Umar and informed him about the city of Sus, what Allah enabled them to obtain and about the dead man in the storehouse.

When Hz. Umar received the letter, he summoned the notables of the Companions. He asked them whether they knew anything about the dead man Abu Musa mentioned. Nobody knew anything about him. However, Hz.Ali said:

"This man is Danyal, the wise. He is a nabi that is not a rasul. He lived near the king Nebuchadnezzar and some of the kings after him." He told Hz. Umar about his life story. Then he said,

"Write Abu Musa and order him to pray his janazah prayer. Then, tell him to bury Hz. Danyal in a place where the people of Sus cannot access."

Hz. Umar wrote Abu Musa about him. (48) He wrote, "Enshroud him with white Qabati fabric and spread nice smells on it. Then, perform his janazah prayer. Then, bury him in the way the prophets are buried. Determine his property. Put his property in the Treasury of Muslims." (49)

Thereupon, Abu Musa ordered the people of Sus to change the course of the river. Then, he ordered the dead body of Hz. Danyal to be enshrouded by some different fabric.

After that, he performed his janazah prayer with the Muslims who were with him. He had a grave dug in the riverbed after the course was changed. After burying Hz. Danyal, he ordered the course of the river to be changed to its previous position. (50)

Footnotes:

1- Abulfida al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya Vol. 2, p.38,40, Ibn Khaldun-Tarikh Vol. 2, part 1, p.107,117

2- Tabari-Tarikh Vol. 1, p.  289, Vol. 2, p. 15.

3-  Ibn Habib - Kitabul-Muhabbar p.  390.

4- Thalabi - Arais p.  341.

5- Tabari - Tarikh Vol.  1, p.  289.

6- Ibn Qutayba Maarif p.  22 - 23, Dinawari al-Ahbar P.  23 Tabari Tarikh Vol.  1, p.  289, Thalabi Arais p.  335, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 265, Muhyiddin b. Arabi Muhadaratul-Abrar Vol.  1, p.  136.

7- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 290.

8- Thalabi -Arais p. 338.

9- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 289, Thalabi Arais p.  338, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 266.

10- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 289, Esir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 266.

11- Thalabi Arais p.  338.

12- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 289.

13- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 289, Ibn Athir Vol. 1, p. 266.

14- Thalabi Arais p. 338.

15- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 289.

16- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 289-290, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 266.

17- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 289.

18- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 290, Ibn Athir, Vol. 1, p. 266.

19- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 290.

20- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 290, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 266.

21- Thalabi Arais p. 339.

22- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1, p. 290, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 266.

23- Ibn Qutayba Maarif p.  22, Thalabi Arais p. 339.

24- Thalabi Arais p. 339.

25- Ibn Qutayba Maarif p. 22, Thalabi Arais p. 339.

26- Thalabi Arais p. 339.

27- Thalabi Arais p. 339, Ibn Athir  Kamil Vol. 1, p. 266-267.

28- Ibn Athir  Kamil Vol. 1, p. 266-267.

29- Thalabi Arais p. 339, Ibn Athir  Kamil Vol. 1, p. 266.

30- Ibn Qutayba-Maarif p. 23.

31- Thalabi Arais p. 339.

32- Tabari Tarikh Vol.  1 p. 281, Ibn Athir Kamil, Vol. 1, p. 269, Abulfida al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya Vol. 2, p. 42.

33- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1 p. 281, Abulfida al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya Vol. 2, p. 42.

34- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1 p. 281, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 269, Abulfida al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya Vol. 2, p. 42.

35- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1 p. 281.

36- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1 p. 283, Ibn Haldun Tarikh Vol. 2, kp. 1, p.  109.

37- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1 p. 284, Ibn Athir Kamil, Vol. 1, p. 268, Ibn Haldun Tarikh Vol. 2, kp. 1, p. 108.

38- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1 p. 284, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 268.

39- Tabari Tarikh Vol. 1 p. 284, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 269, Ibn Haldun Tarikh Vol. 2, kp. 1, p. 108,109.

40- Thalabi Arais p. 340.

41- Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 268

42- Ibn Qutayba Maarif p. 23. Thalabi Arais p. 340, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 268

43- Ibn Qutayba Maarif p. 23

44- Dinawari al-Ahbar p. 23, Thalabi Arais p.340, Ibn Athir Kamil Vol. 1, p. 268.

45- Dinawari al-Ahbar p. 48.

46- Ibn Qutayba Maarif p. 23, Bayhaqi Dalailun-Nubuwwa Vol. 1, p. 292, Muhyiddin b. Arabi Muhadaratul-Abrar Vol. 1, p. 136.

47- Ibn Qutayba Maarif p. 23, Dineveri El'ahbar p. 49, Bayhaqi Dalail Vol. 1, p. 292, Muhyiddin b. Arabi Muhadaratul-Abrar Vol. 1, p. 136.

48- Thalabi Arais p. 340-341.

49- A. Aliyyul-Muttaqi Kanzul-Ummal Vol. 12, p. 482.

50- Thalabi Arais p. 341.

(M. Asım Köksal, Peygamberler Tarihi, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları: 2/274-276.)

61 Were all of the prophets removed from their countries by unbelievers?

It is not possible to examine the situation of a hundred and twenty-four thousand prophets and analyze whether all of them experienced migration or not as you would appreciate. Besides, we can say that the large part of prophets mentioned in the Quran was forced to migrate/ leave their countries directly or indirectly. It is possible to learn from the Quran, the -direct or indirect- migration of Hz. Noah, Hz. Ibrahim, Hz. Lut, Hz. Ismail, Hz. Ishaq, Hz. Yaqub, Hz. Yusuf, Hz. Mosa, Hz. Aaron, Hz. Ayub, Hz. Isa, Hz. Muhammad (pbuh). Hz. Zakariyya and Hz. Yahya had already been expelled from their world country.

The following dialog gives some hints regarding this issue: Waraqa b. Nawfal said to Hz. Muhammad, ‘’When your tribe removes you from your country, I wish I would be alive to help you.’’ And as a response, Hz. Muhammad asked, ‘’Will they remove me from my country?’’ Waraqa answered, ‘’Yes; there is no one who brought the facts such as yours and who did not face hostility.’’ (see, Bukhari, Bad'ul Wahy, 3)

It is not wrong to judge by taking into consideration one aspect of a decree. Viewed from this aspect, it is not wrong to consider migration as a predestined adventure for prophets.

62 Did Noah (pbuh) show any miracles to his people before the flood?

In verses or hadiths, we could not find any information about what kind of miracles Noah (PBUH) had shown. However, the verse given below indicates that Noah (PBUH) had a miracle in his hand:

He said: "O my people! see ye if (it be that) I have a Clear Sign(Bayyina)  from my Lord and that He hath sent Mercy unto me from His own Presence, but that the Mercy hath been obscured from your sight? Shall we compel you to accept it when ye are averse to it? (Hud 11/28)

The word ‘’Bayyina" (clear sign) mentioned in the verse means evidence, miracle, document. There are some people who say that this miracle is the deluge. This meaning might only be inferred if Noah (pbuh) said  those words  after the deluge. Therefore, we do not think that this view is accurate. According to another view, the word "Bayyina" refers to a miracle. (Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of the verse)

Although it is not specified what this miracle is, there is no doubt that it is a wonderful document which every prophet must possess.

This miracle can also consist of the pages given to him.

He said: "O my people! No wandering is there in my (mind): on the contrary I am an messenger from the Lord and Cherisher of the worlds! "I but fulfil towards you the duties of my Lord's mission: sincere is my advice to you and I know from Allah something that ye know not. "Do ye wonder that there hath come to you a reminder from your Lord through a man of your own people, to warn you― so that ye may fear Allah and haply receive His Mercy?" (al-Araf ,7/61-62-63)

The expression of the verses supports this view.

63 How did the Prophet Adam (pbuh) come to the world?

The Prophet Adam is the first human being and prophet; he is the father of all humans. The dust that was brought from different places was mixed with water by the angels; they made a human form out of the mud. It remained for 40 years between Mecca and Ta’if and became salsal. That is, it dried liked baked clay.

Firstly, the Prophet Muhammad’s noor (light) was placed on his forehead. Then, he was given a soul on the 10th of Muharram. He was taught the names of everything on the earth and their benefits. His height anda age are not mentioned. All angels prostrated before him by the command of Allah but Satan (devil) became conceited, rejected this command and did not prostrate: ”And [mention] when We said to the angels, "Prostrate before Adam"; so they prostrated, except for Iblees. He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.” Surah al-Baqarah 2 :34

The Prophet Adam was taken to Jannatu’l Firdaws (Paradise) at the age of 40. In Paradise or before Paradise, while sleeping outside Mecca, Hawwa (Eve) was created from the rib of the Prophet Adam. They were paired off by Allah. They were driven out from Jannah because they were tricked by Satan and they ate from the forbidden tree. Prophet Adam was sent down to Ceylon Island (Sri Lanka) and Hawwa to Jeddah. After crying and begging for forgiveness for 200 years, their repentance was accepted. They were commanded to go to Hajj. ”Then his Lord chose him and turned to him in forgiveness and guided [him].” Surah Ţaha 20:122

He met Hawwa on the plain of Mount Arafat. He built the Kaaba. The Prophet Adam made hajj every year. On Arafat or somewhere else, all of his descendants to come to the world until Doomsday were extracted from his waist in the form of particles; they were asked, “Am I not your Lord ?” They all said, “Yes” Then, they returned to his waist. Only his own children came out of his waist. Then they went to Damascus. They had children there. He saw 40.000 people from his descendants. He became a prophet for his children at the age of 1500.

His children spoke in different languages. Jibril had come 12 times. Fasting, one salah in a day and ghusl (full body ablution) were commanded by Allah. He was given a book and taught physics, chemistry, medicine, pharmaceutics and mathematics. many books were written on adobes in Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic languages. According to a narration, he died at the age of 2000 on Friday. Eve died 40 years after him. There are narrations that their graves are in Jerusalem or in Masjid al-Khif in Mina or Arafat.

64 Why were so many prophets and books sent?

Depending on the structure of every time and society, various prophets came. The history of humanity has been in a progress. There are steps from the primary school to the university; similarly, the history of humanity experienced such a developmental stage. Decrees and prophets suitable for the conditions of time periods were sent. In the last stage of the humanity, the last prophet came with universal decrees.

65 How did Hz. Solomon (Sulayman) (pbuh) fly and make his army fly by using the wind? Were these soldiers not swung in the air?

The meaning of the verses regarding the issue are as follows:

Then We subjected the Wind to his power, to flow gently to his order, whithersoever he willed―’  (Surah Sad , 38/36)

‘(It was Our power that made) the violent (unruly) wind flow (tamely) for Solomon, to his order, to the land which We had blessed: for We do know all things.’(Surah Al-Anbiya, 21/81)

Allah gave the wind under the command of the Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and allowed him to use it as a tool in a variety of his deeds. These words may be an indication of the  usage of wind energy in technology both during  the period of  the Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and later.

In another verse, the following is stated: ‘…And to Solomon (We made) the Wind (obedient): its early morning (stride) was a month's (journey), and its evening (stride) was a month's (journey)… (Surah Saba, 34/12) This expression could draw the attention to the fact that the Prophet Solomon (pbuh) moved quickly between various regions.

The wind is pointed out to be "flowing gently  / easily blowing" (Sad, 36). The following is stated in verse 12 of the chapter of Saba: ‘ ..the wind its early morning (stride) was a month's (journey), and its evening (stride) was a month's (journey)..’ So, this means  the Prophet Solomon‘s reign covered that much distance.

In his period, Hz. Solomon (pbuh) could have designed vehicles moving by the wind using a similar technology to the current aircraft technology; and he could have covered very far distances  in a short time by those vehicles.

According to what scholars say, the Prophet. Solomon (pbuh) and the people close to him travelled, with the grace of Allah, not between the waves of the wind like birds, but by  sitting on a carpet-like thing  laid on the wind / air. They put the materials they had on that carpet-like thing. So there was no risk of swinging.

We should not forget that we are travelling on air in planes today in a similar way to this miracle. From hot air balloons to the vehicles traveling in outer space or on the Moon and the flying vehicles which will emerge in the future, all of them can  be considered as a small copy of this miracle.

66 Did Hz. Adam forget or did he not forget Allah's covenant?

The word “nasiya” mentioned in verse 115 of the chapter of Ta Ha was interpreted differently by tafsir scholars.

According to Ibn Abbas and Mujahid, this word does not mean to forget but to abandon. (Tabari, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

Accordingly, the meaning of the verse is as follows: “We had already beforehand, taken the covenant of Adam, but he abandoned: and We found on his part no firm resolve.”

According to Ibn Zayd, the word “nasiya” is used in its original sense in this verse and it means to forget. Accordingly, the meaning of the verse is as follows: “We said to Adam, 'verily, this is an enemy to thee and thy wife: so let him not get you both out of the Garden so that thou art landed in misery' and gave him this order but he forgot the covenant and We found on his part no firm resolve.”

According to another narration, Ibn Abbas explains the reason why man is called “insan” in Arabic as “the fact that Adam forgot Allah’s covenant.” (Tabari, ibid)

We can state the following as a general evaluation:

Hz. Adam’s forgetting the covenant is not contradictory to his acting consciously in accordance with what Satan said. For, what is forgotten is the fact that “Satan is an enemy.”

Therefore, his forgetting Allah’s statement that Satan is his enemy is not contradictory but confirmative. For, Hz. Adam’s acting in accordance with what Satan said originated from his believing in Satan's words. The reason why he believed in Satan was the fact that he regarded him as a friend who gave him advice. The reason why he regarded Satan as a friend was the fact that he forgot Allah’s statement indicating “Satan was a ferocious enemy."

That is, Hz. Adam’s forgetting that “Satan was his enemy” caused him to believe in Satan and to be deceived by his delusions.

It can be said that an important reason why the repentance of Hz. Adam is accepted in the Quran is the fact that he forgot the “COVENANT”. The expressions stating that he made a mistake show that he believed in Satan and acted in accordance with what he said.

67 Is being a city dweller one of the conditions of being a prophet? If yes, was Hz. Adam a city dweller?

The verse regarding the issue is as follows:

“Nor did We send before thee (as Messengers) any but men, whom We did inspire― (men) living in human habitations. Do they not travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those before them? But the home of the Hereafter is best, for those who do right. Will ye not then understand?”(Yusuf, 12/109)

That is, We did not send any prophets to the people of that land except the ones to whom we sent revelations. The prophets before you were not angels, women, Bedouins, or people who came from distant places. The people to whom we sent revelations were the people of that city, civilized people and brave, valiant men like you.

Ibrahim, Ishaq and Yaqub were city dwellers and civilized people like all other prophets. They sometimes lived in the country in order to guide the people in the countryside and desert or they lived there permanently for other reasons. Hz. Adam was created in Paradise together with his wife; he was sent to the world afterwards. He was a civilized person naturally and spiritually. When the word "prophet" is used, one should not think that he is an angel that does not eat, drink and need any human requirements. (Tafsir of verse 9 of al-An'am; see Elmalılı, Tafsir)

The scholars of Islam understood from the biographies of the prophets that they were city dwellers. What is meant by it is to emphasize that they settled in a place and lived in a civilized, and social environment and that they did not have a nomadic life. These settlements are not necessarily big cities. Even a village can be regarded as a symbol of social life in the periods when there were few people in the world.   

It is not sociologically wrong to regard the place where Hz. Adam lived as a small family-state. It is certain that Hz. Adam, who was engaged in farming and agriculture, had a settled, not nomadic, life. This is evidence that he lived in a civilized environment. However, even if Hz. Adam is an exception, he does not violate this rule as the first man.  

Besides, the places where the prophets lived were described as "qarya" in the Quran. Qarya means village but it is also used to describe towns and cities. 

As a matter of fact, Makkah is defined both as “al-Baladu’l-Amin = the safe city” and “Ummu’l-Qura = the center of villages” in the Quran.

This shows that the places where prophets live are not necessarily cities in the sense that we use; a village and small town is also regarded as sufficient since they represent settled life.

68 Can you give some information about the commentary of verses 77 - 81 in the surah of Hud and the destruction of the people of Lut (Lot)?

The meaning of related verses:

77. When Our Messengers came to Lut, he was grieved on their account and felt himself powerless (to protect) them. He said: "This is a distressful day."

78. And came rushing towards him, and they had been long in the habit of practising abominations. He said: "O my people! Here are my daughters: they are purer for you (if ye marry)! Now fear Allah, and cover me not with shame about my guests! Is there not among you a single right-minded man?"

79. They said: "Well dost thou know we have no need of thy daughters: indeed thou knowest quite well what we want!"

80. He said: "Would that I had power to suppress you or that I could betake myself to some powerful support."

81. (The Messengers) said "O Lut! we are Messengers from thy Lord! By no means shall they reach thee! Now travel with thy family while yet a part of the night remains, and let not any of you look back: but thy wife (will remain behind): to her will happen what happens to the people. Morning is their time appointed: is not the morning nigh?"

82-83. When Our decree issued, We turned (the cities) upside down and rained down on them brimstones hard as baked clay, spread, layer on layer―Marked as from thy Lord: nor are they ever far from those who do wrong!

Explanation of the verses:

77-78. After the messengers had left Ibrahim, they came to Sodom and visited Lut. Since Lut did not know they were angels, he was concerned that his tribes could molest them; the townspeople began to head toward Lut’s home immediately. A prophet is like the father of his tribe; therefore, he regarded their daughters as if they were his own daughter and tried to protect his guests by offering them to marry tha girls of his tribes. (for information see also al-Hijr15/51-74)

79-80. Because of Lut’s offer and resistance, his tribe wanted to drive him out of the city by ridiculing. (see al-A'raf, 7/82) Lut continued his duty of announcement and conveying the message though he had little hope and tried to dissuade them from this inappropriate behavior; he requested them not to bring shame on him by harassing them. He advised them to fear Allah in this matter; he wanted to find someone who could understand him and prevent this rampage. however, there was nobody like that among them. All of them were shameless and lustful people. So, they rejected their prophet’s advice. Lut was alone and poor; since he was appointed as prophet, he was among them; he had no support except his family; they wanted to send his family away, too. (an-Naml, 27/56)

81-83. When the messengers saw that Lut felt suffocated so much, they revealed their identities and announced that they came to destroy his tribe. Meanwhile, the Almighty Allah made the ones who wanted to molest the messengers blind as a miracle (al-Qamar, 54/37); they could not see Lut and the people near him. Since there was nobody who believed Lut except his family (adh-Dhariyat, 51/36), the angels asked Lut to leave the city with his family except his wife at night. Because his wife had no faith in God, she would be destroyed with unbelievers too. Lut went out of the city with his family because of the divine order; the breaking of dawn informed about the approaching wrath. As a matter of fact, a terrible noise caught them while the sun was rising; then, the city was destroyed due to the violent earthquake; stones were thrown on them; they perished. (al-Hijr, 15/73-74)

The time and manner of this catastrophe is mentioned in different verses with some nuance.  For instance, here (in the chapter of Hud), the event is described as follows: while dawn was breaking in the morning, the city was destroyed by volleying stones. It is stated in the surah of Hicr (73-74) that while the day was lightening, a terrible noise grabbed them and then the city was destroyed by volleying stones. Acting upon these verses some tafsir scholars stated that the event began the break of dawn and finished with sunrise. (Rashid Riza, XII/136) Thus, the tribe of Lut went out of existence as a punishment of disbelief and immorality. The last sentence of verse 83 indicates that the ones who practice immorality and disbelief like the tribe of Lut may come across such calamities.

(Diyanet Tefsiri, Kur’an Yolu: III/183-184)

69 The Pharaoh asked Hz. Musa what the state of the other nations would be. Why did he ask such a question?

The meaning of related verses is as follows:

(Pharaoh) said: "Who then, O Moses, is the Lord of you two?" He said: "Our Lord is He Who gave to each (created) thing its form and nature, and further gave (it) guidance." (Pharaoh) said: "What then is the condition of previous generations?" He replied: "The knowledge of that is with my Lord duly recorded: my Lord never errs, nor forgets. "He Who has made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to go about therein by roads (and channels); and has sent down water from the sky." With it have We produced divers pairs of plants each separate from the others. (Taha, 20/49-53)

According to Ibn Kathir, the most correct opinion concerning the meaning of this is as follows: When Hz. Musa said, ‘’Allah who created the universe, sent me as a prophet.’’ The Pharaoh asked, ‘’What will happen to those people who lived before you and did not worship your Lord but worshipped idols?  That is, they passed away and disappeared. How could be it be possible to punish them?’’ Musa said to him, ‘’Their names, what they did, all their states are written in Allah’s Book. He neither errs nor forgets.’’ (Ibn Kathir,the interpretation of  the related verse)

Fakhruddin Razi includes some comments regarding the issue:

a. When Hz. Musa tried to prove the existence of Allah in addition to the existence of the hereafter, the Pharaoh asked, ‘’If  the existence of Allah is so obvious, why did the large part of the previous people not believe?‘’ He wanted to silence Hz. Musa with this.

b."Verily it has been revealed to us that the penalty (awaits) those who reject and turn away." As it is stated in verse 48 of this surah, when Hz. Musa threatened the Pharaoh with torment, he said, ‘’ The previous tribes denied what you said and did not suffer torment at all; then what is their state? How do you answer this?’’

c. According to third view, which Razi supports, when the Pharaoh, who rejected Hz. Musa’s invitation, asked ‘’ Is there a Lord but me? Who is your Lord, O Musa! , Hz. Musa said, ‘’Our Lord is the Sublime Creator, Who created everyone and then who arranged everything in accordance with the purpose of creation.’’ Thus, he put forth strong evidence; then, the Pharaoh interrupted so that Hz. Musa would not become superior to him by bringing more evidences and so that the people would not accept what he said; the Pharaoh wanted to keep Hz. Musa busy with stories. He asked, ‘’ What is the state of the previous generations?’’ However, Hz. Musa did not fall into this trap and continued talking in accordance with the evidence he put forth about the existence of Allah instead of dealing with stories and said,  ‘’Their situations are in a Book near My God. He neither errs nor forgets. It is He Who has made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to go about therein by roads (and channels); and has sent down water from the sky. With it have We produced divers pairs of plants each separate from the others.’’ (ibid, Razi)

70 Although some prophets were allowed to be killed when they announced the true religion, why was Jesus ascended to the sky? Even our prophet’s tooth was broken at a battle. What feature of Jesus caused this?

The things that Allah has created are not the same. He attributes some to causes; He creates others without any causes and means. While everybody is born from a mother and father, He created Adam without a mother and father, Jesus without a father and Eve without a mother. That is to say, He sometimes does things without attributing them to universal laws.

Fire burns, the moon is not split into two parts, a tree does not walk, a staff cannot be a snake; this is so in terms of causes. However, Abraham was not burnt in the fire, the moon was split into two parts, a tree walked with the command of our Prophet, the staff of Moses turned into a snake. They changed with Allah’s permission and will.

Some prophets were killed by their people. However, He preserved some of His prophets such as Moses, Abraham and Muhammad.

The same case is valid for Jesus. While the laws imposed for the universe were carried out for other prophets, He did not allow Jesus to be killed. Allah, who protected Abraham and did not allow him to be burnt in the fire, did not allow Jesus to be killed and he was ascended to the sky.

Jesus will come again with his sainthood, not his prophethood.

Like all prophets, Jesus called people to the truth, to believe in the existence and oneness of Allah, to be a servant to Him. He did not hesitate in his duty, was not possessed by fear and anxiety. He was loyal and persistent in his duty. As Jesus continued his duty of conveying the message of God without making any concessions, the jealousy and grudge of the Jews increased. Eventually, they attempted to kill him by playing a trick and began to carry out their plans. They sent a hypocrite named Tatianus among them to Jesus. They themselves surrounded his house with four thousand people. When Tatianus entered the house, he did not find Jesus there. While he was coming out for the purpose of informing the people about the situation, Allah made his face resemble Jesus. Once the Jews saw him, they caught him mistaking him for Jesus. Although he cried out, ‘’I’m not Jesus’’, no one listened to him; finally, they murdered him by crucifying.

Yes, Jesus is still alive; he has not died. Several hadiths have been reported that he will come to the earth at the end of the world. The hadith narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah in Sahih Muslim is as follows:

"A section of my people will not cease fighting for the Truth and will prevail till the Day of Resurrection. Jesus, son of Mary, would then descend and their (Muslims') commander would invite him to come and lead them in prayer, but he would say: No, some amongst you are commanders over some (amongst you). This is the honor from Allah for this Ummah. (Muslim, Iman 247)

Interpreting and explaining the narrations like this in his book called Mektubat (the Letters), Badiuzzaman Said Nursi draws attention to the following points When the movement of irreligiousness surrounding the world is so powerful, Christianity will be purified from superstitions and distortions by approaching to its original form, in other words, to oneness and unite with Islam. In one respect, Christianity will be transformed into Islam in some way. When the true Christianity becomes subject to Islam, the true religion will gain a great power; and Christianity and Islam, which are defeated by irreligiousness when they face it separately, will defeat it by uniting. There are a lot of praises in sound hadiths about the Christians who will realize this unity at the end of time.

Let us read what is written about the issue of Jesus coming down to the earth in person in "the Letters":

…’’Then the person of Jesus (Upon whom be peace), who is present with his human body in the world of the heavens, will come to lead the current Things, the Bringer of Sure News has said.

Since he has told of it, it is true, and since the One Powerful Over All Things has promised it, He will certainly bring it about. Indeed, it is not far from the wisdom of an All-Wise One of Glory Who all the time sends the angels to the earth from the heavens, sometimes in human form (like Gabriel appearing in the form of Dihya), and sends spirit beings from the Spirit World making them appear in human form, and even sends the spirits of most of the dead saints to the world with similitudes of their bodies, it would not be far from His Wisdom -even if he was not alive and present with his body in the skies of the world, and had truly died and departed for the furthest corner of the hereafter- to clothe Jesus (Upon whom be peace) in his body and send him to the world, so to bring the religion of Jesus to a good conclusion; for such a momentous result. Indeed He promised it because His wisdom required it to be thus, and since He promised it, He will most certainly send him. When Jesus (Upon whom be peace) comes, it is not necessary that everyone should know him to be the true Jesus. His elect and those close to him will recognize him through the light of belief. It will not be self-evident so that everyone will recognize him.’’

71 What is the wisdom behind the fact that Moses and Aaron were sent to the same nation and at the same time? Why were two different prophets were sent to the same nation?

Some verses about the issue is as follows:

He said: "O my Lord! I have slain a man among them, and I fear lest they slay me."And my brother Aaron― he is more eloquent in speech than I: so send him with me as a helper, to confirm (and strengthen) me; for I fear that they may accuse me of falsehood." He said: "We will certainly strengthen thy arm through thy brother and invest you both with authority, so they shall not be able to touch you: with Our Signs shall ye triumph― you two as well as those who follow you." (al-Qasas, 28/33-35)

He said: "O my Lord! I do fear that they will charge me with falsehood:"My breast will be straitened and my speech may not go (smoothly): so send unto Aaron."And (further), they have a charge of crime against me; and I fear they may slay me." (ash- Shuara, 26/12-14)

"And give me a Minister from my family."Aaron, my brother;"Add to my strength through him, "And make him share My task."That we may celebrate Thy praise without stint, "And remember Thee without stint: For Thou art He that (ever) regardeth us." (Taha, 20/29-35).

"So go forth both of you to Pharaoh, and say: `We have been sent by the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds" `Send thou with us the Children of Israel.'". (ash-Shuara, 26/16-17).

As far as what we understand from these verses, some wisdoms behind the fact that Aaron was sent as a prophet together with Moses are as follows:

a. Moses accidentally killed a man who was an acquaintance of the Pharaoh. Therefore,  he was returning from Madyan, which he had escaped from, to Egypt. He was anxious that he would be assassinated by either the state or the relatives of that man. As it is stated in the hadith, Aaron had a respectable position there. To support the same aim with him and to act together could soften the unfavorable atmosphere.

b. Moses was a hot-blooded person. Therefore, he used to answer his opponents’ objections harshly; besides, because of his harsh nature, he was not a good speaker that can express himself nicely. Aaron was a good speaker. Since he was both tender-minded and a qualified speaker, this would compensate for Moses’ negative sides in appearance.

c. Moses had not been living in Egypt for years. The new generation did not know him well. He would announce that he was prophet once he came back from Madyan. He knew he would face an adverse atmosphere in many ways. In contrast to him, Aaron had been living in Egypt for years and had made many friends thanks to his likeable character. Because of his rhetoric, ability of persuasion, honesty and sympathetic behaviours, he was known as a reliable man  by the people around him. An idea of him could be unequivocally accepted by many people. So, his  sharing the same duty with Moses, standing shoulder to shoulder and confirming Moses’ prophecy was very important. The wish of Moses in this issue was accepted by God, who is both Gracious and Merciful.

d. In Moses’ actual proclamation of his religion, it is understood that he wanted to benefit from Aaron’s effect over both Israelites and the Pharaoh. Besides, another reason can be his staying away from Egypt for at least ten years.

e. The necessity of coping with humans and their wordly problems by prophets while proclaiming the religion, may require them to shorten the time of mentioning the names of Allah and glorifying Him. Assistance to the prophet in this issue provides both rise in the demand for mentioning the names of Allah and increasing in learning.

"That we may celebrate Thy praise without stint, And remember Thee without stint.’’ (Taha, 20/33-34) This verse becomes the ultimate target of the following verses:

"Add to my strength through him, and make him share My task’’ (Taha, 20/31-32)

The Quran indicates clearly that Moses' demands were given to him. (Taha, 20/36).

f. As it  is also understood from the verses (see Taha, 20/88-91), the pagan religion that they adopted in Egypt was rearing constantly up. When Moses ascended to Mount Sina, he left Aaron with Israelites. Although he was a prophet, they opposed Aaron and worshipped a calf. The occasions like this show that it was necessary not to leave Israelites alone even for an instant. In other words, two prophets could hardly cope with them.

72 How did Hz. Yaqub manage to show so much patience? How did he manage to continue praying though Yusuf was eaten by a wolf?

We can explain the source of the patience of Hz. Yaqub as follows:  

a. The statements of the Quran show that Hz. Yaqub believed that Hz. Yusuf was alive.  

He believed at the beginning of the incident that a wolf did not eat him and that his brothers lied to him regarding the issue.

“Yaqub 'Nay (a wolf did not eat him) but your minds have made up a tale.'” (Yusuf, 12/18).

b. When Hz. Yaqub heard that his young son Bunyamin was arrested, he said, “Maybe Allah will bring them (back) all to me (in the end).”(Yusuf, 12/83) We understand from this verse that Hz. Yaqub was able to show patience since he never lost his hope.

c. The following verses show us that the real source of Hz. Yaqub's patience is his closeness to Allah and his trust in Him: “'I do indeed scent the presence of Joseph: nay, think me not a dotard… Then when the bearer of the good news came he cast (the shirt) over his face, and he forthwith regained clear sight. He said: "Did I not say to you, I Know from Allah that which ye know not?'”(Yusuf, 12/94, 96)

d. The following verse shows the role of his belief in Allah's mercy in the nature of his patience: “O my sons! go ye and enquire about Joseph and his brother, and never give up hope of Allah's Soothing Mercy: truly no one despairs of Allah's Soothing Mercy, except those who have no faith.”(Yusuf, 12/87)

Prayer (Dua)

Prayer (dua) is a kind of worshipping.
Therefore, a Muslim should continue prayers no matter where he is and whether he is given or not given what he wants. For, the problems, misfortunes and illnesses a person suffers show that it is time for prayer. Then, it is necessary to say it is time for prayer and continue praying.

It is not appropriate to stop prayers just because our requests are not accepted. For, there are some conditions for prayers to be accepted. We should pray in accordance with those conditions. Every prayer is answered. This answer can be the same as what we ask or something better. It may be given in this world or in the hereafter.

73 Were any prophets sent between Hz. Isa and Hz. Muhammad (pbuh)?

It is stated in historical resources that no prophets were sent betweenHz. Isa and Hz. Muhammad (pbuh). This period is called as the era of interregnum.   

Hz. Salman said, "The interregnum between Hz. Isa and Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is six hundred years." (Bukhari, Manaqibu'l-Ansar 53)

74 When Hz. Ibrahim was given a piece of good news about becoming a parent, which region and nation was he in? Where was Hz Lut and he was the leader of which nation at that time?

Islam scholars state that this immigration was to Harran, Egypt, Damascus, Palestine/Quds/Kanan region depending on their knowledge of history when they explain the surah of al-Anbiya 70-71 and the interpretation of the following verse ‘’Ibrahim, he said: ‘’ I will leave home for the sake of my Allah’’ (surah al- Ankaboot 26/29) (see the interpretation of Tabari, al-Anbiya 12/70,71)

In the two verses after the verse that mentions Hz. Ibrahim's rescue from fire, the immigration towards to the region of Palestine/Quds is indicated as follows:

‘’Then they sought a stratagem against him: but We made them the ones that lost most. But We delivered him and Lut (and directed them) to the land which We have blessed for the nations.’’ (al-Anbiya, 21/70-71)

According to what Ibn Ashur reports, the name of the region where Hz. Ibrahim (pbuh) was born and grew and where his tribe was is Kaldan (Chaldea). He was living in a city named Qusa. In the Torah, this place was called ‘’Ur-al-Kaldan’’ in (Genesis/Isaiah:12). Some people say that it is Urfa in ‘’Ruha’’ region. Then, he began to live with his father and family in Haran/Harran. His father died in Harran. It is inferred that first call of oneness of Hz. Ibrahim is Harran. And then, he immigrated to Kanan (Palestine) region from Harran. (see the interpretation of  Ibn Assur, al-Araf 7/80)

It is understood that while Hz. Ibrahim was in Palestine/Kanan, where he moved from Urfa/Harran, the angels came to him.

The place where Hz. Lut served as a prophet is Sadum and Ammura towns belonging to Kanan region, where his uncle Hz. Ibrahim dwelt. (see Ibn Ashur, the interpretation of al-Araf, 7/80)

75 Where is the grave/tomb of the prophet Ayyub?

It is narrated that 7 people from the prophet Ayyub’s  nation believed in Allah, and that he died at the age of 140 or 93 (See, Ö. N. Bilmen, Kur’ân-ı Kerim’in Türkçe Meâl-i Âlisi ve Tefsiri, IV, 2174).

According to Ayni, the interpreter of Bukhari, the prophet Ayyub’s tomb is in Besne in Damascus (Tajrid, IX, 143.).

76 What is the situation of a person who does believe in Allah but does not believe in His messengers? Is it compulsory to believe in prophets?

Belief cannot be divided into sections. Religious beliefs are inseparable. Not believing in one of them is enough to make someone a disbeliever .A believer who believes in Allah should believe His book, the holy Quran so that he can learn about his Lord truly.

The human mind can know himself and know that there is a Creator but he cannot know His attributes, deeds, names, commands, prohibitions, eternal place, ways of jannah (Paradise) until Allah reveals them. It is not possible to regard believing in Allah and the Quran separately. When a person believes in the Quran, he has to believe in the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) and the revelation angel Jibril (pbuh). This is the first and biggest step to believe in the prophets and angels. A person who believes in Islam should also believe what the Quran says and what our Prophet (p.b.u.h.) teaches and worship with enthusiasm.

The people who can be saved just by believing in Allah are the people that lived in the period of interregnum and that did not know the existence of the prophets, religions, revelations or worshipping. I do not know if there are people like that today. If there are people like that, it is enough for them to believe just in the existence of Allah. We are not responsible to decrease ourselves to the level of these poor people. We are responsible for looking for them, finding them and telling them about the true belief.

Gerçeğe Doğru c.3, Zafer Yayınları

77 Who is the prophet called Samuel? Will you please give information about him?

There is a prophet called Shmuel in Jewish scriptures and it was informed that he is one the prophets that were sent to the Sons of Israel and he was descended from the prophet Haroon (Aaron) and conveyed the religion of Musa (Moses). However, it is not known whether this name of Samuel is distorted or not.

There is no information about him in the Qur'an and there is no information about him in hadiths, either.

78 Since Christianity is a distorted religion, is it not possible that Jesus being born without a father and His miracles are fabricated stories?

It is possible to decide which information is distorted by comparing them with the Qur’an and hadiths.

So, Jesus being born without a father and His miracles are not fabricated stories resulting from distortion. We learn the authenticity of such information from Islamic sources.

This subject is narrated in the Qur’an as follows:

“She said: "I seek refuge from thee to (Allah) Most Gracious: (come not near) if thou dost fear Allah." He said: "Nay, I am only a messenger from thy Lord (to announce) to thee the gift of a holy son." She said: "How shall I have a son, seeing that no man has touched me, and I am not unchaste?" He said: "So (it will be): thy Lord saith `That is easy for Me: and (We wish) to appoint him as a Sign unto men and a Mercy from Us': it is a matter (so) decreed." So she conceived him, and she retired with him to a remote place. And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree: she cried (in her anguish): "Ah! would that I had died before this! Would that I had been a thing forgotten and out of sight!" (Maryam, 19/18-23).

“…But she pointed to the babe. They said: "How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?" He said: "I am indeed a servant of Allah: He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet; "And He hath made me Blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live; "(He) hath made me kind to my mother, and not overbearing or miserable; "So Peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)"! (Maryam, 19/29-33).

“This similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam: He created him from dust, then said to him: "Be" and he was.” (Surah Aal--Imran, 3/59)

The miracles of Jesus (PBUH) mentioned in the Qur’an are as follows:

Figuring a statue bird and breathing into it and let it to fly, resurrecting death people; healing those born blind, and the lepers; sending down a table set (with viands) from heaven (Al-Maeda, 5/110-115); declaring from unseen (gayb) about what apostles and his friends are eating and storing at their houses. (Aal-e-Imran, 3/49)

79 Prophets have no sins; it is said that they have zallah (slip). What does the fact that prophets are sinless mean?

It is very important in what sense are the words of the Qur'an used. When the innocence of the prophets is considered, it will be easily understood that this is not a deliberate rebellion.

Thus, it is stated in previous verses that Hazrat Adam (AS) forgot this promise:

"We had already beforehand, taken the covenant of Adam, but he forgot: and We found on his part no firm resolve." (Surah Taha, 20/115)

So, the attitude of Hazrat Adam (AS) is not a deliberate action like rebelling the order of Allah. Thus, it is possible to understand the verse as follows instead of a "rebellion":

"In the result, they both ate of the tree, and so their nakedness appeared to them: they began to sew together, for their covering, leaves from the Garden: thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allow himself to be seduced." (Surah Taha, 20/121)

80 Will you give information about Hz. Uzayr (Ezra)? Why did Jews call him - God forbid - Allah's son? Was Hz. Uzayr a prophet?

HZ. UZAYR (EZRA)

He is a prophet sent to Children of Israel.  Allah removed the Torah from Children of Israel. They lost the chest (the Ark of the Covenant) in which the Torah was kept. The Torah was also removed from their minds. Children of Israel, especially Hz. Uzayr (Ezra) became very sorry because of this. He worshipped Allah a lot. He begged Allah. A light came from Allah and entered his heart. He remembered the Torah He had forgotten. He taught Children of Israel the Torah again. Then, the Ark of the Covenant was found. Thereupon, they saw that the Torah was the same as Ezra taught. Therefore, they loved Ezra a lot. However, they went too far regarding the issue and said, "He is nobody but son of Allah." He avoided bad deeds and did a lot of good deeds to attain the consent of Allah. He called the people around him to believe like him and to obey the orders and prohibitions of Allah. 

Will you give information about Hz. Uzayr (Ezra)? Why did Jews call him - God forbid - Allah's son?  

Answer 1:

Hz. Uzayr (Ezra) is known as the person who discovered the Torah again and who revealed it again based on inspiration. Jews enshrined him in their hearts, though not as much as Hz. Musa (Moses), due to his service to the Torah.

Christians called Hz. Isa (Jesus) Allah's son acting upon his extraordinary birth; similarly, Jews called Hz. Uzayr Allah's son acting upon his being a means of the rebirth of the Torah. This attitude was the attitude of the people who lived in his age.   

The Jews of today regard Hz. Musa, who is the real owner of the Torah, superior. They love Hz. Uzayr but they regard Hz. Musa, who established their religion, who saved them from the oppression of the Pharaoh and who led them through the Red Sea as a miracle.

Answer 2:

Hz. Musa was sent to Children of Israel and the Torah was sent down to him. After completing the duty of prophethood, he died. After his death, Children of Israel were divided into seventy-one groups.

Then, Hz. Dawud was sent to them and became their king. He laid the foundations of Masjid al-Aqsa; his son, Hz. Sulayman, completed the mosque. He placed the chest in which the Torah and some other holy relics were in a room in the mosque. The tablets on which the Ten Commandments were written were also there.

After the death of Hz. Sulayman, The Jews were divided into two states. The states of Israel and Yahuda were founded after this division. However, they attracted the wrath of Allah because they overstepped the limits and deviated from the right path. After a while, both states declined. The state of Israel was demolished by Assyrians; they also burnt Jerusalem down. Most of the Jews were killed. Those who survived were exiled to Babylon. Among the people who were exiled to Babylon was a young man called Uzayr.    

Hz. Uzayr came from the progeny of Hz. Harun (Aaron). The Torah, which had been kept without being distorted until the invasion of Jerusalem, disappeared when Jerusalem was burnt down. The original Torah was very big and nobody except Uzayr had memorized it. Besides, he was known as a learned person among his nation. He tried to reassure people even during the exile and demolition telling them that their trouble would end one day; he tried to find solutions to their problems and to console them.

There was nobody else except Hz. Uzayr who knew the Torah. He taught the Jews the Torah. However, this holy book was forgotten in the course of time and many places of it were changed. Different versions called the Torah written by various people started to appear. The Torah called the Old Testament, which exists now, was written from the copies that were collected by a person called Azra.

A long time passed after the life of slavery. After being freed from slavery, Hz. Uzayr went to Jerusalem. The city was in a ruinous state. He became very sorry for the city. It had been demolished so badly that it seemed impossible to be built up again. After eating his meal, Hz. Uzayr fell asleep in a pensive and worried state. This sleeping lasted for about a hundred years due to a wisdom of Allah Almighty. When he woke up, he saw a very different environment. This incident is narrated as follows in the Quran:

"Or (take) the similitude of one who passed by a hamlet, all in ruins to its roofs. He said: "Oh! How shall Allah bring it (ever) to life, after (this) its death?" But Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: "How long didst thou tarry (thus)?" He said: "(perhaps) a day or part of a day." He said: "Nay, thou hast tarried thus a hundred years; but look at thy food and thy drink; they show no signs of age; and look at thy donkey: and that We may make of thee a Sign unto the people Look further at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh! When this was shown clearly to him he said: "I know that Allah hath power over all things." (al-Baqara, 2/259).

When Hz. Uzayr saw Jerusalem, he had become very sorry for the city and thought, "Can this ruinous city be built up again and become lively again?" (Ömer Faruk Tunalı, Peygamberler Tarihi, İstanbul, 1985, p. 6?). This thought of his was answered in the verse; he died and he was revived after he was kept asleep for a hundred years. When Hz. Uzayr woke up, he saw that the animal he rode had died and its bones had decayed. However, his fruits were kept fresh as a miracle. This incident was kept as a secret from people by the will of Allah Almighty.

When this incident happened, the area had been freed of the invasion and the invading king had died. The people who had lived in captivity started to return to Jerusalem; the city was rebuilt. Thus, it became a lively city as before. Meanwhile, Hz. Uzayr received the grace of Allah Almighty: The decayed bones of the animal he rode were brought together and his animal revived. Hz. Uzayr rode his donkey to Jerusalem. However, since everything and the people had changed, he did not recognize anybody. He went to the part of the town that he thought he had lived. There was a very old woman there. He asked her about the house of Uzayr. The woman showed him the house and said that she was a maid of Uzayr and that Uzayr had been lost for a long time. He told her that he was Uzayr. When she asked for a miracle, he cured the woman's eyes with the permission of Allah.   

The woman who got well as a result of the miracle of Hz. Uzayr went to his relatives to inform them. Hz Uzayr's son and relatives gathered around him. Hz. Uzayr looked much younger than his son. He introduced himself to his son and relatives. He started to read verses from the Torah, which only he knew by heart and which had disappeared years ago. Those who knew how to write recorded what he read. Meanwhile a very old person approached them and said that the Torah was buried in a place where their vineyards were by his ancestors; he said he did not know where his vineyards were and asked if anybody knew where their fields were. Thereupon, those who knew where the vineyards were went there. They found the Torah by digging the ground. They observed that the verses in the Torah were the same as the ones read by Hz. Uzayr and recorded by the people there.  

Some people believed in Hz. Uzayr but others held the view that it was impossible for a human being to do it. The following verse of the Quran indicates the aberration of those people: "The Jews call Uzayr a son of Allah and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouths; (in this) they but imitate what the Unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth!" (at-Tawba, 9/30). In Risale-i Nur, it is stated in the interpretation of the chapter of al-Ikhlas that the phrase "lamyalid" that is,"(Allah) did not give birth" in the verse rejects the idea of having a child and the name of Hz. Uzayr is also mentioned. (Sözler, 1993, p. 638)

Hz. Uzayr invited people to guidance with patience. However, his nation caused a lot of problems and acted hypocritically. After calling them to believe for fifty years, Hz. Uzayr died in Jerusalem.

Was Hz. Uzayr a prophet?

According to what is reported from Abu Hurayra, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "I do not know whether Tubba (deprived of the mercy of Allah) is a cursed person or not and I do not know whether Uzayr is a prophet or not." (Abu Dawud, Sunnah 14, 4674)

According to the explanations of the scholars, what is meant by Tubba mentioned in the hadith is the greatest and most famous of Tubbas, Asad Abu Kurayb. He is the first person who covered the Kaaba with a covering (kiswah). One thousand years ago, he was aware of the fact that Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) would come to the world and that he would be a prophet; and he believed in the Prophet. However, the Prophet (pbuh) was not informed that he had died as a believer. Therefore, when the name of Tubba was mentioned, he said he did not know whether he was a believer who was honored with belief or a cursed person who was deprived of the honor of belief and hence the mercy of Allah.

Similarly, he did not know whether Hz. Uzayr was a prophet or not at that time; therefore, he said he did not have definite information about him. For, a person cannot know ghayb (the unknown/unseen) even if he is a prophet unless Allah informs him. However, Allah informed the Prophet afterwards that Tubba was a Muslim and that he died as a believer. The Prophet told his ummah that Hz. Uzayr was a prophet of Allah. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a hadith: "Do not curse Tubba because he became a Muslim." (see Ahmad b. Hanbal, V, 340; Sunan Abu Dawud Translation and Explanation, Şamil Publications: 15/445-446)

Acting upon the narration above and similar ones, some scholars accepted that Hz. Uzayr was a prophet. (Abulfida, al-Bidaya wa’n-Nihaya, 2/43-46; see Asım Köksal, Peygamberler Tarihi, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları: 2/279)

81 Will the ant of the Prophet Solomon go to Paradise? If it is so, what deed of its caused this?

Some animals like the hoepoe and the ant of the Prophet Solomon, the camel of the prophet Salih, and the dog of the Companions of the Cave will go to the eternal realm - Paradise -  with both their spirits and bodies. There are some hadiths on this issue (See Alusi, Ruh’ul Bayan, 5/226). This is also demanded by wisdom and reality, and mercy and dominicality (See Bediüzzaman Said Nursi, Rays, Third Ray, p.65).

The reasons are as follows:

a) The true friend of Eternal Allah should be eternal. The conscious mirror of the Enduring Allah should be enduring (ibid).

The benefits of sincere friendship are pointed out in the following verse: “Behold! Verily on the friends of Allah there is no fear, nor shall they grieve" (Yunus, 10/62).

b) These animals too display a sincere friendship to Allah. For instance, the hoepoe complains about sun worshipers. It accuses those who do not worship Allah, Who knows everything hidden on earth and in heaven, but worship the sun, which is unconscious, and knows nothing, of foolishness and stupidity (see an-Naml, 27/24-25).

Likewise, the ant of Solomon gives instruction to its friends with a  manner of a careful commander to enter immediately their shelters/anthills so as not to be crushed unintentionally under the feet of the soldiers of Solomon (see an-Naml 27/18). A queen ant that services sincerely to its ants for which it is responsible and exhibits the manner of a commander who does not allow his soldiers to be harmed in vain shows that it gained the sincere friendship of Allah in the race of loving the creature because of the Creator.

The sacrifice that the dog of the Companions of the Cave exhibited is already a byword. Leaving the table of rich unbelievers and being exposed to hunger and thirst just for Allah, but choosing the friendship of the Companions of the Cave who believed in the Almighty Allah, is the indicator of its sincere friendship (al-Kahf, 18/13-18).

The camel of the Prophet Salih is already a miracle, and an indicator of his prophethood.

82 Can only prophets be warners? Can scholars have this mission in some societies? Is the West familiar with the term “prophethood”?

Prophets were sent to all societies. Apart from this, every believer in Allah is a warner. There is no need to be a prophet in order to warn people. Every believer is charged with the duty of warning people as a vicegerent of Allah on earth.

83 Is it true that the date (palm) tree was created from the remaining soil out of which Hz. Adam was created?

According to some narrations, the date (palm) tree was created from the remaining soil out of which Hz. Adam was created. Welearn this narration from Imam Rabbani's book called "Maktubat":

"There is community and justice in the creation of this tree. Man's creation is like that too. Therefore, the Prophet said the date (palm) tree was the aunt of man: 

"Show respect to the date tree, which is your aunt. For, this tree was created from the soil that remained from the creation of Adam."

As it is seen, the date tree was created from the soil of Hz. Adam. The reason why the date was given abundance is probably because it contains many things. Therefore, when a person eats dates, which are the fruits the date tree, it becomes part and tissue of man. Thus, everything in dates is transferred to man." (Imam Rabbani, Maktubat, Letter 162)

The date tree and Venus's flytrap feel and act like animals. Some of the date trees are male and others are female. The male date tree leans toward the female tree. The female tree does not produce fruits unless some substance comes from the male tree.

In fact, all plants have these two organs. However, they are visible in the date tree like in animals. The date tree has something white on its head. It functions like the heart of an animal. If it gets hurt or if it is soaked, the tree dries.

With the hadith mentioned above, it might be stated that this tree is the most superior tree.

84 Did all of the prophets come from the same lineage?
85 If it was Allah who protected Hz. Yusuf from committing sins, how can he serve as an example for us?

- If Allah does not protect people, no one can be free from obeying the suggestions of their soul and Satan. However, along with Allah's protection, there exists the reflection of the free will given to man as a necessity of testing. Hz. Yusuf’s life, which is full of patience, chastity, sincerity and piety, and which was realized based on his will, is the preliminary introduction of this divine protection and a living example for us.  

- A person who has not had a certain type of education cannot be a governor or a director; a person who is not skilled at designing buildings cannot be an architect; a person who has not had a certain type of religious education cannot be an imam; similarly, a person who has not had a certain degree of taqwa (piety) will not be protected in principle. If the first comes from the slave, the second will come from Allah. 

As a matter of fact, the Prophet reported the following from our Lord in a sacred hadith:

“If my slave approaches Me one span, I will approach him one ell. If he approaches Me one ell, I will approach him one fathom. If he walks toward Me, I will run toward him.” (Bukhari, Anbiya, 50; I’tisam, 14; Muslim, Ilm,6)

86 When did Hz. Adam find out about Hz. Muhammad? When did he first see the name of our Prophet?

-Hz. Umar narrates: The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“When Hz. Adam made that mistake, he prayed Allah as follows: ‘O Lord! I ask You to forgive me for the sake of Muhammad.’ Allah said to him, ‘O Adam! How did you find out about the name of Muhammad?’ Hz. Adam said, ‘O Lord! When you created me and blew into me from Your spirit, I looked up. I saw that “La ilaha illallah, Muhammadun rasulullah (There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger)” was written on the columns of the Arsh (Throne); and I understood that the person whose name You wrote with Your name is the most beloved one to you among Your creatures. Thereupon, Allah said, ‘O Adam! You have told the truth. He is definitely the most beloved one to me among my creatures. I have forgiven you since you asked your forgiveness for his sake. Know it very well that, but for him I would not have created you.” The hadith was reported by Bayhaqi, Tabarani and Hakim. (see Hakim, Mustadrak, II/615; Suyuti, ad-Durru'l-Mansur, 1/116. Yusuf Nabhani, Hujjatullahi ala’l-alamin, p. 210)

Besides, it is stated in various narrations describing Hz. Adam's repentance and its acceptance that Hz. Adam saw the writing " La ilaha illallah, Muhammadun rasulullah" all around Paradise when he was in Paradise. (Hakim, Mustadrak, ibid; Qadi Iyad, Shifa, 1/138)

According to us, there is no contradiction in these narrations. For, Hz. Adam's seeing the name of Muhammad both on the Throne when he was created and in other places in Paradise is not a contradiction. However, he first saw the name of Muhammad when he was created and he saw it again in Paradise. (for more detailed information regarding the issue, see Mawahib al-Ladunniyya, p., 2-3./Ottoman)

87 Hz. Idris (Enoch) was raised to the sky. Since every soul shall have a taste of death, how will the death of Hz. Idris be?

"Also mention in the Book the case of Idris: he was a man of truth (and sincerity), (and) a prophet: And We raised him to a lofty station." (Maryam, 19/56-57)

The verse above states that Hz. Idris was raised to the sky.

There are two views about what the verse "And We raised him to a lofty station"expresses:

a) It means loftiness in terms of station and rank. As a matter of fact, God Almighty addressed Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) as follows:"And (He) raised high the esteem (in which) thou (art held)?" (al-Inshirah, 94/4). For, Allah honored Hz. Idris by appointing him as a prophet and sent him thirty pages. He was the first person to write with the pen, to know the science of astronomy and mathematics and to make clothes and to wear them. 

b) What is meant by it is elevating him to a high position. This view is more appropriate. For, the act of elevating mentioned together with the word "place" is elevation in terms of place, not rank. (Fahkruddin ar-Razi, Tafsir al-Kabir Mafatih al-Ghayb, Akçağ Publications: 15/371-372)

It is regarded that both Hz. Idris and Hz. Isa were elevated to the sky and they are still alive. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a narration:

"There are four people who are still alive. Hz. Khidr and Hz. Ilyas are alive on the earth, and Hz. Isa and Hz. Idris are alive in the sky." (Bilmen, Ömer Nasuhi, Tefsir, 4/2034)

As for the issue whether Hz. Idris is in Paradise,

we hold the view that he is in the sky like Hz. Isa and that he is not in Paradise. For, people will go to Paradise after the Day of Judgment. However, it is known that he is in a realm like Paradise and lives there like angels.  

The fact that every soul shall have a taste of death indicates that Hz. Idris will also have a taste of death.

88 We know that Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is the last prophet and no prophets will come after him. However, Hz. Isa (Jesus) will come down from the sky; will he not come as a prophet?

The duty of the prophethood of Hz. Isa ended when he was ascended to the sky. Every prophet has an aspect of sainthood in addition to the aspect of prophethood. At the end of time, Hz. Isa will come down as a saint and scholar, not as a prophet; he will be a member of the ummah of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh).

89 Had Ishaq been born while Hz. Ismail was being taken away to be sacrificed, or was Sarah pregnant with Ishaq?

As far as we know, when Hz. Ismail was taken away to be sacrificed, Hz. Ishaq had been born. According to some narrations, Hz. Ishaq was also there and was crying together with his father. (see Tabari, as-Saffat, the interpretation of verse 102)

90 Which name of Allah became manifest in which prophet?

As far as we can see, there is no information like that in verses of the Quran and hadiths of the Prophet (pbuh). The person who tries to give detailed information regarding the issue is the famous scholar Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi.

Here are some examples:

All names of Allah became manifest in Hz. Adam. (Fusus/Part 1)

The name as-Subbuh / Subhan became manifest in Hz. Nuh. (Fusus/ Part 3)

The name al-Muhaymin became manifest in Hz. Ibrahim. (Fusus/Part 5)

The name an-Nur became manifest in Hz. Yusuf. (Fusus/ Part 9)

The name al-Ali became manifest in Hz. Musa. (Fusus/Part 25)

The names al-Qadir and al-Khabir became manifest in Hz. Isa (Jesus). (Fusus, /Part 15l)

The name "Allah", which includes all names and attributes, became manifest in Hz. Muhammad (pbuh); the wisdom of the name al-Fard especially became manifest in him (Fusus/Part 27)

We should also state that all of Allah’s names are manifest in all prophets. However, the manifestations of some names can exist in the life of some people. If an evaluation is to be made accordingly, various lists can be made.

91 From what race does Hz. Ibrahim came from?

We see the following hadith in a narration from Imam Muslim:

"Allah Almighty chose Ismail among the children of Ibrahim, Banu Kinana among the children of Ismail, Banu Kinana among the children of Quraysh, Banu Hashim from Quraysh and me from Banu Hashim." (Muslim, Fadail, 1)

Thus, he connects his lineage to Hz. Ismail, who was born in Makkah, grew up there and became a prophet there.

On the other hand, it is possible to learn from the Prophet's own statement what nation he belongs to . We will quote only three of the hadiths regarding the issue:

"I am a prophet; there is no lie in it. I am Abdulmuttalib's son. I am the most fluent speaker of Arabs; I am one of the children of Quraysh." (Faydu'l-Qadir , III/38. Hadith no: 2684)

"I will be the first one among Arabs to enter Paradise, Suhayb among Byzantines, Salman among Persians and Bilal among Abyssinians." (ibid. III/43, Hadith no: 2695)

"I am a real Arab. I am from the tribe of Quraysh. My language is the language of Banu Sa'd (the most fluent speakers of Arabic)" (ibid. III/44. Hadith no: 2696)

The hadiths above state clearly that the Prophet is an Arab and comes from an Arab lineage.  

It is clearly stated in the Quran that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is an Arab. Verse 4 of the chapter of Ibrahim is evidence for it: "We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them." The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) emerged from his own nation and read them the Quran, which is in Arabic.

The following hadith, which was reported from Abu Dharr, explains the verse above: 

 "Allah Almighty sent every prophet with the language of his own nation." (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, II/522)

That the Prophet's lineage goes back to Hz. Ibrahim shows that both the Prophet and Hz. Ibrahim come from the same ancestors.

Arabs come from the progeny of Ismail, one of the sons of Ibrahim and Children of Israel come from the progeny of Ishaq (Isaac), the other son of Ibrahim. The Quran answers those who say Hz. Ibrahim was a Jew despite this fact as follows:  

"Ye people of the Book! why dispute ye about Abraham, when the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed till after him? Have ye no understanding? Ah! Ye are those who fell to disputing (even) in matters of which ye had some knowledge! But why dispute ye in matters of which ye have no knowledge? It is Allah Who knows, and ye who know not! Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian, but he was true in faith and bowed his will to Allah's (which is Islam) and he joined not gods with Allah." (Aal-i Imran, 3/65-67)

92 Will you give information about Hz. Ishaq (Isaac)?

Hz. Ishaq (Isaac) is Hz. Ibrahim's second son; his mother is Hz. Sara.

Hz. Sara did not have any children; therefore, she gave Hagar, her female slave, to her husband as a present. When Hz. Hagar gave birth to Hz. Ismail, Hz. Sara became sad. Ishaq was born as a grace and miracle of Allah when Hz. Ibrahim was one hundred and twenty years old and Hz. Sara was ninety years old. (see Hakim, Mustadrak, XI/556)

This issue is narrated as follows: in the Quran:

"There came Our Messengers to Abraham with glad tidings. They said 'Peace!' He answered 'Peace!' and hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf. But when he saw their hands went not towards the (meal) he felt some mistrust of them, and conceived a fear of them. They said: 'Fear not: we have been sent against the people of Lut.' And his wife was standing (there), and she laughed: but We gave her glad tidings of Isaac, and after him of Jacob. She said: 'Alas for me! Shall I bear a child, seeing I am an old woman, and my husband here is an old man? That would indeed be a wonderful thing!' They said: 'Dost thou wonder at Allah's decree? The grace of Allah and His blessings on you, O ye people of the house! For He is indeed worthy of all praise, full of all glory!'" (Hud, 11 /69-73)

The appearance of Hz. Ishaq described in the books of history is as follows:

He was tall and wheat-skinned; he had black eyes and a beautiful face. His speech was nice; his hair and beard was white. He resembled his father, Ibrahim. (Hakim, Mustadrak, 11, 557)

Hz. Ishaq had two sons called Ays (Is) and Yaqub (Jacob). Yaqub’s face was more beautiful; he spoke more fluently; he was more elegant and good-looking. Ays lived in the region were the Byzantines lived. (Hakim, Mustadrak, l l, 557)

Hz. Ishaq is praised in the Quran:

"And commemorate Our servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, possessors of Power and Vision. Verily We did chose them for a special (purpose)--- remembrance of the Hereafter. They were, in Our sight, truly, of the company of the Elect and the Good." (Sad, 38/45-47)

After the death of his father, Hz. Ishaq was appointed as a prophet in the region of Damascus. Allah made him a good and distinguished person.

"And We gave him the good news of Isaac― a prophet― one of the Righteous. We blessed him and Isaac: but of their progeny are (some) that do right, and (some) that obviously do wrong, to their own souls." (as-Saaffat, 37/112, 113)

According to a narration, Hz. Ishaq died near Jerusalem, where Palestine is today, at the age of one hundred and sixty; he was buried next to his father, Hz. Ibrahim's grave in Mazra. (Ibnul-Athir al-Kamil fit-Tarikh, I/127)

93 Is Hz. Adam's committing a sin in Paradise not contrary to the attribute of ismah (innocence)?

Islamic scholars discussed whether Hz. Adam's disobeying the divine order about not approaching the forbidden tree should be regarded as disobedience and a major sin. This discussion generally originates from the style of the verses 115 and 121 of the chapter of Taha. After it is stated in verse 121 of this chapter that Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa (Eve) ate from the fruit of the forbidden tree after being deceived by Satan, the following is stated: "thus did Adam disobey his Lord". The verb "asa" (disobey) in this verse does not mean that Hz. Adam committed a major sin according to Zamakhshari; he made a small mistake, in other words "dhalla". The reason why the verb "disobey" is used for his deed is to warn humans; they are warned as follows: "Let alone committing major sins, do not despise even unimportant mistakes." (see Zamakhshari, II/557)

In order to understand the verses in the Quran better, it is necessary to view the other verses in the Quran related to that verse. As a matter of fact, in another verse in which the issue is explained, it is clearly stated that Hz. Adam did not do it deliberately, but by forgetting. (Taha, 20/115)

Taking into consideration the following statement in verse 115 of the chapter of Taha "We had already beforehand, taken the covenant of Adam, but he forgot: and We found on his part no firm resolve", the scholars say Hz. Adam approached the tree absentmindedly without having the intention of committing a sin. As a matter of fact, Hasan al-Basri states the following: "By Allah, he disobeyed because he forgot." (see Razi, XXII/1271)

Besides, According to the opinion of the Islamic scholars, this incident took place in Paradise, that is, before Hz. Adam became a prophet. There was no ummah and congregation then. This mistake made by Hz. Adam unintentionally was forgiven by Allah; he was given the duty of prophethood after he was sent down to the earth; thus, he became the first human, father and prophet.

"Then began Satan to whisper suggestions to them, in order to reveal to them their shame that was hidden from them (before): he said 'Your Lord only forbade you this tree lest ye should become angels or such beings as live forever.' And he swore to them both, that he was their sincere adviser. So by deceit he brought about their fall: when they tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them, and they began to sew together the leaves of the Garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: 'Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that Satan was an avowed enemy unto you?'" (al-A'raf 7/20-22)

"Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration and begged Allah by saying: 'Our Lord! We have wronged our own souls: if Thou forgive us not and bestow not upon us Thy Mercy we shall certainly be lost.' (al-A'raf, 7/23)

"But his Lord chose him (for His Grace): He turned to him, and gave him guidance..." (Taha, 20/122-123)

In fact, Hz. Adam's and his wife's being deceived by Satan, regretting and repenting, their repentance being accepted, their expulsion from Paradise and similar incidents are like the summary of their descendants' adventure in the world. It can be thought that this first mistake and the incidents after that show human beings that if they approach forbidden things and repent sincerely after it like their ancestor Adam, their repentance can be accepted and the institution of repentance and forgiveness will always be valid for people related to sins.

94 Is it possible for prophets not to be innocent before their duty of prophethood? Does the attribute of ismah (innocence) start after the duty of prophethood starts?

Prophets are free and away from committing sins both before and after prophethood.

According to the majority of Islamic scholars, prophets are protected from committing minor and major sins. They did not commit even very small sins. Some mistakes attributed to some prophets are not sins. Besides, those mistakes took place before their prophethood. In both cases, prophets are innocents. Besides, the mistakes called zallat (singular from: zallah) are related to their ranks and states. That is, those zallat are not regarded as mistakes for ordinary people; they are regarded as mistakes for prophets since they are closer to Allah than other people are.

Therefore, we think it will be wrong to deal with the issue of zallah, which is completely related to their rank, as if it is an ordinary issue.

We demand security clearance for a small rank in government offices for the people to be appointed; how can prophets commit sins? If a person is to be appointed a prophet, security clearance will be necessary not only for him but also his ancestors. Since people act very carefully and cautiously for a simple worldly issue, is it possible not to act sensitively and responsibly for the loftiest duty that is related to both the world and the hereafter? Is it possible not to look for the qualifications and merits for the duty in the man to be appointed?

Think of the fact that even the angel that conveyed the revelation was famous for being trustable among other angels and that he was given this duty due to this characteristic. The following is stated in the Quran about Jibril (Gabriel):  

“With authority there, (and) faithful of his trust.” (at-Takwir, 81/21)

He is both very obedient to Allah and trustable to convey the revelation. Since the angel that conveys the revelation is required to have these qualifications, is it possible for prophets not to have those qualifications?

Allah never lets an impostor, a thief, a drunkard and an enemy of honor and chastity represent such a blessed and decent duty. Since these mean and low weaknesses are regarded as disgusting by ordinary people, how can a prophet have such weaknesses? How can a slanderer who attributes such faults and mistakes to prophets be called a human and a sane person? Yes, a dirty person cannot be the representative of purity and cleanliness. And such people cannot be called prophets. A person who attributes such impurity to prophets cannot be called a human. 

Yes, the mind necessitates that prophets be innocent. The mind also necessitates that the blessed people who undertake the duty of supporting the cause of the prophets make innocence their ideal. It is so necessary that committing sins should be more agonizing than going to Hell for them.  

Innocence is very important. In fact, the great prophets always displayed their innocence throughout their lives. Except for some sentences that can be called delirium in the distorted books, nobody attributed sins to prophets. The Quran mentioned them in accordance with their lofty characteristics and always described them as decent personalities.

The prophets in the world are equivalents of Jibril, Azrail, Mikail and Israfil in the sky. However, we only know as much as the Quran tells us about these lofty personalities and only say these with their names.

Evidence for the Innocence of Prophets

Allah Almighty addresses Hz. Musa (Moses) as follows:

“…But I cast (the garment of) love over thee from Me: and (this) in order that thou mayest be reared under Mine eye.”(Taha, 20/39)

It is understood from the verse above that Allah did not leave Hz. Musa's education to the Pharaoh or his mother when He placed him in the palace of the Pharaoh. Allah Himself educated and reared Hz. Musa so that his eyes would see no other images and his spirit would not be surrounded by strange thoughts. A prophet reared by such surveillance will definitely be innocent. He had been under the surveillance of Allah since his childhood and was educated in the best way.

The Prophet states the following in a hadith: 

“Satan touches all children that are born. However, Hz. Isa and his mother were excepted from it.”(Bukhari, Anbiya 44; Muslim, Fadail, 147)

That is, Satan could not touch him when he was born. Hz. Isa is a prophet that was under the protection of Allah Almighty even when he was born. How can one think that such a prophet could commit a sin?

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) intended to go to a wedding ceremony twice but Allah Almighty made him sleepy and he fell asleep on the way and could not go to the wedding.

If he had gone there, his eyes would probably have looked at haram things. Thus, Allah protected him and did not allow him to approach such potential sins. In fact, he had not been appointed as a prophet yet when those incidents took place.

When the Prophet was a child, he was trying to help the repair of the Kaaba. He was carrying stones and adobes to his uncles; the stones and adobes he carried on his back hurt his back, which was naked. He felt disturbed.  Hz. Abbas advised him to lift the rim of his garment and place it on his shoulder. This was regarded a normal act at that time. The Prophet did so and some part of his body over his knee was opened. As soon as he took one step, he fell on his back; he stared at one point and froze. Jibril told him that what he did was not appropriate and said, “it does not fit you.”

For, in the future, he would be given the duty of covering the legs too. Humanity would learn manners and chastity from him. Even if he was a child, he was educated by Allah Almighty. Yes, Allah protected His beloved one from sins, from minor sins, even when he was a child.

In the army, the criminal records of the future generals are kept and checked with great care. They are followed to see whether they are inclined to the right or left. A person who is expected to reach a high rank in the army is followed and checked for forty years regarding all of his acts and attitudes. Similarly, Allah Almighty checks His future prophets beginning from their childhood, protects them and does not allow them to commit sins. This is the view of the Islamic scholars called jumhur.

They are the best of the people and the essence and cream of human merits. This cream is the cream of milk and it is skimmed from milk. As the Quran puts it (Sad, 38/47),  “…of the company of the Elect and the Good”. That is, prophets are the best of the people even at the beginning. However, not all good ones are prophets. Prophets are chosen from the most distinguished ones among them.

95 Is Azar, Hz. Ibrahim's father? Was Hz. Ibrahim's father a Muslim?

The meaning of the relevant verses is as follows:

“Who seeth thee standing forth (in prayer), And thy movements among those who prostrate themselves. For it is He Who heareth and knoweth all things.” (ash-Shuara, 26/218-220)

- According to some scholars, the meaning of "wa taqallubaka fissajidin" is Hz. Prophet's movements between the parts of the prayer qiyam (standing) - ruku' (bowing down) - sajdah (prostration). According to some others, it indicates that he sees the congregation behind him when he performs prayers. (see Tabari, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

- According to some other scholars, its meaning is as follows: When the Prophet (pbuh) got up for tahajjud prayer at night, he walked around to see whether some Companions performed tahajjud prayer or not or how they performed it. (see Razi, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

- As for the main issue in the question, there is information that all of the fathers (ancestors) of the Prophet (pbuh) were believers, that his light travelled among those who prostrated and that it was turned to him. (see Razi, the interpretation of the relevant verse). However, Razi mentions this interpretation as the view of Rafizis and states that it is not true.

- It is certain that AZAR is not a believer. However, there are different views whether he is Hz. Ibrahim’s father or uncle.

Those who hold the view that all of the ancestors of the Prophet are believers state that the word “AB = Father” was used for AZAR in the Quran and that the word “AB” can also be used in the sense of paternal uncle.

According to some other scholars, AZAR is Hz. İbrahim's father as it is stated in the Quran. (see Razi, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

In his book, Kitabud-Darj-il-Munifa, Imam Suyuti provides information to prove that Azar is Hazrat Ibrahim’s paternal uncle.

96 Was Hz. Adam created in Paradise? There are different views of tafsir scholars. How should we think and believe regarding the issue?

It seems that Hz. Adam was created in the world.

“I will create a vicegerent on earth.” (al-Baqara, 2/30)

The verse above indicates this.

It is known that he settled in Paradise after he was created.

“We said: "O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden and eat of the bountiful things therein as (where and when) ye will; but approach not this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression.(al-Baqara, 2/35)

The verse above emphasizes this fact.

There are some scholars who say,

“This paradise is a garden in the world. For, Hz. Adam was created in the world.”

However, According to the majority of the scholars, the purpose is eternal Paradise.

Was the paradise where Hz. Adam was created one of the paradises in the world? Some people thought so. They said,

"It was a paradise in Palestine or between Faris and Kirman. His being sent down was his transfer to India."

However, they were said with such reasoning: For, it is unanimously agreed that the creation of Hz. Adam took place in the world; and his being elevated to the sky is not mentioned in this story. If it had been so, it would have been reminded at first. If it had been an eternal paradise, he would not have left it and Satan could not have entered it. However, this guess is not as reasonable and natural as it seems. Hz. Adam's being sent down to the world and his appearance on earth is more appropriate in terms of reason, and verses and hadiths. There is a difference between entering an eternal paradise with the purpose of permanent settlement and as a guest.

Then, "Paradise" is the house of thawab where believers will go in the hereafter; it exists now but it is hidden. This is what is known when "Paradise" is uttered in the language of the Quran. Hz. Adam's living in Paradise is a first happening like the formation of the realm of the hereafter. In our opinion, it is a reasonable realm. There is no need for an imagination of distance between the earth and it. It is also in the same space. (bk. Elmalılı Hamdi YAZIR,  the interpretation of the relevant verse)

97 If it is an order of Allah to Hz. Ibrahim to sacrifice his son, does Allah give up His order and decree?

It is stated in the verses that follow this verse that the order to sacrifice Hz. Ismail aims to test both him and his father Hz. Ibrahim.

The interpretation of the relevant verses (as-Saffat, 37/101-107) are as follows:

"When his son reached the age of running with him, that is, working, he said to his son in order to show him something to do for Allah, to obey him, ‘O my son! I saw in my dream that I was sacrificing you. Now see what is your view? What do you think?’ It is said that Hz. Ibrahim saw this dream on the eighth, ninth and tenth nights of the month of Dhul-hijjah on end. The dreams of prophets are revelation and their interpretations are also revelation. Therefore, Hz. Ibrahim regarded and interpreted it like that; thus, when he received revelation like that it was a wjib duty, an order. Thereupon, he did not try to fulfill this order by force. He asked his son what to do about it and how to do it because he wanted his son to receive thawabs by obeying this order. It is necessary to think what a lofty feeling of compassion, what a great love of duty and love of Allah the father had when he addressed his son O my son!” and told his son about it. It is necessary to think what a big trouble and what a terrible divine test it was. His obedient son, who understood that it was such a divine order and knew that Allah was with those who showed patience, said, ‘O my father! Do as you are commanded. You will find me if Allah so wills one practicing patience’ (...)

"And we ransomed him amomentous (great) sacrifice. That is, we gave Ibrahim a great sacrifice of ransom to be slaughtered instead of his son. The dream was realized when he started to slaughter him; what can be the meaning of the ransom after addressing him ‘You havealready fulfilled the dream’? The best explanation of it is as follows: It is said that Ibrahim vowed to Allah that if he had a son, he would sacrifice him in the way of Allah. Then, he forgot it but the dream reminded him about it. Therefore, when the call was heard, the dream had been realized but the vow had not been fulfilled yet. The ransom completed it by changing the decree and became a boon. Therefore, Abu Hanifa said, ‘It becomes wajib for a person who vows to sacrifice his son to sacrifice a sheep.’

"What was that great sacrifice (animal) and why was it great? The majority says it was a white ram, and in another narration, a colored ram, with big eyes, which is in accordance with the view of Jews. Some say it was a mountain goat from the mount of Sabir. Some scholars interpreted its greatness as a big one while others as spiritual greatness and importance."

"An animal that eliminates the problem of not one prophet but two prophets, who were a father and a son, that is a ransom for the prophet from whose descendants will come the last prophet, and that comes from Paradise will definitely be great. Some scholars said its greatness was based on the Sunnah and the religion coming after that. Abu Bakr Warraq said it was great because it was created directly and because it was not born. However, there is no need to remind that the phrase of the Quran "a momentous (great) sacrifice" is more comprehensive and greater than all of them." (see Elmalılı, Hak Dini Kur'an Dili, the interpretation of the relevant verses)

98 Is the claim that Hz. Maryam belongs to other cultures true?

- It is natural for some figures of women made of various substances to hold babies. For, when a baby is mentioned, a woman comes to mind. Such figures can be produced due to this close relationship.  

However, it is not enough even to be a soothsayer to say that the babies those women are holding are without fathers and that they are virgins. A person has to have witnessed them personally to say that those women are virgins or he has to have received a message from Allah that they are virgins. 

Anything that is said except those two ways can only be rumors of imagination and delusion

- It is groundless in terms of both knowledge and intellect to base one’s decrees on some debatable bits of knowledge by disregarding the information given in three heavenly religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) that Hz. Maryam (Mary) gave birth to Hz. Isa (Jesus) extraordinarily.

We do not want to say here that Jews accept that Hz. Isa was born without a father. Even if their interpretations are different, it is a fact that such an extraordinary birth took place.

- If the person who claims this really thinks that stories like that existed before, he needs to show a sound resource as reference so that we can talk about it.